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Začne se Wattov upor

Začne se Wattov upor


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V pretežno soseski Black Watts v Los Angelesu rasne napetosti dosežejo prelomno točko, potem ko sta se dva bela policista spopadla s temnopoltim motoristom, osumljenim vožnje pod vplivom alkohola. Množica gledalcev se je zbrala v bližini vogala Avalon Boulevard in 116. ulice, da bi si ogledala aretacijo, in kmalu se je razjezila zaradi, po njihovem mnenju, še enega incidenta rasistično motivirane policije.

Kmalu se je začela vstaja, ki so jo spodbudili prebivalci Wattsa, ki so bili po letih gospodarske in politične izolacije ogorčeni. Uporniki so na koncu obsegali 50 kvadratnih kilometrov velikega območja južnega osrednjega Los Angelesa, kjer so oropali trgovine in sežigali stavbe, ko so ostrostrelci streljali na policijo in gasilce. Končno je nasilje s pomočjo tisočev pripadnikov narodne straže ublaženo 16. avgusta.

V petih dneh nasilja je 34 mrtvih, 1.032 ranjenih, skoraj 4.000 aretiranih in uničeno premoženje v vrednosti 40 milijonov dolarjev. Wattsov upor, znan tudi kot Watts nemiri ali Wattsova vstaja, je napovedal številne upore, ki so se zgodili v naslednjih letih, vključno z nemiri v Detroitu leta 1967 in nemiri v Newarku.


Nemiri v Detroitu leta 1967

The Nemiri v Detroitu leta 1967, poznan tudi kot Detroitski upor in Nemiri na 12. ulici, je bil najbolj krvav incident v "dolgem, vročem poletju 1967". [2] Sestavljen je bil predvsem iz spopadov med temnopoltimi prebivalci in policijo v Detroitu, začel pa se je v nedeljo, 23. julija 1967, v zgodnjih jutranjih urah v Detroitu v Michiganu.

82. letalsko divizijsko divizijo
101. letalska divizija
Nacionalna garda Michiganske vojske
Policija države Michigan
Policijska uprava Detroit

Močan dogodek je bil policijski napad na lokal, ki je bil brez delovnega časa, brez licence, znan tudi kot a slepi prašič, na bližnji zahodni strani mesta. Eksplodiral je v enega najsmrtonosnejših in najbolj uničujočih nemirov v ameriški zgodovini, ki je trajal pet dni in je 24 let prej presegel obseg dirkaških nemirov v Detroitu leta 1943.

Guverner George W. Romney je naročil Nacionalni gardi vojske Michigan v Detroit, da pomaga ustaviti motnjo. Predsednik Lyndon B. Johnson je poslal 82. in 101. letalsko divizijo vojske ZDA. Rezultat je bilo 43 mrtvih, 1.189 ranjenih, več kot 7.200 aretacij in uničenih več kot 400 zgradb.

Lestvica nemirov je bila najhujša v Združenih državah po nemirih v New Yorku leta 1863 med ameriško državljansko vojno, ki jih niso presegli šele leta 1992 v Los Angelesu 25 let kasneje.

Nemiri so bili vidno predstavljeni v medijih, s televizijskim poročanjem v živo, obsežnimi časopisnimi poročili in obsežnimi zgodbami v Čas in Življenje revije. Osebje v Detroit Free Press je leta 1968 prejel Pulitzerjevo nagrado za splošno lokalno poročanje.

Kanadski ljudski pevec Gordon Lightfoot je napisal in posnel "Black Day in July", kjer je te dogodke opisal na svojem albumu iz leta 1968 Je omenila moje ime?. To pesem so pozneje prepovedale radijske postaje v 30 ameriških zveznih državah. "Black Day in July" je kasneje v antologiji leta 2003 zajel The Tragically Hip Lepo: Poklon Gordonu Lightfootu.


Zadnjič požar: LIFE v Wattsu, 1966

Avgustovski nemiri leta 1965 (ali Wattov upor, odvisno od perspektive in politike) so bili med najbolj krvavimi, najdražjimi in najbolj analiziranimi vstajami zloglasno neurejenih sredi šestdesetih let. Šestdnevni preobrat, ki so ga domnevno sprožili agresivni zastoji črnega motorista s strani belih policistov, je povzročil 34 smrtnih žrtev, več kot 3400 aretacij in več deset milijonov dolarjev materialne škode (takrat, ko je milijon dolarjev še vedno nekaj pomenilo).

Leto po tem, ko so požar pogasili in dim odstranili z neba v južni Kaliforniji, je LIFE v številki z dne 15. julija 1966 ponovno obiskal prizorišče opustošenja za poseben del “ ”, ki ga je revija imenovala “Watts: Still Vroče. ” Dober del tega posebnega oddelka je obsegal vrsto barvnih fotografij, ki jih je Bill Ray naredil na ulicah Watts: slike elegantnih, celo bleščečih, mladeničev, ki izdelujejo in metajo molotovljeve koktajle otrok, ki se igrajo na požganih ulicah in ruševine, nasipane s previdno policijo in prebivalci skupnosti, ki se trudijo rešiti pred mamili, tolpami, orožjem, brezdeljem in trajnim jedkim obupom.

V tej julijski številki leta 1966 je LIFE predstavil fotografije Ray ’s in sam Watts v tonu, ki ni pustil nobenega dvoma, da je prihodnost okrožja, ne glede na to, kaj se je še zgodilo v mesecih, odkar so gorele ulice, komaj gotovo, in bes, ki je sprožil požar, se je komaj polegel:

Avgusta lani preostali Los Angeles še nikoli ni slišal za Wattsa. Danes kamen, ki so ga vrgli skozi okno trgovine v Los Angelesu, prinaša grozljivo vprašanje: “ Ali je to začetek naslednjega? ” Prinaša tri oborožena taborišča v Los Angelesu policijo, bele civiliste, črnce oči v oči za napet trenutek utripanja. . . .
Belci še vedno hitijo v prodajalne orožja vsakič, ko nov časopis pride v časopise. Trgovina s športno opremo v Beverly Hillsu je že mesece razprodana med 9 -milimetrsko avtomatiko, čakalna lista za pištole pa obsega več strani.
Prejšnji teden je neki črnec novinarju pokazal avtomatsko pištolo kalibra .45. “V tej pošiljki je bilo še 99, ” je rekel, “in razširili so se na 99 fantov z avtomobili. ”
“Zavedamo se, da ni nič narobe, če bi spet zažgali Wattsa, "#pravi mladi črnec. “ Morda se naslednjič odpravimo na Beverly Hillse. ”
Watts vre od zamer. Obstaja jeza zaradi paternalizma številnih zaposlitvenih programov in zanemarjanja Wattovih potreb. V osmih miljah ni javne bolnišnice, prejšnji mesec pa so volivci v Los Angelesu zavrnili predlagano izdajo obveznic v višini 12,3 milijona dolarjev za njeno izgradnjo. Ko je pred kratkim zaradi neustreznih zdravstvenih zmogljivosti umrl 6-mesečni otrok, je materino žalost odzvala ogorčenje množice. “Če bi šlo za vašega otroka, ” je rekel črnec, ki se sooči z belo, “ imate ’d imate reševalno vozilo v petih minutah. ”
Številke brezposelnosti in javne pomoči vzbujajo neverje v uspešni Kaliforniji. V Wattsu je bilo pred letom dni 24% prebivalcev na neki obliki olajšave in ta odstotek še vedno ostaja. V Los Angelesu je ta številka 5%.
[Za izgradnjo družbe traja dlje kot za zažiganje, strah pa bo spremljevalec na poti do izboljšav. “Začel sem govoriti, da je lep dan, ” je policijski inšpektor John Powers dejal, gledajoč skozi okno, “ pa lepi dnevi pripeljejo ljudi ven, zato si želim, da bi imeli dež in zimo vse leto. & #8221

