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Zgodba, Jožef - Zgodovina

Zgodba, Jožef - Zgodovina


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Pridruženi sodnik vrhovnega sodišča
(1779-1845)

Joseph Story se je rodil 18. septembra 1779 v Marbleheadu v Massachusettsu, sin kirurga, ki je sodeloval na bostonski čajanki. Story je leta 1798 diplomiral na Harvardu, pesem je predstavil na začetku in se odločil za študij prava. Leta 1801 je začel svojo pravno prakso v Salemu in začel študirati fevdalno pravo in britansko nepremičninsko pravo. Ker je njegov ugled dobrega pravnega duha naraščal, se je ukvarjal s pomembnimi zadevami in postal eden vodilnih odvetnikov v Novi Angliji.

Leta 1805 je bil izvoljen v zakonodajno telo Massachusettsa, kjer je pokazal svoje debatne sposobnosti in postal vodja republikanske stranke. Kljub temu je bil zvest samemu sebi in se ni bal, da se ne bi strinjal s prevladujočimi prepričanji stranke. Izvoljen je bil v predstavniški dom ZDA, kjer se je boril za razveljavitev zakona o embargu, saj je menil, da je to le začasen ukrep. Poleg tega je Story spodbujal širitev mornarice v nasprotju s splošno sprejetim republikanskim stališčem. Ker je včasih podpiral politike, ki so jih zagovarjali federalisti, je predsednik Jefferson trdil, da je le "psevdo republikanec".

Po koncu mandata v kongresu se je Story vrnil v matično državo, v kateri je bil izvoljen v državni predstavniški dom. Leta 1811 je bil izvoljen za predsednika (Massachusettskega) doma, istega leta pa ga je predsednik Madison imenoval za zunanjega sodnika vrhovnega sodišča. Po takratni navadi so mu dodelili tudi mesto okrožnega sodišča, njegova regija pa je obsegala Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts in Rhode Island. Pri obravnavi različnih primerov je pomagal vzpostaviti pravo in precedense v pravu admiralitete, reševalnem pravu, pravu morskega zavarovanja, nagradnem pravu in patentnem pravu. On in kancler Kent sta bila odgovorna za ustanovitev ameriškega sistema pravičnosti. Ostro je nasprotoval suženjstvu in sodeloval v protestih proti kompromisu v Missouriju.

Leta 1829 je Story postal profesor prava na Harvardu in se preselil v Cambridge v Massachusettsu. Bil je priljubljen profesor, namesto predavanj je imel pogovorne vaje in pogosta posmešna igrišča. Čeprav je zavrnil položaj vrhovnega sodnika v Massachusettsu, je med smrtjo Johna Marshalla in potrditvijo Rogerja Taneyja ter spet, ko je Taney zbolela leta 1844, spet opravljal funkcijo vršilca ​​dolžnosti vrhovnega sodnika ameriškega vrhovnega sodišča. in je bil zaradi svoje štipendije spoštovan v Veliki Britaniji in ZDA. Story se je začel pripravljati, da se bo upokojil s klopi in svojo energijo posvetil poučevanju, ko je zbolel. Umrl je 10. septembra 1845 v Cambridgeu v Massachusettsu.


ZGODBA, JOSIP

Joseph Story je od leta 1811 do 1845 služil kot sodnik na vrhovnem sodišču ZDA. Story je bil ena izmed visokih osebnosti v pravni zgodovini ZDA, tako kot sodnik kot avtor številnih pravnih razprav. Nekateri pravni komentatorji menijo, da so bile zgodbe Story tako vplivne na razvoj ameriškega prava v devetnajstem stoletju, kot so bila dela angleških pravnikov, gospoda Williama Blackstona in Sir Edwarda Coca.

Zgodba se je rodila 18. septembra 1779 v Marbleheadu v Massachusettsu. Leta 1798 je diplomiral na univerzi Harvard in prebral zakon pri Samuelu Sewallu. Ustanovil je prakso v Salemu v Massachusettsu leta 1801 in hitro razvil impresivno poklicno kariero, postal direktor in na koncu predsednik Merchant's Bank of Salem. Postal je član demokratične stranke in bil izvoljen v državno zakonodajo leta 1805. Del mandata je bil v predstavniškem domu ZDA od leta 1808 do 1809, nato pa se je leta 1810 vrnil v državno zakonodajo. Naslednje leto je bil izvoljen. hišni govornik.

Novembra 1811 je predsednik james madison imenoval Storyja, ko je bil star samo 32 let, na vrhovno sodišče ZDA. Madison je upal, da bo Story pomagal Sodišču v bolj demokratični smeri in popravil aristokratske težnje zvezne klopi, v kateri so prevladovali federalisti. Madison je še posebej želel preveriti vpliv vrhovnega sodnika Johna Marshalla, čigar nacionalistična filozofija ga je pripeljala do širokega razumevanja zveznih pooblastil. thomas jefferson je imenovanju nasprotoval, saj je menil, da Story ni podprl prepričanja demokratične stranke v skladu s spoštovanjem vlad držav.

Jefferson se je izkazal za pravilnega, saj je Story hitro razkril nagnjenost k sprejetju večine Marshallovih načel. V martinu proti lovskemu najemniku, 14 U.S. 304, 4 L. Ed. 97 (1816) je vrhovno sodišče ZDA pregledalo odločbo vrhovnega sodišča v Virginiji, v kateri je del zveznega sodnega akta iz leta 1789 razglašen za neustavnega. Po njegovem večinskem mnenju je Story razveljavil vrhovno sodišče države in potrdil pooblastilo vrhovnega sodišča, da pregleduje najvišja državna sodišča v vseh civilnih zadevah, ki vključujejo zvezno ustavo, statute in pogodbe. Ta odločitev je bila ključna sestavina zvezne sodne oblasti in nasprotna Jeffersonovemu pojmovanju državno-zveznih odnosov.