Bil Ray, zaposleni fotograf za LIFE od sredine šestdesetih let do propada revije v zgodnjih sedemdesetih letih, se je jasno in ljubeče spomnil naloge Wattsa:

“ Sredi šestdesetih let [Ray je povedal za LIFE.com] sem eno za drugo posnel dve veliki nalogi za LIFE v južni Kaliforniji, ki sta vključevali delo z mladeniči, ki so bili nestanovitni in nevarni. Ena skupina so bili Hells Angels iz San Bernardina, prvo, trdovratno poglavje tolpe San Berdoo, druga pa so bili mladeniči, ki so se leto prej udeležili nemirov v Wattsu.
Nisem se poskušal oblačiti kot oni, se obnašati kot oni ali se pretvarjati, da sem trd. Pokazal sem veliko zanimanje zanje in jih spoštoval. Glavna stvar je bila prepričati jih, da nimam nobene zveze s policijo. Najbolj me je presenetilo, da sem jih v obeh primerih, ko sem več časa preživel z njimi in jih bolje spoznal, mnoge zelo rad in jih spoštoval. Tam je bilo človeštvo, ki ga imamo vsi v sebi. Spoznavanje in fotografiranje različnih ljudi je bilo vedno najbolj razburljiv del mojega dela. Še vedno mi je všeč.
Dve veliki razliki pri nalogah pa sta bili v tem, da sem Hells Angels posnel v črno -beli barvi, kar je bilo kot nalašč za njihov peskani svet in “Watts: Leto kasneje ” je bilo v barvah. Prav tako popolno, saj je imel Watts veliko barve na stenah, grafite, način oblačenja ljudi in seveda mojo skupino bombnikov, ki so radi vadili pri izdelavi in ​​metanju molotovljevih koktajlov [glej diapozitive 17, 18 in 19 v galeriji ].
Ti dve nalogi sta dokumentirali dva skrajno marginalizirana sveta, ki ju le malokdo lahko vidi od blizu. Na svetu ni bilo tako dobrega dela kot fotograf LIFE. ”

Besede, naslikane v trgovini z živili, so opozorile izgrednike, da je shranjeno v lasti Afroamerikancev.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Mladeniči so se družili v bližini stolpov Simon Rodia ’s Watts, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Mladeniči v bližini stolpov Simon Rodia ’s Watts, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

William Solomon (desno, v svojem domu v Wattsu) je poveljeval veliki ulični tolpi Watts, za katero je odkrito priznal, da je aktivno sodeloval v nemirih. Prvak v srednji šoli, ni imel službe in je bil na poskusni kazni zaradi napada. Z dvema privržencema, ki sta mu bila prikazana, je kasneje pomagal pri sosedskem združenju in uporabil svoj vpliv, da je tam vzdrževal red in s svojim interesom dal njegovemu programu določen ugled na ulicah. ”

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Zadnjič požar: življenje v Wattih, 1966

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/ Life Pictures/ Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Booker Griffin (rumena majica) se je spravil v prepir med študenti in policijo, ki je našel mlade, ki nosijo težke deske, in posumil na boj tolp. Umiril je obe strani.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Izdelava koktajlov Molotov, Watts, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Molotovljevi koktajli v Wattsu, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Molotovljevi koktajli v Wattsu, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Molotovljevi koktajli v Wattsu, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

LaRoi Drew Ali se ni hotel pridružiti nobeni skupini, vendar je na krščanstvo gledal kot na sredstvo, ki zadržuje Afroameričane. “Če bi na Veliko noč kdo vstal, ” je rekel, “ to bi bil le še en belec, ki bi nas brcnil. ”

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Watts, Los Angeles, 1966.

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock

Zadnjič požar: življenje v Wattih, 1966

Bill Ray/Life Pictures/Shutterstock


10 načinov za raziskovanje zapletene zapuščine Wattsa skozi literaturo

Med nemiri v Wattih leta 1965 je sežgala trgovina s čevlji. Tamkajšnji dogodki, imenovani tudi vstaja, so odmevali po Los Angelesu, Ameriki in v naši literaturi.

Nemire v Wattsu, ki so se začeli pred 50 leti, 11. avgusta 1965, je sprožila ustavitev prometa. To jim je skupno tudi z nemiri v Los Angelesu leta 1992. Za razliko od tiste poznejše motnje pa je Watts povzročil literarno razburjenje, saj se je mesto borilo - in v mnogih pogledih še naprej - z vstajo in njenim pomenom.

To ne preseneča, da ima Watts globoko literarno in kulturno zgodovino. Sega vsaj v leto 1931, ko je Arna Bontemps objavil svoj roman "Bog pošilja nedeljo".

Ob spominu na svojo vzgojo v prvem desetletju 20. stoletja opisuje skupnost, v kateri so bile "ulice ... tri ali štiri prašne vagonske poti". V vlažni travi vzdolž robov so bile naložene krave. Polomljeni vozovi in ​​neuporabni vagoni so obkrožali ljudi, vozovi s purani in divjadjo ter petardami, ki so hodili po konicah koles in vagoni, iz katerih so majhne temne mule jedle slamo. "

In kljub zapleteni zapuščini, kot ugotavlja profesor USC Victor Jones v "(IN) formalnem LA: Prostor politike", "se mnogi Angelenos nikoli ne odpravijo na ta del jugovzhodnega Los Angelesa v velikosti 2,5 kvadratnih milj. Za večino Watts prebiva v kolektivni psihi kot evfemizem, enobesedna opozorilna zgodba o vztrajni kulturi, družbeni in ekonomski napetosti. "

Tukaj torej pogled na literarno dediščino Wattsa in kaj nam mora povedati o mestu, v katerem živimo.