"[Zakon] je ljubosumna ljubica in zahteva dolgo in nenehno dvorjenje. Tega se ne da osvojiti z malenkostnimi uslugami, ampak z razkošnim poklonom."
- zgodba o Jožefu

V skrbnikih Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518, 4 L. Ed. 629 (1819), se je Story pridružil vrhovnemu sodniku Marshallu, da je podeljevanje statuta podjetja pogodba z državo. Ker država ni zadržala pooblastila za spremembo, so bili donatorji listin odporni na destruktivno vmešavanje države. Story je opozoril, da bi morali to imuniteto podjetij razširiti le na zasebne, ne javne družbe. Pri tem razlikovanju je Story prvič ubesedil, da se javni značaj družbe ni obrnil na storitve, ki jih opravlja, ampak na identiteto vložnikov kapitala. Tako bi se družba, ki je bila pooblaščena za služenje javnosti, na primer banka, štela za zasebno družbo, če bi bila v lasti zasebnikov in njene listine ni bilo mogoče umakniti ali spremeniti v

odsotnost zakonodajnega pridržka v času prvotne donacije. Ta opredelitev zasebnih družb glede na njihovo kapitalizacijo je bila ključnega pomena za razvoj podjetij v devetnajstem stoletju.

Storyjeva najbolj kontroverzna odločitev je prišla v prigg v. Pennsylvania, 41 U.S. 539, 10 L. Ed. 1060 (1842), ki je vključeval zvezni zakon o ubežnem sužnju iz leta 1793. Številne severne zvezne države so pokazale svojo sovražnost do suženjstva z uvedbo zakonov, namenjenih zatiranju lastnikov južnih sužnjev, ki so prišli na sever v iskanju pobeglih sužnjev. Lastniki sužnjev so bili ogorčeni nad temi zakoni in trdili, da jim zvezni akt daje pravico, da zahtevajo svoje premoženje brez vmešavanja vlad držav.

Story, ki je pisal z 8-1 glasovi, je razglasil za neustavne vse zakone o ubežnjih sužnjih, ki so jih sprejele zvezne države, ker je zvezni zakon zagotavljal izključno pravno sredstvo za vrnitev pobeglih sužnjev. Zgodba je tudi odločila, da države niso bile prisiljene uveljavljati zveznih določb o ubežnih sužnjih. Po njegovem mnenju bi bilo neskladno in brez pravne podlage, da bi Sodišče razglasilo prednost zveznega zakona in nato od državnih sodišč zahtevalo pomoč pri izvajanju tega zakona.

Prigg je bila odločilna odločitev, ker je napovedala, da je suženjstvo nacionalno vprašanje, ki ga država ne more motiti. To je razjezilo številne nasprotnike suženjstva in prizadelo ugled Storyja na severu. Nekateri državni sodniki so Storyjevo mnenje vzeli k srcu in niso hoteli sodelovati v zveznih postopkih za ubežne sužnje.

Drugi pomemben prispevek Storyja na Sodišču je bil razvoj "zveznega običajnega prava", ki je bil prvič izražen v sodnem postopku iz leta 1842 o hitrem proti Tysonu, 41 U.S. 1, 10 L. Ed. 865. Do spora je prišlo zaradi tehničnega vprašanja, ki se nanaša na pogajanja o komercialni menici. New York in druge zvezne države so bile razdeljene glede tega, ali je o računu mogoče pogajati. V skladu z zveznim zakonom o sodstvu iz leta 1789 so bila zveznim sodiščem naročena, naj upoštevajo državne zakone pri odločanju o zadevah med strankami iz dveh različnih držav.

Story, ki je menil, da so pogajanja o takšnih računih ključnega pomena za razvoj nacionalne poslovne skupnosti, je izjavil, da odločitve newyorških sodišč - ki ne temeljijo na zakonodajnih zakonih, ampak na razlagah običajnega prava - niso "zakoni", ki zavezujejo zvezni sodniki. Odločitve običajnega prava so bile le "dokaz" ustreznega zakona. Story je zaključil, da je dolžnost zveznih sodišč, da pred razglasitvijo vladajočega pravila preučijo dokaze iz vseh ustreznih zveznih jurisdikcij na področju splošnega prava.

Storyjevo mnenje je zagovarjalo stališče, da obstaja splošno zvezno splošno pravo, da se zvezna sodišča lahko uporabljajo v skoraj vseh zadevah splošnega prava zasebnega prava. Zamisel o zveznem skupnem pravu je spodbujala nacionalno enotnost, pomenila pa je tudi revolucionarno širitev zvezne pristojnosti. Vrhovno sodišče je ta predlog zavrnilo v erie railroad co. v. tompkins, 304 U.S. 64, 58 S. Ct. 817, 82 L. izd. 1188 (1938), ki razglaša, da morajo zvezna sodišča uporabljati pravo države, pa naj bo to zakonska ali sodna praksa.

Storyjev vpliv je presegel njegove sodne odločbe. Leta 1829 je bil imenovan za prvega danskega profesorja prava na Harvardu. Na tem položaju je ostal vse življenje, hkrati pa je služboval na vrhovnem sodišču in deloval kot predsednik banke Salem.

Nadomestilo, ki ga je Nathan Dane dal pravni šoli na Harvardu, je plačalo tudi za objavo številnih Storyjevih pravnih komentarjev in razprav, ki povzemajo in kodificirajo različna področja prava. Zgodbe vključujejo dela Polog (1832), Menice (1843), Spopad zakonov (1834), Lastniška sodna praksa (1836), Zagovarjanje lastniškega kapitala (1838), Zvezna ustava (1833) in Zadolžnice (1845). Služili so kot dragocena referenca za odvetnike, sodnike in zakonodajalce ter so močno vplivali na razvoj zlasti gospodarskega prava. Alexis de Tocqueville, francoski avtor knjige Demokracija v Ameriki (1835–1840), klasična analiza ameriške družbe in vlade, je pri pisanju svojega dela uporabil Storyjeve ustavne komentarje.

Story je umrl 10. septembra 1845 v Cambridgeu v Massachusettsu.


Poroka z Marijo

Potem ko se je poročil z Marijo, je Jožef ugotovil, da je že noseča in da je & kvoten človek in da je ni pripravljen osramotiti & quot (Mt 1:19), se je odločil, da se bo od nje tiho ločil, saj je vedel, da bi lahko, če to stori javno, kamenjan do smrti. Vendar je k Jožefu prišel angel in mu povedal, da je otrok, ki ga je nosila Marija, Božji sin in da ga je spočel Sveti Duh, zato je Jožef obdržal Marijo kot svojo ženo.

Po Jezusovem rojstvu v Betlehemu je k Jožefu znova prišel angel, ki je tokrat njega in Marijo opozoril na judejskega kralja Heroda in nasilje, ki ga bo povzročil otroku. Jožef je nato z Marijo in Jezusom pobegnil v Egipt in spet se je prikazal angel, ki je Jožefu povedal, da je Herod umrl, in mu naročil, naj se vrne v Sveto deželo.