1. Delavnica piscev Watts. Septembra 1965, mesec dni po požaru, je romanopisec in scenarist Budd Schulberg ustanovil Watts Writers Workshop, s čimer je zagotovil podporo National Endowment for the Arts. Delavnica je bila zgodnji analog sodobnih institucij, kot je 826 LA, ki za študente v skupnosti ni ponujala le pisnih tečajev in javnega programiranja, ampak tudi pošolske programe. Na svojem vrhuncu je mentoriral ali predstavil pisce, med njimi J. Eric Priestley, Quincy Troupe, Kamau Daaood in Watts Prophets, pesniško skupino za performans, v kateri so bili Richard Dedeaux, Amd Hamilton in Otis O'Solomon. Prvotna stavba Delavnice je bila leta 1973 požgana do tal.

2. Preroki Watts. Odrasli so iz projekta Watts Writers Project - kjer so se njegovi trije člani sestali in začeli sodelovati - Watts Prophets so inovativno poezijo govorjenih besed uvedli z aktivistično senzibilnostjo in globokimi koreninami v skupnosti. Izdali so albume v letih 1969 in 1971. Skupina je izvedbo uporabila kot obliko soočenja Dedeaux, ki je umrl leta 2013, je nekoč Muhammada Alija izzval na pesniški dvoboj. "Richard je rekel:" Hej, človek, ti ​​si največji borec na svetu, to ti bom povedal, "se je Hamilton spomnil v osmrtnici za Times. "" Ampak vedno govoriš, da si največji pesnik, in to ni prav. Mi smo največji pesniki, "" rezultat? "Med množico, ki je gledala v avli hotela, sta se spopadla-Ali je naredil pesem, Watts Prophets pa so odgovorili z mešanico pesmi, prečrtano z njihovimi improvizacijskimi besednimi rifi, ki jih glasbeni zgodovinarji zdaj štejejo za predhodnico hip-hopa."

3. "Nemiri v meni: statistika govori" avtorja Wanda Coleman. Ta esej, ki je naslovil avtorjevo zbirko iz leta 2005, se začne kot razmislek o nemirih leta 1992, vendar hitro zajema Colemanovo zgodovino, njeno izkušnjo, ki je odraščala v Wattsu v poznih 1940 -ih in 1950 -ih, ter njen občutek, kaj pomenijo nemiri v Wattsu . "Črna je postala lepa," piše o neposrednih posledicah in se sklicuje na priliv denarja in vpletenost skupnosti, ki jo med drugimi skupinami predstavlja delavnica Watts Writers Workshop. "Iz pepela v Wattsu je nastala vrsta umetniških in izobraževalnih organizacij, ki so odprle svoja vrata za spodbujanje črnih pisateljev in umetnikov." Toda, kot je Coleman spoznal niti v tem trenutku, to ni trajalo. "Gibanje za državljanske pravice je bilo do leta 1969 razglašeno," nadaljuje. "Razen programov v Watts Towers in Inner City Cultural Centre, bi podobni programi v Wattsu ... izginili do leta 1975."

4. "Potovanje v mislih Wattov" avtorja Thomas Pynchon. Ta esej, ki je bil prvotno objavljen v reviji New York Times Magazine leta 1966, ponuja osupljiv del življenja skupnosti leto dni po nemirih, kraj, kjer so naplavine opredeljujoča značilnost pokrajine, tako resnične kot čustvene: raztreseno steklo, razpokano posodo, žeblji, pločevinke, vse vrste ostankov in odpadkov. " To je osupljiv kontrast z lažno rožnatim pogledom na Wattsa, ki ga Reyner Banham predstavlja v svojem dokumentarcu iz leta 1972 "Reyner Banham ljubi Los Angeles". "V poslovnem delu mesta," piše Pynchon, kot da vidi prihodnost, "... [p] ool dvorane in bari, v notranjosti toplo in temno, so polni številnih iger z domino, kockami in žvižgom. Zunaj moški stojijo okrog hladilnika za pivo in poslušajo igro z žogo po radiu, drugi pa se naslonijo ali nagnejo ob stene stavb - nizke, zbledele štukature, ki vas nenavadno spominjajo na nekatere ulice v Mehiki. Ženske hodijo mimo, nakupujejo in odhajajo. Preprosto je videti, kako se na teh ulicah navsezadnje lahko hitro ustvari množica okoli najmanjših semen motenj ali nesreč. Zaenkrat vse čaka le na soncu. "

5. “Los Angeles Notebook” avtorja Joan Didion. Za razliko od Pynchona Joan Didion ni obiskovala skupnosti, da bi pisala o Wattsu, temveč je to poskušala razumeti skozi širši pogled, pogled na mesto v celoti in obljubo apokalipse. V tem eseju iz leta 1967, objavljenem v njeni zbirki "Slouching To Betlehehem", ocenjuje nemire tako, da se sklicuje na ikonografijo požarov, podoba Los Angelesa pa se obrne navznoter, da se požre. "Mesto, ki gori," piše Didion, "je najgloblja podoba Los Angelesa o sebi: Nathanael West je dojel, da so v 'Dnevu kobilic' in v času nemirov v Wattu leta 1965 najbolj neizbrisno prizadeli domišljijo. Nekaj ​​dni bi se lahko vozil po avtocesti Harbour in videl mesto v ognju, tako kot smo vedno vedeli, da bo na koncu. "

6. "Novi stotniki" avtorja Joseph Wambaugh (1970). Ko je bil osem let zaposlen v LAPD, je Wambaugh začel delati na tem svojem prvem romanu. Dve leti pozneje ga je iz vljudnosti pred objavo predložil v pregled - in na koncu pritegnil jezo oddelka. Roman, ki je fikcija, je prerezan malo preveč doma: spremlja življenje treh policistov, ki se oddelku pridružijo leta 1960 in se konča pet let pozneje z vpletenostjo v nemire v Wattsu.

7. "Tokratni požar: vstaja Watts in šestdeseta leta" avtorja Gerald Horne (1995). Horne, ki je bil takrat profesor na UC Santa Barbara, je napisal prvo celovito obravnavo upora 1965. Njegovo delo temelji na stotinah ustnih zgodovin-vključno s prebivalci Wattsa in preostalega Los Angelesa, takratne vlade. Pat Brown, še ne župan LA-ja Tom Bradley, Martin Luther King Jr., Črni panterji, člani Islamske države in končni guverner in predsednik Ronald Reagan-ki se je začel zbirati pred požarom leta 1992, ki je odmeval dogodke leta 1965.