Izogibajoč se Betlehemu in možnim dejanjem naslednika Heroda in aposa, so se Jožef, Marija in Jezus naselili v Nazaretu v Galileji. Evangeliji opisujejo Jožefa kot "quottektona", ki je tradicionalno pomenil "quatcarpen", in domneva se, da je Jožef svoje obrti učil Jezusa v Nazaretu. Na tej točki pa Jožefa v Svetem pismu nikoli več ne omenjajo z imenom —, čeprav zgodba o Jezusu v templju vključuje sklicevanje na "njegove starše".


Joseph McCarthy in vzpon makartizma

Vsi ti dejavniki so skupaj ustvarili vzdušje strahu in strahu, kar se je izkazalo za zrelo okolje za vzpon trdnega antikomunista, kot je Joseph McCarthy. McCarthy je bil takrat prvi senator iz Wisconsina, ki je zmagal na volitvah leta 1946 po kampanji, v kateri je kritiziral neuspeh svojega nasprotnika, da se je med drugo svetovno vojno vpisal, pri tem pa je poudarjal svoje junaštvo v vojni.

Februarja 1950 je McCarthy, ki se je pojavil v republikanskem klubu žensk v okrožju Ohio v Wheelingu v Zahodni Virginiji, imel govor, ki ga je pripeljal v središče pozornosti države. Mahal je s papirjem v zraku in izjavil, da ima seznam 205 znanih članov komunistične partije, ki so v State Departmentu delali in oblikovali politiko ”.

Naslednji mesec je pododbor senata začel preiskavo in ni našel dokazov o kakršni koli subverzivni dejavnosti. Poleg tega mnogi demokratski in republikanski kolegi McCarthyja, vključno s predsednikom Dwightom Eisenhowerjem, niso odobravali njegove taktike (“I s tem fantom ne bo prišel v žleb, ” je predsednik povedal svojim pomočnikom). Kljub temu je senator nadaljeval svojo tako imenovano kampanjo rdečih vab. Leta 1953, na začetku drugega mandata senatorja, je bil McCarthy voden v Odboru za vladne operacije, kar mu je omogočilo, da je začel še obsežnejše preiskave domnevnega vdora komunistov v zvezno vlado. Na zaslišanju po zaslišanju je agresivno zasliševal priče, ki so jih mnogi zaznali kot očitno kršitev njihovih državljanskih pravic. Kljub pomanjkanju dokazov o subverziji je zaradi preiskav McCarthyja več kot 2000 vladnih uslužbencev izgubilo delo.


Zgodba, Jožef

Zvezna pravosodna služba:
Pridruženo pravosodje, vrhovno sodišče ZDA
15. novembra 1811 ga je nominiral James Madison na sedež, ki ga je izpraznil William Cushing. Potrdil senat 18. novembra 1811 in prejel provizijo 18. novembra 1811. Služba je prenehala 10. septembra 1845 zaradi smrti.

Dodelitev kot pravosodje:

Prvo vezje, 14. marec 1812-10. september 1845

Izobraževanje:
Harvard College, 1798
Preberite zakon, 1801

Zasebna praksa, Salem, Massachusetts, 1801-1811
Državni predstavnik, Massachusetts, 1805-1807, govornik 1811, 1811
Ameriški predstavnik iz Massachusettsa, 1808-1809
Profesor prava na univerzi Harvard, 1829-1845

Cassoday, John B. "James Kent in Joseph Story." Yale Jaw Journal, letn. 12, ne. 3 (januar 1903): 146-53.

Dowd, Morgan D. "Pravosodna zgodba in politika imenovanja." American Journal of Legal History, letn. 9, ne. 4 (1965): 265-85.

________. "Zgodba pravosodja Josepha: Študija pravne filozofije jeffersonskega sodnika." Pregled zakona Vanderbilt, letn. 18, ne. 2 (marec 1965): 643-62.

Dunne, Gerald T. "Joseph Story: 1812 Overture." Harvard Law Review, letn. 77, ne. 2 (december 1963): 240-78.

________. "Jožefova zgodba: Doba Jacksona." Pregled zakona Missouri, letn. 34, ne. 3 (1969): 307-55.

________. "Jožefova zgodba: zarodna leta." Harvard Law Review, letn. 75, ne. 4 (februar 1962): 707-54.

________. "Jožefova zgodba: velik izraz." Harvard Law Review, letn. 79, ne. 5 (marec 1966): 877-913.

________. "Jožefova zgodba: Spuščajoča se nevihta." American Journal of Legal History, letn. 13, ne. 1 (januar 1969): 1-41.

________. "Jožefova zgodba: srednja leta." Harvard Law Review, letn. 80, ne. 8 (junij 1967): 1679-1709.

Eisgruber, Christopher L. M. “Pravosodna zgodba, suženjstvo in naravno pravo Temelji ameriškega konstitucionalizma. Pravni pregled Univerze v Chicagu, letn. 55, ne. 1 (zima 1998): 273-327.

Finkleman, Paul. "Jožefova zgodba in problem suženjstva: nacionalistična dilema novega Engleza." Pravna zgodovina Massachusettsa: časopis zgodovinskega društva Vrhovnega sodnega sodišča, letn. 8 (2002): 65-84.

Gould, Elizabeth Porter. "Jožefova zgodba - dodatna beseda." Chicago Law Times, letn. 3, ne. 3 (julij 1889): 231-36.

Hoeflich, M.H. "Zgodba Johna Austina in Josepha: dve perspektivi devetnajstega stoletja o uporabnosti civilnega prava za običajnega odvetnika." American Journal of Legal History, letn. 29, ne. 1 (januar 1985): 36-77.

Lockhard, Joe. "Odločitev" Prigg "Justice Story in poraz svobode." Ameriške študije, letn. 52, ne. 4 (2007): 467-80.

Lynch, David. Vloga okrožnih sodišč pri oblikovanju prava Združenih držav v zgodnji republiki: po sodnikih vrhovnega sodišča Washington, Livingston, Story in Thompson. Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing, 2018.

McClellan, James. "Zgodba o Jožefu: Pravda pod vladavino prava." Journal of Christian Jurisprudence, letn. 7 (1988): 13-30.

________. "Naravna pravna filozofija Josepha Storyja." Merilo uspešnosti, letn. 5, ne. 2 (zima 1993): 85-92.

________ in Stephen B. Presser. Zgodba o Josephu in ameriška ustava: študija politične in pravne misli z izbranimi branji. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.

Mojzes, Adolf. "Prijateljstvo med Marshallom in zgodbo." American Law Review, letn. 35, ne. 3 (maj-junij 1901): 321-42.