8. "Mali škrlat" avtor Walter Mosley Mosleyjeva skrivnost iz leta 2004 se dogaja takoj po motenju, saj njegov detektivski junak Easy Rawlins prosi, naj razišče umor afroameriške ženske po imenu Nola Payne-ki jo je na vrhuncu nasilja morda ubil belec . To je čudovita postavitev in Mosleyju omogoča, da se poglobi v nemire kot prelomni dogodek v zgodovini sodobnega Los Angelesa-zlasti v mučeni rasni dediščini mesta. »Strah na eni strani,« piše z glasom svojega protagonista, »poraz na drugi - spraševal sem se, ali bo kdaj prišel dan, ko bom svoje življenje videl kot del nečesa, česar nočem zavračati me ali premagati nesmiselno. "

9. "Črni Los Angeles: ameriške sanje in rasna realnost" uredila Darnell Hunt in Ana-Christina Ramon (2010). "Knjiga združuje raziskovalne interese tistega, kar Hunt opisuje kot" ekipo zvezdnikov "sodelavcev, večino, ne pa vseh akademikov z močnimi kalifornijskimi povezavami. Sestavlja 17 kratkih do srednje dolgih esejev, ki temelji na bogatih podatkih o tem, kako se je demografsko središče črne skupnosti v 20. stoletju postopoma preusmerilo z osrednje avenije v park Leimert, na anekdotične zgodbe, ki jih vodijo intervjuji, «je na naših straneh zapisal Reed Johnson . Politična, kulturna in umetniška zgodovina Wattsa teče skozi te in druge »multidisciplinarne eseje, osredotočene na LA, o vplivu zapora na temnopolte družine, odnosih med gejevskimi Afroameričani in njihovimi verskimi skupnostmi ter o politiki sprejemanja etničnih manjšin UCLA med drugimi. druge trnove teme. "

10. "Eve of Destruction: How 1965 Transform America" avtorja James T. Patterson (2012). Patterson, zdaj zaslužni profesor na Univerzi Brown, ugotavlja, da "bes, ki je obvladal številne prebivalce" Wattsa "ni izviral le iz revščine, prenatrpanosti in rasne diskriminacije, ampak tudi iz večjih pričakovanj, ki jih je spodbudilo gibanje za državljanske pravice do leta 1965. " Dogajanje v Wattsu, skupaj z zaostrovanjem v Vietnamu, vidi kot najpomembnejše v »1965 - letu vojaške stopnjevanja, Wattsa, razpada gibanja za državljanske pravice in naraščajočih kulturnih sprememb in polarizacije - kot čas ko se je začela razkrivati ​​ameriška socialna kohezija in ko je prišel na pogled burni pojav, ki bi mu rekli "šestdeseta".


Ponovni ogled upora Watts 1965: Potovanje po fotografijah

Začelo se je v vročem avgustovskem dnevu z zastojem v prometu in hitro izbruhnilo v šestdnevne državljanske nemire, ki so uničili skupnost Watts in prebudili narod. V spomin na datum, ki je imel tako velik vpliv na mesto Los Angeles, kalifornijska državna univerza, Dominguez Hills gosti razstavo fotografij in spominkov ter vrsto pogovorov in projekcij, ki osvetljujejo okoliščine, ki so pripeljale do Wattsa Upor leta 1965, kakšne pozitivne spremembe so nastale kot posledica tega in kakšne dolgotrajne neenakosti ostajajo v večinoma afroameriških in zdaj latinskoameriških skupnostih jugovzhodnega in osrednjega Los Angelesa.

Ta teden je pred petdesetimi leti Watts eksplodiral z nasiljem. Scenarij se v današnjem okolju rasističnih policijskih zlorab in rasnih napetosti sliši neprijetno znano. Kar je sprožilo vstajo leta 1965, je bil fizični prepir, medtem ko je bel policist aretiral afroameriško motoristko Marquette Frye zaradi vožnje pod vplivom alkohola. Natančne podrobnosti se spreminjajo glede na to, kdo pripoveduje zgodbo: začelo se je, ko je policist aretiral verbalno napadel Marquettejevo mamo ali ko je udaril nosečnico. Toda ne glede na točen incident, ki je vnesel vstajo, so vprašanja, ki so pripeljala do nje, dolgo vrela in temeljila na temeljih sistemskih neenakosti.

Glavni vzroki so bili v skupnosti Watts leta 1965 veliko globlji. "Ekonomska prikrajšanost, socialna izolacija, neustrezna stanovanja in splošni obup tisočev črncev, ki bremenijo v severnih in zahodnih getih, so pripravljena semena, ki rodijo tragične izraze nasilja," je ocenil Martin Luther King, ko je obiskal Watts le nekaj dni po upor. Nemire je spodbudilo nenehno lokalno vprašanje stanovanjske diskriminacije, kar je najbolj očitno pokazalo sprejetje predloga 14, ki je izničil zakon o stanovanjih v Rumfordu in lastnikom nepremičnin in najemodajalcem dovolil, da zavrnejo najem ali prodajo svoje nepremičnine barvnim ljudem. Z velikimi delitvami v družbi, ki temeljijo na barvi kože, ter z naraščajočo revščino in diskriminacijo, je bila L.A. polna konfliktov.

Ta fotoesej je prvi od treh delov, ki razmišljajo o uporu Watts leta 1965 ter o aktivizmu in oživitvi skupnosti, ki je sledila vstaji do danes.

Fotografije avtorja Laura Vena in Arhiv Kalifornijske državne univerze Dominguez Hills, "Watts nekoč in zdaj".


Časovni razpored nemirov v ZDA od leta 1965

WASHINGTON - Nemiri v ameriškem mestu Minneapolis po smrti temnopoltega v policijskem priporu so le zadnji incident rasno obtožene hudobije, ki je zaznamovala Združene države od šestdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja.

1965: Los Angeles

Policijska kontrola identitete dveh črncev v avtomobilu je sprožila nemire v Wattsu, 11. in 17. avgusta 1965 v Los Angelesu, ki so pustili 34 mrtvih in za več deset milijonov dolarjev škode.

Težave se začnejo, ko policija ustavi Marquette Frye in njegovega polbrata in jih odpelje na zaslišanje. Več tisoč črncev obdaja policijsko postajo in po tednu požiganja in ropanja je soseska Watts skoraj uničena.

1967: Newark

Dva bela policista sta aretirala in pretepla črnega taksista zaradi manjše prometne kršitve, ki sta se od 12. do 17. julija odpravila v nemire v Newarku v New Jerseyju. Pet dni so v zadušljivi poletni vročini izgredniki uničili okrožje, 26 mrtvih in 1500 ranjenih.

1967: Detroit

V dirkah v Detroitu v Michiganu, 23. in 27. julija 1967, je umrlo 43 ljudi, več kot 2000 pa je bilo ranjenih. Težave se širijo v Illinois, Severno Karolino, Tennessee in Maryland.

1968: atentat na kralja

Po atentatu na Martina Lutherja Kinga mlajšega v Memphisu v Tennesseeju je v 125 mestih od 4. do 11. aprila 1968 izbruhnilo nasilje, v katerem je umrlo najmanj 46 ljudi, 2600 pa jih je bilo ranjenih. V Washington takratni predsednik Lyndon B. Johnson pošlje 82. letalsko divizijo za zadušitev nemirov.

Oprostitev štirih belih policistov v Tampi na Floridi zaradi obtožbe, da je decembra 1979 do smrti pretepel črnega motorista, potem ko je pripeljal rdečo luč, je sprožil val nasilja v Miamijevem mestu Liberty City, od 17. do 20. maja 1980 in zapustil 18 mrtvih in več kot 300 ranjenih.

1992: Los Angeles

Od 30. aprila do 1. maja 1992 so v Los Angelesu izbruhnili nemiri, v katerih je umrlo najmanj 59 mrtvih in več kot 2.300 ranjenih. Nasilje je sprožila oprostilna sodba štirim belim policistom, ki so bili posneti, kako tepejo temnopoltega motorista Rodneyja Kinga. Nasilje izbruhne tudi v Atlanti, Kaliforniji, Las Vegasu, New Yorku, San Franciscu in San Joseju.

2001: Cincinnati

9. aprila 2001 v Cincinnatiju v Ohiu izbruhnejo nemiri, potem ko je beli policist ubil 19-letnega črnca Timothyja Thomasa.

Župan Charlie Luken je 16. aprila po najhujših nemirih v mestu v več kot 30 letih, med katerimi je poškodovanih 70 ljudi, odpravil štiridnevno policijsko uro.

2014: Ferguson

Desetdnevni protesti in nemiri ter težka policijska taktika v Fergusonu v Missouriju potekajo med 9. in 19. avgustom 2014, potem ko je beli častnik ubil neoboroženega črnega najstnika Michaela Browna. Konec novembra objava, da zoper policista odstopajo od obtožbe, vodi v novo eksplozijo jeze.

2015: Baltimore

19. aprila 2015 je Freddie Gray, 25-letni črnec, umrl teden dni po hudih poškodbah hrbtenice v policijskem kombiju, potem ko so ga aretirali policisti v Baltimoru.

Aretacijo posnamejo na video in oddajo, kar vodi v nemire in ropanje v Baltimoru, mestu s 620.000 prebivalci, od tega skoraj dve tretjini temnopoltih. Razglasijo izredne razmere in oblasti pokličejo vojake.

2016: Charlotte

Septembra 2016 so v Charlotteju v Severni Karolini včasih izbruhnili nasilni protesti zaradi usodnega policijskega streljanja na 43 -letnega Keitha Lamonta Scotta.

Policija pravi, da je do streljanja prišlo, ko so ga videli, kako je dvignil pištolo, ko so se mu približali, ko je videl, kako zvija cigareto z marihuano. Njegova družina pravi, da ni bil oborožen.


Vsakih deset nog je bil vojak: Jazz in Wattov upor

Prvo noč vstaje Watts se je 13-letni Leon Chancler, takrat učenec jazzovske delavnice srednje šole Locke, odpravil domov po bulevarju Avalon, ko je zaslišal prve sirene. "Živel sem na 99. in Avalonu. Vračali smo se z ekskurzije v San Diegu," se spominja plodovit bobnar in studijski glasbenik, ki je slavno igral na "Billie Jean" Michaela Jacksona, zdaj pa nosi ime Ndugu. "Pravkar sem zapustil šolo in bil sem okoli 108., ko so mimo prišli trije policijski avtomobili. Mislil sem, Oh človek, tam se zagotovo nekaj dogaja. "Danes 63-letni Chancler poučuje glasbo na USC-ju, spomin pa ostaja živ." Ko je incident prišel v novico, se je vse zapletlo. Naslednji dan lahko le sedimo doma in si to ogledamo na televiziji. "1

Devet blokov južno na vogalu 116. in Avalona je 15-letni Ernest Roberts, učenec klarineta na jordanski srednji šoli, s široko razprtimi očmi stal na cvetočem prizoru uličnega gledališča. Pospešujoč se odmik domačinov s sprednjih verand, ki so ga vlekli proti častnikom Chevyja in CHP iz leta 55, ki so 21-letnega voznika usmerili v negotovo hojo po liniji treznosti. Nekdo je v zmedi pljuval policiste, vstopili so v množico za žensko, ki je bila prijateljica Robertove družine. "Bila je frizerka in imela je obleko, vendar je bila obleka videti, kot da je noseča. Izkazalo se je, da ni." Roberts, zdaj jazzovski multiinstrumentalist, ki živi in ​​dela v Berlinu, se je leta 2001 spomnil na zgodovinarja Stevena Isoardija: "Policist jo je prijel za lase in jo vrgel na tla, vsi pa so rekli:" Vauuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuuu! "

Osem kilometrov zahodno v zastekljenem salonu v penthouseu v hotelu International je bobnar Carl Burnett, ki je igral s Sarah Vaughn in Horaceom Silverjem, jemal vmes s svojim latinsko-jazz kvintetom, ko je nekdo pokazal proti vzhodu: " Hej človek, v Wattsu je požar. " Okoli povsem novega hotela je bilo nekaj drugih visokih stavb, pogled pa je omogočal neomejeno razgledno točko od južnega LA do Pasadene. Petnajst minut kasneje, ko je skupina nastopila na odru za zadnji set, je nekdo zapisal: "Hej Carl, ogenj je videti vse do Slausona." 3 Med igranjem so se glave v občinstvu in med čakajočim osebjem nenehno obračale proti srhljivemu siju, ko se je širil proti severu. Ko so ob 1.30 uri končali niz, je po ulicah Wattsa divjalo skoraj 1500 ljudi. Večina kvinteta, vključno z Burnettom, je tam živela.

Okrog zore se je Hampton Hawes s hitrostjo po prometu, ki je potekal v Mitchellovem studijskem klubu v Hollywoodu, hitro peljal proti jugu. Ko je zagledal dim, je Hawes domneval, da gre za poznopoletno meglo. Ko je videl ogenj, je domneval, da sta se v njegovi soseski trčila dve reaktivni letali. "Cel bloki so plamenili," se je spomnil post-bop pianist v svoji avtobiografiji "Raise Up Off Me" iz leta 1972. "Stari ljudje, mali ljudje, debeli ljudje, otroci - videti je bilo, kot da bi ravno prišli iz zemlje, avtomobili so se zrušili do vogalov, pobrali mačke in spet streljali [in] policija s puškami stoji naokoli. prijazen, če len, zmeden parado počiva. " Potem ko ga je "živčni gasilec" pomotoma usmeril po napačni poti po enosmerni ulici, se je Hawes varno odpravil domov in svoji ženi Jackie rekel: "Watts je pravkar napovedal vojno mestu Los Angeles in toliko jebec, kot sem videl nocoj bodo morda zmagali. '"4