Newmyer, R. Kent. "Zgodba pravosodja Josepha, primer mostu Charles River in kriza republikanizma." Journal of American Legal History, letn. 17, ne. 3 (julij 1973): 232-45.

________. "Zgodba pravosodja Josepha o vezju in zanemarjena faza ameriške pravne zgodovine." American Journal of Legal History, letn. 14, ne. 2 (april 1970): 112-35.

________. "Zapis o politiki pravosodja Whig Joseph Story." Zgodovinski pregled doline Mississippi, letn. 48, ne. 3 (december 1961): 480-91.

________. Sodnik vrhovnega sodišča Joseph Story. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Robbins, Donald Clark. "Jožefova zgodba: zgodnja leta, 1779-1811." Dr. Diss., Univerza v Kentuckyju, 1965.

Sneg, MacCormac. "Jožefova zgodba." Oregon Law Review, letn. 5, ne. 3 (apr. 1926): 169-84.

Story, William Wetmore, ur. Življenje in pisma Josepha Storyja: pridruženi sodnik vrhovnega sodišča ZDA in profesor Dane na univerzi Harvard. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1851.

"Biografska skica Joseph Story L.L.D." American Law Magazine, letn. 6, ne. 2 (januar 1846): 241-68.

"Jožefova zgodba." Chicago Law Times, letn. 3, ne. 1 (januar 1889): 1-13.

"Jožefova zgodba." Trenutni komentarji in pravne napake, letn. 2, št. 7 (15. julij 1890): 385-401.

"Jožefova zgodba." Zelena vrečka, letn. 9, ne. 2 (februar 1897): 49-53.

Pravna šola Havard
Cambridge, Mass.

Joseph Story Papers, 1796-1844.
2 škatli za iskanje pomoči. Vsebuje korespondenco in izvirni rokopis njegove knjige o zadolžnicah.

Kongresna knjižnica
Washington DC.

Joseph Story Papers, 1807-1843.
1400 predmetov za zbiranje pomoči vsebuje osebno, pravno in poklicno korespondenco.

Dokumenti zgodbe Jožefa, 1826-1836.
Zbirka 3 predmeti je del zbirke Razni rokopisi.

Zgodovinsko društvo Massachusetts
Boston, Mass.

Dokumenti zgodbe Jožefa, 1797-1857.
4 polja korespondence o sodobnih pravnih zadevah in vrhovnem sodišču ZDA.

Univerza v Michiganu
Knjižnica Williama L. Clementsa
Ann Arbor, Mich.

Dokumenti zgodbe Jožefa, 1794-1843.
697 predmetov korespondence Prejeta zgodba v zvezi z zakonodajo ameriškega kongresa in drugimi pravnimi zadevami.

Zgodovinsko društvo New York
New York, N. Y.

Dokumenti zgodbe Jožefa, 1802-1804.
2 zv. zbirka vsebuje pisno knjigo in zvezek pravnih oblik.

Univerza v Teksasu v Austinu
Knjižnica Humanističnega raziskovalnega centra
Austin, Teksas

Zgodbe o družini, 1732-1910.
ca. 8 ft. Iskanje pomoči Dopisovanje Joseph Story, spisi pravnih zadev in mnenja.


Ali obstajajo zapisi o biblijskem Jožefu v egipčanski zgodovini?

V egipčanski zgodovini obstajajo biblijski zapisi o svetopisemskem Jožefu. Tukaj je nekaj:

Prvi – napisi

  1. Potem ko je Jožef razložil faraonove sanje, ga je kralj povzdignil na najvišjo funkcijo pod krono. Kralj je dal Jožefu novo ime "Zaphnath-paaneah (1. Mojzesova 41:45). To ime je bilo odkrito v napisu poznejšega obdobja Bubastid (9. stoletje pr. N. Št.) In je bilo zapisano v egipčanskem Djed -pa -netjer -iuf -ankh, kar pomeni: "Bog govori, da bi lahko živel."
  2. Ta spodnji napis govori o faraonovih sanjah in Jožefovi interpretaciji sedmih let obilja ter naslednjih sedem let lakote. (Vir)

Drugi – kovanci

Po poročilu egipčanskega časopisa Al-Ahram, ki ga je napisal Wajih Al-Saqqar, so arheologi odkrili staroegipčanske kovance z imenom in podobo svetopisemskega Jožefa (Al-Ahram (Egipt), 22. september 2009).

Sledijo odlomki iz članka:

“ Raziskovalci so odkrili kovance, ko so presejali tisoče majhnih arheoloških artefaktov, shranjenih v [obokih] egiptovskega muzeja. [Sprva] so jih jemali za čare, vendar je temeljit pregled pokazal, da so kovanci nosili leto, v katerem so bili kovani, in njihovo vrednost ali podobe faraonov [ki so vladali] v času njihovega kovanja. Nekateri kovanci so iz časa, ko je Jožef živel v Egiptu, in nosijo njegovo ime in portret.

“ Vodja raziskovalne skupine dr. Sa ’id Muhammad Thabet je dejal, da je med svojimi arheološkimi raziskavami o preroku Jožefu v obokih [egipčanske] uprave za starine in Narodnega muzeja odkril veliko čare iz različnih obdobij pred in po Jožefovem obdobju, vključno s tistim, ki je nosil njegovo podobo kot minister zakladnice na egiptovskem faraonskem sodišču ...

“Eden kovanec … [je imel] podobo krave, ki simbolizira faraona ’s Sanje o sedmih debelih kravah in sedmih pustih kravah ”

“ Raziskovalec je identificiral kovance iz različnih obdobij, vključno s kovanci, ki so nosili posebne oznake, ki jih identificirajo kot iz obdobja Jožefa. Med temi je bil tudi en kovanec, na katerem je bil napis, in podoba krave, ki simbolizira faraonove sanje o sedmih debelih kravah in sedmih pustih kravah ter sedmih zelenih steblih žita in sedmih suhih steblih žita. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da so bili napisi tega zgodnjega obdobja običajno preprosti, saj je bilo pisanje še v zgodnjih fazah, zato so bile težave pri dešifriranju pisanja na teh kovancih. Vendar je raziskovalni skupini [uspelo] prevesti [zapis na kovancu] s primerjavo z najzgodnejšimi znanimi hieroglifskimi besedili ...