Zlasti za jazzovske glasbenike je to moralo biti brutalno prekinitev zgodovinskega spomina. Razpadajoča in goreča soseska ter zabrisani mladi obrazi zadržanega besa, ki so jih preostalim svetom razkrivali na televizijskih zaslonih v živo, niso bili podobni kulturni in rasni pokrajini, ki so jo zgradili njihovi starši in stari starši. Doživeli so počasen, desetletja dolg napredek Wattsa iz večetničnega cowpacha, imenovanega "Mudtown", v uspešno poslovno in zabavno središče, ki ga je eden od njegovih lastnih sinov, basist Charles Mingus, poimenoval "The Big Town". 5 Poleg Mingusa je Watts med njimi ustvaril štiri generacije jazzovskih talentov: Don Cherry, Buddy Collette, Cecil "Big Jay" McNeely, The Woodman Brothers, William "Boogie" Daniels, Dexter Gordon, Eric Dolphy, Billy Higgins Do šestdesetih let 20. stoletja se je celo uspešen studijski glasbenik, kot je Collette, ki je odraščal na območju, imenovanem Central Gardens, preselil v primestno okolico Comptona. "It seemed that the Watts area was going downhill and people were frustrated in many ways," Collette wrote in 2001. "No work, and nothing was happening. There was no future." 6

Even the younger players who came of age in the time of Watts' long, excruciating decline benefited the city's ingrained sense of community arts. "We had a great musical neighborhood [and] a really wide range of young musicians," recalled Ernie Roberts, who would adopt the name Fuasi Abdul-Khaliq. "Everybody it seemed to me on every block was playing an instrument." 7 To the growing legions of local gangs, musicians were a protected and precious cargo. "It wasn't like the Crips and the Bloods," remembers Chancler. "You had gangs like the Slausons and the Executives but they weren't hell-raisers. If you were in a band you were exempt, because you were cool." 8 Even the rioters of 1965 respected their musical elders. Johnny Otis, an R&B bandleader and radio personality who had owned the Barrelhouse club in Watts in the late 1940s, was driving his MGA near Will Rogers State Park when three men converged on his car. One of them recognized its driver: "Johnny Otis, are you out of your goddamn mind? Get the hell out of here before you get killed!" The men cleared a path for Otis to pass, shouting into the night, "Blood brother! Blood brother! Let him through!" 9

At dusk on Friday the 13th, the California National Guard arrived at the perimeters of Watts and were ordered to begin digging trenches at intersections. Unfortunately, this meant that the majority of residents of Watts who weren't participating in the chaos -- and they were in the majority -- were shut in with it. After a checkpoint was rammed by a car, soldiers were ordered to load their weapons and fix bayonets. That night the mysterious shooting deaths began. A man named Frank Posey was the first, cut down after stepping out of a barbershop at 89th and Broadway. 10 Doo-wop singer Charles Fizer, whose group the Olympics had recorded the original version of "Good Lovin'", was killed on his way to band rehearsal. 11 Comedian and civil rights activist Dick Gregory, venturing out into his neighborhood to try to quell the looters, came across a small boy crying over a headless body. 12

The young jazz artists of Watts saw things no one their age should see. "There wasn't no police around, but you knew the things you were seeing were wrong," says Michael Session, who was being introduced to jazz via a his older brother. "We went to the liquor store down the street. there's glass, liquor from the bottles on the floor and everyone's walking over the glass and slipping around. almost everything in the store was gone." 13 At night, families turned their homes into fortresses. "We were sleeping on the floor at night because we were afraid of bullets flying through the house," recalls Rufus Olivier, who was 10 years old at the time. "If you went to the supermarket the whole store was lined with National Guard armed, every 10 feet was a soldier, and you just walked between them to go into the store." 14 Just as often, there were off-kilter scenes of revelry. "I remember in the daytime one guy came into the gardens with an old truck with a big back end full of piles of shoes, and the people came pouring out to grab them," chuckles Session. "I remember pulling out one shoe thinking, 'Now how the hell am I going to find the other one?'" 15

The older jazz musicians of Watts had varying reactions to the newly imposed 8 p.m. curfew, ranging from cavalier to cautious. Saxophonist Curtis Amy and his bandmate, pianist Onzy Matthews, decided to take in a baseball game every night the city burned instead of playing gigs or staying home, slipping out past the curfew and cruising together to Dodger Stadium under a blanket of acrid smoke. 16 By the third night, however, a 31-year-old sideman who worked with both Amy and Matthews did not have as carefree an experience.

Trombonist/pianist Horace Tapscott had a wife and family to support. Even without the current urban turmoil, he knew that making one's way around Los Angeles as a black jazz musician was always a dodgy effort. "It was dangerous for me to try to come home, coming out of the white neighborhood into mine alone," he said in a 1993 interview. "But as far as economically, making a little money during those times, it was pretty fruitful." 17 Unfortunately, his devoted wife Cecelia, whom he had collected from her job at the county hospital, was in the passenger seat. Both were anxious to get home to their five children but had the misfortune of living at 56th Street and Avalon Boulevard. They were stopped at a checkpoint right around the corner from their house and were confronted by a Guardsman -- essentially, a frightened child in uniform with an M-16. Tapscott, haunted by memories of racial violence from his youth in segregated Houston, saw the gun and saw red. Then the gun barrel turned towards Cecelia.

"He pointed his gun straight into the window," she recalls nearly 50 years later. "That was the first time I ever saw Horace really upset: 'Get that gun out of this car, we live here, we're on our way home, you got your gun in my wife's face.'" 18 Cecelia started to panic, and Tapscott, fighting to control his temper, turned to soothe her while keeping his voice loud enough for the figures with guns now surrounding the car: "You don't have to say a word to this motherfucker. You don't have to say nothing." After a few tense seconds, a senior L.A.P.D. officer intervened. "Where do you live sir?" he said by way of an apology before waving them through. Tapscott later found himself reflecting on the irony of the situation, "If it wasn't for the older policeman, we'd have been shot, because they had the orders to shoot to kill." 19

Even when the ruins of 103rd Street (now dubbed "Charcoal Alley") were still smoking embers, Tapscott would gather many of the young musicians of Watts -- Session, Roberts, Chancler and Olivier among them -- under the protective umbrella of his guerrilla jazz orchestra The Pan Afrikan People's Arkestra. The rigorous experience saved many of them. For one, Oliver, who would grow up to become the principal bassoonist for the San Francisco Symphony, lost several of his high school friends before they were the age of 25. 20