Na kovancu je dvakrat napisano ime Josepha in#8217, zapisano s hieroglifi: enkrat prvotno ime Jožef in enkrat njegovo egipčansko ime Saba Sabani, ki mu ga je dal faraon, ko je postal blagajnik. Obstaja tudi podoba Jožefa, ki je bil takrat del egiptovske uprave.


Sveti Jožef

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Sveti Jožef, (razcvet 1. stoletja, Nazaret, Galileja, palestinski glavni praznik 19. marec, praznik sv. Jožefa delavca 1. maja), v Novi zavezi, Jezusov zemeljski oče in mož Device Marije. Sveti Jožef je zavetnik univerzalne cerkve v rimskokatolištvu, njegovo življenje pa je zapisano v evangelijih, zlasti Mateja in Luke.

Jožef je bil potomec hiše kralja Davida. Po poroki z Marijo jo je našel že nosečo in se, »ker je bil pravičen človek in je ni hotel izpostavljati javni sramoti« (Matej 1:19), odločil, da se bo od nje tiho ločil, toda angel mu je rekel, da je otrok Sin Bog in je spočet od Svetega Duha. Jožef je poslušal angela in vzel Marijo za ženo. Po Jezusovem rojstvu v Betlehemu v Judeji, kjer je sveta družina sprejela čarovnike, je angel Jožefa in Marijo opozoril na bližajoče se nasilje nad otrokom s strani judejskega kralja Heroda Velikega, nato pa sta zbežala v Egipt. Tam se je Jožefu spet prikazal angel, ki ga je obvestil o Herodovi smrti in mu naročil, naj se vrne v Sveto deželo.

Izogibanje Betlehemu zaradi strahu pred Herodovim naslednikom, Jožefom, Marijo in Jezusom se je naselilo v Nazaretu (Matej 2: 22–23) v Galileji, kjer je Jožef Jezusa učil svoje mizarske obrti. Jožef je nazadnje omenjen v evangelijih, ko sta z Marijo mrzlično iskala izgubljenega mladega Jezusa v Jeruzalemu, kjer sta ga našla v templju (Luka 2: 41–49). Tako kot Marija tudi Jožef ni razumel Jezusovega ironičnega vprašanja: »Zakaj ste me iskali? Ali niste vedeli, da moram biti v hiši svojega Očeta? ’« Okoliščine Jožefove smrti niso znane, le da je verjetno umrl pred začetkom Jezusove javne službe in je bil zagotovo mrtev pred križanjem (Janez 19: 26–27).

Nekatere poznejše apokrifne pripovedi o Jožefu so ekstravagantno izmišljene. 2. stoletje Jakobov protevangelij in 4. stoletju Zgodovina Jožefa Tesarja ga predstaviti kot vdovca z otroki v času njegove zaroke z Marijo, kar je prispevalo k zmedi glede vprašanja Jezusovih bratov in sester. Obtožbe, da je dočakal 111 let, so lažne. Zanesljive podatke o Jožefu najdemo le v evangelijih, kajti poznejše pobožne zgodbe izkrivljajo njegovo podobo in so pomagale odložiti spomin.

Čeprav se zdi, da se je Jožefovo čaščenje začelo v Egiptu, je najstarejša zahodna pobožnost do njega v začetku 14. stoletja, ko so Serviti, red zlobnih bratov, praznovali njegov praznik 19. marca, na tradicionalni dan njegove smrti. Med poznejšimi promotorji pobožnosti sta bila papež Siksto IV, ki jo je predstavil v Rimu okoli leta 1479, in slavna mističarka iz 16. stoletja sveta Terezija iz Ávile. Jožefa, ki je že bil zavetnik Mehike, Kanade in Belgije, je papež Pij IX leta 1870 razglasil za zavetnika univerzalne cerkve. Leta 1955 je papež Pij XII 1. maja ustanovil praznik sv. Jožefa delavca kot protipraznovanje komunistom. 'Prvi maj.

Ta članek je nazadnje revidirala in posodobila Melissa Petruzzello, pomočnica urednika.


Ali je svetopisemska zgodba o Jožefu v Egiptu preverjena?

Dogodki, opisani v Jožefovi zgodbi, 1. Mojzesova 37-50, so že dolgo priljubljena tema raziskovanja tako bibličarjev kot tistih egiptologov, ki jih zanima Stara zaveza. [1] V egipčanskih virih ni bilo nobenega sklicevanja na Jožefa, a glede na relativno malo podatkov o egiptovskih uradnikih pred novim kraljestvom in pomanjkanje soglasja glede Jožefovega egipčanskega imena nas to ne bi smelo presenetiti.

Kakršno koli sklicevanje na Jožefa v kakršni koli prepoznavni obliki verjetno ne bo kmalu odkrito. Če pa verjamemo v zgodovino Jožefa in natančnost dogodkov, zapisanih v Genezi o njegovem življenju in karieri, lahko postavimo dve vprašanji z upanjem, da iz pisnih in arheoloških virov dobimo odgovor: kateri je najboljši datum za Jožefa in ali se svetopisemski dogodki, ko je to postavljeno, ujemajo s tem obdobjem egipčanske zgodovine?

V odgovor na naše prvo vprašanje obstajata dva glavna stališča glede datuma Jožefa med resnimi študenti Jožefove zgodbe, ki sprejemajo njeno zgodovino. Večina takšnih sodobnih učenjakov datira Jožefa v drugo vmesno obdobje egipčanske zgodovine, ok. 1786-1570 pr. N. Št. (Vergote 1959 Kitchen 1962 Stigers 1976), čas, ko je azijska skupina, imenovana Hyksos [2], vladala delti Nila.

To stališče temelji predvsem na dveh predpostavkah: prvič, da je tako imenovani pozni datum izhoda (v času vladavine Ramzesa II) pravilen, in drugič, da je moč Azijcev najbolje postaviti v obdobju egipčanske zgodovine, ko so njegovi kolegi Aziati, Hiksi, nadzorovali vlado. Na kratko preučimo ta dva argumenta.

Če bi se Izhod zgodil v 13. stoletju pred našim štetjem in bivanje je trajalo približno 400 let (430, po Izhodu 12:40), bi Jožef pripadal 17. stoletju pr. Če pa bi se Izhod zgodil v 15. stoletju pred našim štetjem, bi se Jožefova kariera premaknila v 19. stoletje pred našim štetjem, v dneh 12. dinastije Srednjega kraljestva.

Če bi svetopisemske številke vzeli dobesedno in po nominalni vrednosti, bi bila verjetna kralja med zasužnjevanjem in kasnejšim vzponom na oblast Jožefa Sesostris II (1897-1878 pr. N. Št.) In Sesostris III (1878-1843 pr. N. Št.). [3] Ta argument potem temelji na tem, kako si kdo razlaga 1. kraljev 6: 1, verz, ki datira izhod 480 let pred četrtim letom Salomona, ok. 966 pr.

Zdi se, da obstajajo trije splošni načini za obravnavo tega verza. Lahko ga sprejmemo po nominalni vrednosti, s čimer se Exodus datira v 15. stoletje pr. ] ali pa si lahko številke, navedene v njem, razlagajo kot nekaj manj kot dobesednih 480 let, s čimer se sklicuje na verz za pozni Izhod. [6] Naš namen tukaj ni zagovarjati ta stališča, čeprav se osebno držim zgodnjega Exodusa. Moje edino stališče je, da je človekov pogled na datum Odhoda določanje datuma za Jožefa.

Druga zamisel, da bi bilo za Jožefa najbolje misliti, da služi, ko so kolegi Siro-Palestinci vladali delu Egipta, se zdi nesprejemljiva. Predvideva, da bi si Siro-Palestinci, ne glede na posebno državljanstvo, medsebojno naklonjeni. Naše novo poznavanje Kanaana z njegovo politično razcepljenostjo in medmestnimi vojnami ter dejansko rivalstvo med skupinami, vidnimi v svetopisemski pripovedi, mi povzroča velik dvom, da bi bila kanaanska skupina, kot so Hiksi, samodejno prijazna do Hebrejca.

Že dolgo je bilo ugotovljeno, da se nekatere značilnosti zgodbe o Jožefu dobro ujemajo z dinastijo 12. Raziskava nekaterih od teh bi lahko bila v pomoč. [7]

Podporniki datuma 12. dinastije za Jožefovo zgodbo začnejo svoje argumente s strogim dobesednim sprejetjem svetopisemske kronologije Odhoda in bivanja. 1. Kralji 6: 1 veljajo za datume izhoda okoli pribl. 1446 pr. N. Št., In Izhod 12:40 je videti kot vstop Jakoba in njegove družine v Egipt, kjer ima Jožef visoko funkcijo pod vladavino Sesostrisa III, ok. 1876 ​​pr. Jožefova kariera kot egipčanski vladni uradnik se je tako začela pod Sesostrisom II in se bo nadaljevala v času vladavine Sesostrisa III. (DESNO: Sesostris III)

V podporo takemu datumu srednjega kraljestva se običajno navajajo posebni elementi zgodbe o Jožefu. Nekaj ​​primerov bo ponazorilo.

Potiphar, uradnik, ki je prvi kupil Jožefa, se v Genezi 39: 1 imenuje Egipčan in poveljnik kraljeve straže. Trdijo, da če bi bil kralj hiksoški vladar, ne bi bilo smiselno, da bi bil domači Egipčan poveljnik kraljeve telesne straže. Nadalje je Jožef večkrat opisan (1. Mojzesova 41, 42 in 45) kot vladar vse egiptovske dežele. Hiksi so obvladovali le severni del Egipta, vendar je 12. dinastija vladala celotnemu narodu. In ko je kralj hotel nagraditi Jožefa, mu je dal za ženo hčer duhovnika iz On ali Heliopolisa. Argument je, da bi hiksoški kralj bolj verjetno dal Jožefu hčer duhovnika drugega boga, na primer Seta, ki je bil za Hikse pomembnejše božanstvo kot sončna božanstva, ki so jih častili domorodni Egipčani.

Opozoriti pa je treba, da Hiksi niso nikakor zatirali čaščenja Reja, boga sonca On. Tudi zagovorniki datuma 12. dinastije za Jožefa trdijo, da se mora, ko je Jožef poklican iz zapora, da bi se srečal s faraonom v 1. Mojzesovi 41:14, obriti in obleči čista oblačila. To bi odražalo domače egipčanske običaje in ne običajev siro-palestinskih Hiksov.

Argument, ki je bil uporabljen za datiranje Jožefa v obdobje Hiksosa, je omemba vozov v poročilu o Jožefovem napredovanju in nagrajevanju s strani faraona. Pogosto se poudarja, da se je faraonovo darilo Jožefu najbolje ujelo v drugo vmesno obdobje in ne v prejšnje Srednje kraljestvo.

Toda ali moramo to vozilo, ki ga uporablja visoki državni uradnik za prevoz, povezati z vojnimi vozički? Nothing is said in the Joseph Story about chariots being used in battle, and in fact the chariot given to Joseph is called the second chariot of Pharaoh, thus leaving the impression that there were not many of them. When a horse was found by the excavators of the fortress of Buhen, from a period well before the Egyptians began to use chariots for war, the conclusion of the archeologists was that “It is likely that, at least in the early periods, horses were owned by the most top-ranking members of society and that they were only used for drawing chariots on state occasions” (Emery, Smith and Millard 1979: 194 cf. B. Wood 1993).

Lastly, mention ought to be made of a papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum and published by William C. Hayes (1955). This late Middle Kingdom document is of great importance for study of the Joseph Story, and can only be summarized here. It contains information on Asiatic slaves in Egypt during the late Middle Kingdom, only a few generations after Joseph, assuming a 12th Dynasty date for him. The most striking thing about these Asiatic slaves is that one of the most common jobs they were assigned was household servant, just like Joseph (Hayes 1955:103). Joseph's servitude thus fits the pattern for the Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian history.

Our purpose here, assuming a 12th Dynasty date for Joseph to be most in accord with the Scriptural chronology, is to examine what new evidence there may be that would both support and further illustrate a career for Joseph in the Middle Kingdom. But first let us note an area for further research, involving the seven years of plenty followed by the seven years of famine so important to the Joseph Story.

About 20 years ago Barbara Bell studied the 12th Dynasty Egyptian records of Nile levels at the Middle Kingdom Nubian forts (1975). Collating this information with an analysis of statuary, and with the well-known literary work entitled The Complaint of Khahkeperre-Seneb,[9] Bell concludes that the mid-12th Dynasty suffered erratic Nile levels which caused crop failure and the resultant social disruption mirrored in the Complaint.

One might ask why an unusually high Nile would hurt crops Bell's answer is that under such conditions it would take longer for the water to drain off the fields, and would thus impede the year's planting. As more information comes to light and as our knowledge of Nile fluctuations becomes more complete, we may be better able to consider Joseph's famine in a 12th Dynasty context.