After the rebellion, the National Guard cordon and significant damage hobbled the local jazz clubs, and the working musicians of Watts were increasingly deprived of venues not just in South L.A. but the city as a whole. With haunts like the It Club closing and the Parisian Room limping along, jazz would have to return to the underground, in post-riot oases like the Watts Happening Coffee House and Studio Watts. The unofficial dividing line between black and white Angelenos -- the Santa Monica Freeway -- became a literal one. "Watts affected every person because that just severed relations," bassist Henry Franklin told an oral historian in 2001. "And white people stopped supporting the music in black areas. You go to any club in the area and it's going to be half white people and half black people. But [the riots] took out that half." 21 Bassist Patrick "Putter" Smith, an Irish-American from the suburb of Bell who had played Watts clubs since the 1950s, remembers a gig at a South L.A. venue called Godfathers in the early 1970s with the titanic hard-bop drummer Art Blakey. "There was almost no white people there. Art would get up and preach about the riots. He was telling the audience they had ruined it because white people were afraid to come down there: 'You really messed up, you scared them off,' he says, 'We need the white people in here too. you know jazz is not black its black in white. It's always been like that and that's what it is.' Thing was, the place was half-empty." 22

1 Ndugu Chancler, author interview (4/18/15)
2 Fuasi Abdul-Khaliq, transcript of unpublished interview with Steven Isoardi (12/21/01)
3 Carl Burnett, "Beyond Central Oral History" (UCLA: 2007)
4 Hampton Hawes with Don Asher, "Raise Up Off Me: A Portrait of Hampton Hawes," p. 140-1
5 Charles Mingus, "Beneath the Underdog: His World As Composed by Mingus," p. 220
6 Buddy Collette, "Jazz Generations: A Life in American Music and Society," p. 173
7 Fuasi Abdul-Khaliq, transcript of unpublished interview with Steven Isoardi (12/21/01)
8 Ndugu Chancler, author interview (4/18/15)
9 George Lipsitz, "Midnight in the Barrelhouse: The Johnny Otis Story," p. xviii
10 Gerald Horne, "The Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s," p. 70
11 Andrew Grant Jackson, "1965: The Most Revolutionary Year in Music," p. 155
12 Dick Gregory with Sheila P. Moses, "Callus On My Soul: A Memoir," p. 110
13 Michael Session, author interview (3/17/15)
14 Rufus Olivier, author interview (4/15/15)
15 Michael Session, author interview (3/17/15)
16 Curtis Amy, "Beyond Central Oral History" (UCLA: 2002)
17 Horace Tapscott with Steve Isoardi, "Songs of the Unsung: The Musical and Social Journey of Horace Tapscott," p. 126
18 Cecelia Tapscott, author interview (2/27/14)
19 "Songs of the Unsung," p. 111
20 Rufus Olivier, author interview (4/15/15)

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Zaključek

Bringing the Watts rebellion, the rise of the carceral state, and the celebration of Wattstax into the same frame helps us to educate a new generation about the urban rebellions of the 1960s. As we work to incorporate the black freedom struggle “beyond Dixie” into our classrooms, seeing the many meanings of the events in Watts can provide students with new insight into both the past and the present moment. Given the wave of popular protests currently sweeping college campuses and the streets—and the outrage over recent pepper-spraying incidents by police—a revival of academic interest in urban rebellions seems inevitable. In the aftermath of last year’s social upheaval and massive public protest in the Middle East, Western Europe, and then the United States, celebrated by Wall Street demonstrators as the “Arab Spring, European Summer, and New York Fall,” what radical social historian E. P. Thompson so powerfully annointed “the moral economy of the crowd” has renewed meaning for many, both at home and abroad.

Gerald Horne, Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s (New York: Da Capo Press: 1997), 45–133 Heather Thompson, “Urban Uprisings: Riots or Rebellions,” in The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s, ed. David Farber and Beth Bailey (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), 109.

Horne, Fire This Time Horne, “Black Fire: ‘Riot’ and ‘Revolt’ in Los Angeles, 1965 and 1992” in Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California, ed. Lawrence B. De Graaf, Kevin Mulroy, and Quintard Taylor (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001), 377–404.

Horne, Fire This Time, 134–67.

To familiarize students with the cross-currents surrounding Watts and the 1960s urban rebellions, there are a number of rich primary and secondary sources that offer competing points of view. Some excellent options include The McCone Commission Report on Watts, available online at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/cityinstress/mccone/contents.html The Kerner Commission Report, excerpts of which can be found here: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6545/ James Baldwin, The Fire This Time Johnny Nash and Donald Warden’s performance and spoken word album, “Burn Baby Burn” writings by the Black Power activists who emerged in the wake of Watts, including Huey Newton’s Revolutionary Suicide (1973) and Eldridge Cleaver’s Duša na ledu (1970). For a broader social history of the West Coast Black Power movement that cohered in the wake of Watts, see Donna Murch, Living for the City: Migration, Education and the Rise of the Black Panther Party (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010) Judson L. Jeffries and Malcolm Foley, “To Live and Die in L.A.” v Comrades: A Local History of the Black Panther Party ed. Judson L. Jeffries (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007), pp. 255–90 Darnell Hunt, Black Los Angeles: American Dreams and Racial Realities (New York: New York University Press, 2010).

Heather Thompson, “Urban Uprisings,” 109–17 Horne, “Black Fire Horne, Fire This Time Manning Marable, Race, Reform and Rebellion. The debate about the efficacy and rationality of popular street protest certainly did not start in postwar U.S. and African American history, and compelling parallels can be seen in E.P. Thompson’s revisionist history of working-class struggle in the “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Preteklost & amp sedanjost 50 (February 1971): 76–136.

Horne, Fire This Time, 64–78 Mike Davis, City of Quartz: Excavating The Future in Los Angeles (New York: Verso, 2006).

Bayard Rustin, “‘Black Power’ and Coalition Politics,” Komentar 42 (September 1966): 35–40.

Cleaver, Soul On Ice, 38 Horne, “Black Fire,” 381–82.

Martin Schiesl, “Behind the Shield: Social Discontent and the Los Angeles Police since 1950” in City of Promise: Race and Historical Change in Los Angeles, ed. Martin Schiesl and Mark M. Dodge, 137–74 Davis, City of Quartz Murch, Living for the City Horne, Fire This Time.

Washington Post, December 9, 1969, A1 Mike Davis, City of Quartz, 298 For Panthers’ account of this incident, see “Pigs Attack Southern California Chapter Of Black Panther Party,” The Black Panther, December 13, 1969. For a more comprehensive account of this development in the second half of the twentieth century, see Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2010).

Mike Davis, City of Quartz, 221–64, 268. Article dates are misquoted in Davis’s footnotes. For correct article citations, see Los Angeles Times April 3, 1988 and April 6, 1988.

Donna Murch, Crack: A Social History, forthcoming book manuscript.

For recent historical scholarship on the modern American carceral state please see Heather Thompson, “Why Mass Incarceration Matters: Rethinking Crisis, Decline, and Transformation in Postwar American History” Journal of American History (December 2010): 703–734 Donna Murch, Living for the City Christian Parenti, Lockdown America: Police and Prisons in the Age of Crisis (New York: Verso, 1999) Kelly Lytle Hernandez, MIGRA! A History of the U.S. Border Patrol (University of California Press, 2010) Khalil Muhammad, The Condemnation of Blackness: Ideas about Race and Crime in the Making of Modern Urban America. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010) Robert Perkinson, Texas Tough: The Rise of a Prison Empire (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2010) Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California (Berkeley: University of California, 2007).