In recent years our archeological knowledge of the Nile delta has increased significantly. Much of this advance is due to the work of the Austrians under Manfred Bietak at Tell el Daba Khatana-Qantir. This region is now the accepted location of the Biblical city of Ramses and the earlier Hyksos capital of Avaris. Our knowledge of the northeast delta and Asiatic influence in the region is much greater than it was 20 years ago. One discovery, made by Bietak's team between 1984 and 1987 and pointed out recently by John J. Bimson, is of extreme significance for the 12th Dynasty historicity of the Joseph Story (Bietak 1990).

A palace and accompanying garden dating to the 12th Dynasty were found. There is no evidence that the palace was any kind of royal residence Bietak hypothesizes on the basis of inscriptional material that it was the headquarters of an official who supervised trade and mining expeditions across the northeastern border (Bietak 1990: 69).

But what is most interesting about this find is the cemetery located in the palace garden, and particularly one of the tombs in it. All of the other graves (there are approximately 12 altogether) seem to date to a slightly later period, perhaps the early years of Dynasty 13, and were on the basis of their orientation, definitely not part of the original palace-garden complex. But the largest and most impressive tomb of the lot, consisting of a single brick chamber with a small chapel in front of it, was oriented to the structures of stratum E (early-to-middle 12th Dynasty) (Bietak 1990: 61).

While the tomb had been robbed and badly damaged, a most interesting find was discovered in the robbers' tunnel between the tomb chamber and the chapel. A statue, almost certainly of one of the officials who lived in the palace in the late years of the 12th Dynasty, had been removed (probably from the tomb chapel) and had been smashed to pieces. All that remain are a few fragments of the head the facial features have been very deliberately destroyed. The statue was approximately 1½ times life size, and exhibits no characteristics of a royal personage. But the most interesting thing is that this official was clearly an Asiatic. This is demonstrated by the yellow coloration of the skin, which was, as Bietak observes, typical for the depiction of male Asiatics, and by another Asiatic feature, the so-called Mushroom hairstyle which the statue had (Bietak 1990: 61-64).

The significance of this find for a 12th Dynasty setting of the Joseph Story is obvious. As John Bimson has observed,[10] there is not enough evidence to claim with any degree of certainty that the tomb of Joseph has been found, or that a statue of the famed Biblical character has been found. But it is clear that this man, without doubt a Canaanite of some kind, became a very important official in the Egyptian government. He was important enough to have lived in a major palace complex and to have equipped a tomb for himself in its garden, and to have commissioned a more than life-sized statue of himself for his tomb chapel.

This demonstrates that an Asiatic could indeed rise to a position of prominence in an earlier period than the days of Hyksos rule, and allows us to accept the possibility, which I believe to be the case, that Joseph served a king of the Middle Kingdom at almost exactly the same time as did this Canaanite.

The next issues to be addressed are Joseph's titles after his rise to importance in the Egyptian court. What office or offices did he hold? And is there room for him among the known holders of these offices in Dynasty 12?

Genesis 45:8 is a key reference. I believe, as I have pointed out elsewhere (Aling 1981:47-48), that three distinct titles and/or epithets are mentioned in this verse.

“Father to Pharaoh” should be associated with the Egyptian title “God's Father,” where the term “God” refers to the king. This title evidently had several usages, some of which can be quickly eliminated in the case of Joseph. He was not a priest, nor did a daughter of his enter the harim of the Pharaoh. These are meanings of this title, but neither fits Joseph. The best explanation is to view him as having been honored with this title as a sort of Elder Statesman, a common use of the title “God's Father” in the Middle and New Kingdoms.

A second title in Genesis 45:8 is “Lord of All His (the king's) Household.” There is some disagreement among scholars as to the Egyptian equivalent of this phrase. Some would interpret it as some sort of palace overseer or court chamberlain. The closest Egyptian title however seems to be [imy-r pr wr, Chief Steward of the King, or more literally the Chief Overseer of the House, with the term “house” referring to the personal estates of the king.

The Egyptian title usually translated Chamberlain, [imy-r 'hnwty n pr- nsw, translates Overseer of the Interior of the King's House and does not seem to fit either the Biblical phrase or the context of the Joseph Story. Joseph had, after his interpretation of the king's dream, advised Pharaoh regarding agricultural matters relating to the future years of plenty and the following famine. It seems most natural, in light of the king's response, for Joseph to be given a post that was connected with agriculture, as that of Chief Steward of the King certainly was.

The chamberlain had no such function. The title “Chief Steward of the King” is common in the Middle Kingdom. William Ward, in his Index of Egyptian Administrative and Religious Titles of the Middle Kingdom, cites over 20 examples of the title in various publications, without attempting to enumerate all the occurrences in the major museums of the world (1982: 22, n. 141).

Franke, in his Personendaten Aus Dem Mittleren Reich, presents dossiers of 19 Chief Stewards (1984: 17). Allan Gardiner said that the office was second in importance only to that of Vizier (1947:45*-46*). The duties of the Chief Steward are known from New Kingdom texts and from the 11th Dynasty biographical text of the chief Steward Henunu preserved in his tomb at Deir el Bahri (Hayes 1949). This official was administrator of the royal estates, supervisor of royal granaries, and overseer of royal flocks and herds. Henunu was also involved in taxation, supplying certain parts of Upper Egypt with provisions, construction of the royal tomb, collection of tribute from Beduin tribes, and procuring cedar wood from Syria.

Joseph would have been very qualified to perform most of these tasks the ones connected with agriculture and taxation would certainly fit the context of the Biblical story. It is therefore best to agree with Vergote (1959: 98ff) and Ward (1960:146-47) that Joseph was Chief Steward of the King.

The greatest debate concerning Joseph's titles centers around that of Vizier. William Ward has argued against the idea that Joseph was ever Vizier of Egypt (1960:148-50 1957). He views several of the descriptive phrases used about Joseph in the Old Testament as Hebrew equivalents of general Egyptian platitudes that could be applied to any middle level official. The problem with this is that direct equation does not appear strong. An example is the phrase in Genesis 41:40, “Only in the throne will I be greater than you.” Ward equates this with the Egyptian epithet “Favorite of the Lord of the Two Lands” (1960:148). To me such an equation is weak.

I find a number of phrases describing Joseph and the duties performed by Joseph that would fit only the Vizier, who was in the Middle Kingdom the single most powerful man in the kingdom aside from the sovereign himself. Let us note these and a few other points:

Genesis 41:40, “Only in the throne will I be greater than you.” This was true of only one person, the Vizier.