Horne, The Fire This Time Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow.

Donna Murch, “The Urban Promise of Black Power: African American Political Mobilization in Oakland and the East Bay, 1961–1977,” (PhD diss., University of California Berkeley, 2005), 159.

This is not to imply that white anti-liberalism started in the late sixties. As Thomas Sugrue’s Origins of the Urban Crisis, Heather Thompson’s “Mass Incarceration,” and my own book, Living for the City, have shown, white backlash had broader and deeper roots in postwar struggles over jobs, housing, schools, and black migration to northern cities that stretched back to the World War II era. Nevertheless, more historical scholarship is needed examining specific national and regional responses by local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies to the radical social movements of the 1960s and 1970s. For important pioneering work in this regard, please see Christian Parenti, Lockdown America.


These Devastating Photographs of the Watts Riots and Their Aftermath May Shock You

Two soldiers of the National Guard sit on a bench in the middle of a street in Watts as they watch over the area. Los Angeles Public Library. http://www.ocregister.com/2017/08/10/a-look-back-at-the-1965-watts-riots/ A group of National Guardsmen in the western area of the Watts district take their positions, August 1965. Photo by Bettman/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#11 A member of the California National Guard patrols 103rd Street, Watts business district. Courtesy of the Los Angeles Times. August 1965. http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-ln-watts-riots-explainer-20150715-htmlstory.html Lee Benson, 184th Infantry, on the lookout for snipers during the Watts riots. August 1965. Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. http://wattsreimagined.org/ninth/ Armed members of the National Guard aim their guns during the Watts riots, August 1965. Photo by Express/Archive Photos/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#2 Members of California&rsquos 40th Armored Division direct traffic away from a burning area of Los Angeles, August 1965. Courtesy of National Guard Education Foundation. Wikipedija. http://www.nationalguard.mil/news/todayinhistory/august.aspx A truck convoy moves into the Watts district under orders to stop the riots. August 1965. Photo by Bettman/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#6 Burning Buildings During the Watts Riots, August 1965. Courtesy of New York World-Telegram. Library of Congress. Wikipedija. A ruined city block after the Watts riots, 1965. Photo by Bettman/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#4 Firefighters try to put out a fire, August 15, 1965. Photograph by Harry Benson/Express/Getty Images. http://www.ocregister.com/2017/08/10/a-look-back-at-the-1965-watts-riots/ A jeep of National Guardsmen drive down a street in Watts that is reduced to rubble, 1965. Photography by PhotoQuest/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#28 Photograph of an overturned vehicle, August 13, 1965. Photograph by AP/Harold Filan. http://www.ocregister.com/2017/08/10/a-look-back-at-the-1965-watts-riots/ A view of a street destroyed in the Watts riots, August 1965. Photo by Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#18 Firemen put out a burning building that once was a liquor store, a jeweler, and a restaurant. Police with rifles are standing guard. August 1965. Los Angeles Public Library Photo Collection. http://wattsreimagined.org/ninth/ Fightfighter putting out a fire at a shoe store in Watts, August 14, 1965. Photo by AP.
http://www.ocregister.com/2017/08/10/a-look-back-at-the-1965-watts-riots/ Three stores burning on Avalon Road, Watts riots, August 1965. Photo by Bettman/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#5 A man uses a bulldozer to start cleaning debris after the riots are over, August 18, 1965. Photo by AP/Ellis R. Bosworth. http://www.ocregister.com/2017/08/10/a-look-back-at-the-1965-watts-riots/ A man pushes two brooms to clean the sidewalk after the riots. August 1965. Photo by Bettman/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#9 The Hall of Justice crammed with people awaiting their riot hearings, August 19, 1965. Los Angeles Public Library. http://www.ocregister.com/2017/08/10/a-look-back-at-the-1965-watts-riots/ A group of children plays in the rubble after the riots, 1965. Photograph by Bill Ray/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images. http://all-that-is-interesting.com/watts-riot#29


August 12, 1965: The Watts Section of Los Angeles Riots

August 12, 2015

Buildings shown on fire during the 1965 Watts riots. Thirty-four people died and an estimated $40 million in property damage was recorded. (Kongresna knjižnica)

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Summer is to riots as autumn is to financial meltdowns. On this day in 1965, the Watts section of Los Angeles convulsed with one of most damaging riots in American history. Narod’s editor at the time, Carey McWilliams, was a longtime observer of life in California’s Southland and, especially, of its racial and economic tensions. His editorial about Watts, “The Forgotten Slum,” anticipates by almost three decades much of what that other great LA watcher, the historian Mike Davis, would write in his classic City of Quartz, which itself anticipated the explosive violence following the acquittal of Rodney King’s abusers, which anticipated Ferguson in 2014 and Baltimore in 2015…Round and round she goes, and where she stops nobody knows

Thirty-one dead, over 700 injured, 2,200 under arrest, 1,000 fires, property damage of $200 million—such is the preliminary toll for the long weekend of rioting in the Watts area of Los Angeles. A feverish search for scapegoats is now under way and will no doubt continue through the 1966 gubernatorial campaign…

The list is long and includes The Heat—a favorite scapegoat in all race-riot investigations—and Social Conditions. Here Watts qualifies on all counts: dropouts, delinquency, disease and dependency. But none of these social factors alone or in combination necessarily “cause” race riots, actually it is when conditions seem to be improving that the riots usually explode. Predictably the forthcoming investigation ordered by Governor Brown will stress the same tiresome clichés: police brutality, inadequate leadership, The Heat, slum conditions. All the while the truth about Watts is right there in front of people, in plain boldface type, for all to read: so simple that it is incredible. The hatred and violence of race riots is triggered by contempt, and of all forms of contempt the most intolerable is nonrecognition, the general unawareness that a minority is festering in squalor. Until the riots began, Watts had simply been forgotten by the encompassing ‘white’ community….

The sad fact is that most race riots have brought some relief and improvement in race relations and the Los Angeles riots will not be an exception. The seeming indifference of the larger community is structural. Los Angeles is the city of sprawl. To sprawl is to relax and feel comfortable. For most residents, Los Angeles is a comfortable city, psychologically as well as physically, because the unpleasant can be kept in its place—at a safe distance from most of the people. By accident more than design, Los Angeles has been organized to further the general tendency toward social indifference. The freeways have been carefully designed to skim over and skirt around such eyesores as Watts and portions of East Los Angeles even the downtown section, a portion of which has become a shopping area for minorities, has been partially bypassed. Now that the community knows once again that Watts exists, it will begin to pay some attention to its problems.

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