Genesis 41:41, “I have set you over all the land of Egypt.”

When Joseph's brothers came to Egypt for food during the famine, Joseph was the official they met. At least in the New Kingdom, a period about which we are far better informed, the Vizier was the official who met foreign delegations (Hayes 1966: 46). It may have been the same in the Middle Kingdom.

In Genesis 47:20 ff., we have the curious story of the purchase of the land of the nobility of Egypt by the king. Joseph is the supervisor of the process. It seems most natural to view him as a powerful Vizier during this episode and not as some lower official, since ultimate responsibility over lesser governmental officials rested with the Vizier. This incident is most probably the Biblical version of the weakening of the provincial Nomarchs, which took place in about the middle of the reign of Sesostris III.

After about 1860 BC, we hear no more of them. G.P.F. van den Boorn has in his book, The Duties of the Vizier, discussed the Vizier's responsibilities during the New Kingdom as presented in Rekhmire's tomb dating to Dynasty 18 (1988). From van den Boorn's study we get the impression that the Vizier was indeed second only to the Pharaoh as ruler of Egypt.

In summary, we find that the Vizier was managing director of the king's palace complex, head of the civil administration, and the general deputy of the king. These kinds of duties fit well with the concept of Joseph as second in command of the realm, even allowing for the fact that van den Boorn's text is New Kingdom rather than Middle Kingdom.

If we accept as probable that Joseph was Vizier, we next have to ask if there is room for him in the list of Viziers of the Middle Kingdom, and if there is any evidence of his holding that post. Let it be said at the outset that we do not have all the information we would like to have regarding the Vizierate, or regarding any non-royal title, from the Middle Kingdom. Great gaps in our knowledge exist.

The most recent attempt to list all the known Viziers of Dynasty 12 was made by Detlef Franke in 1984 his list includes 13 names for the roughly 200 years the dynasty was in power. Some of the individuals in Franke's list may not have actually served their titles may have been honorary. Furthermore, there are a number of Viziers who probably belong in the 12th Dynasty but cannot be placed with any certainty.

One final general observation should be made. It seems certain, thanks to the work of William Kelly Simpson, that Middle Kingdom Viziers could serve under more than one king (1957: 29). They were not automatically removed when the throne changed hands.

We cannot at this time discuss the Viziers of the entire 12th Dynasty, but will only examine the reigns of Sesostris II and III, 1897-1843 BC. The earliest complete study of the institution of the Vizierate in ancient Egypt was that of Arthur Weil, published in 1908. This monumental work is to a marked degree out of date today, but still remains useful. Although Weil has a number of undatable Viziers, his 12th Dynasty list has no one beyond Year 8 of Amenemhat II, ca. 1920 BC. No Vizier was known from the reigns of either Sesostris II or his son and successor Sesostris III.

In 1957, William Kelly Simpson called attention to the existence of two viziers of Sesostris III, both of whom had tombs near the pyramid of that king at Dahshur. The first, a masataba called number 17, was said by its excavator De Morgan to be the tomb of a high official of the king's court. The location of the tomb makes it certain that that king was Sesostris III.

De Morgan did not find the name or titles of the tomb owner, but fragments did exist. Simpson cites an offering table which has part of a name, [Sbk m… Another fragment preserves the last portion of the name, …[m-h3t (1957: 26). The official was thus Sebekemhat.

Simpson also discovered that the man's titles were those of a serving Vizier, including Vizier and Overseer of the City, meaning the capital. This last is a common title for Viziers on into the New Kingdom. This Vizier of Sesostris III was totally unknown to Weil.

Simpson also cites another masataba near the pyramid of Sesostris III, number 2 (1957: 27). It is located to the northwest of tomb 17, and was also the tomb of an important official. The name is preserved it is Khnumhotep. Weil knew of him, and knew that he was a Vizier, but wrongly dated him (with a question mark) to one of the Amenemhats. The location of Khnumhotep's tomb shows that he, like Sebekemhat, in all probability served under Sesostris III. Simpson in his paper on these two officials also states that neither was a nomarch, and that their service seems to have been actual they did not hold the title only honorarily.

The next study of the Middle Kingdom Vizierate was that of Michel Valloggia in 1974. He lists the same two Viziers as Simpson for the reign of Sesostris III. There is another Vizier who may fit in this period, since his name is Senwosret-ankh, or “Sesostris Lives,” thus incorporating the name of a 12th Dynasty king into his name. He is known from a statue found at Ugarit and now in the Louvre, and from a stele in Florence.

Could he have served in our period? It is not likely for two reasons. Valloggia (1974: 131-32 132, n. 4), citing Vandier, states that artistically the statue fits best in the late 12th Dynasty and not the middle. Further, names are of course given at birth, so a man named after either Sesostris II or III would probably serve later than those reigns or at least later than the transition between them. It is best to date him to the later years of the dynasty.

Franke in 1984 published a compilation of dossiers of Middle Kingdom officials (Bietak 1990: 61). This has been and will continue to be a useful tool for Middle Kingdom prosopography for years to come. In his introduction Franke discusses key offices such as that of Vizier, and lists all those known to him. This is the most recent listing that has been compiled. He acknowledges Sebekemhat and Knumhotep for the reign of Sesostris III, but, of course, we still do not know the order in which they served.

Interestingly, he adds, with a question mark, Ameny the son of Smy-ib for the late years of Sesostris II and the early years of Sesostris III (Franke 1984:18). This is the first attempt of which I am aware to place any known Vizier in the reign of Sesostris II. Franke gives no reason, other than the existence of a gap here, for this dating, and he admits that the statue of Ameny may be from a later time. At this point there is not enough evidence to place Ameny during the transition from Sesostris II to Sesostris III with any degree of certainty.

For the 50-odd years of the reigns of Sesostris II and III we therefore have two Viziers, Sebekemhat and Khnumhotep, both of whom should be dated to the reign of the later Sesostris. We have a possible Vizier, Ameny, for the earlier part of this period, but we cannot date him here with any certainty. There is, therefore, plenty of room for Joseph to have served in the 12th Dynasty.

His long life span does not make his service unlikely he need not have continued to hold this high office until his death. Before we proceed further, let me state that there is no reason to conclude that either Sebekemhat or Khnumhotep was Joseph. There appears to be no similarity between their names and the Hebrew version of Joseph's Egyptian name given in the book of Genesis. But there is one interesting thing about the titles held by one of these two Middle Kingdom Viziers.

Khnumhotep held both the titles Vizier and Chief Steward of the King (Weil 1908: 44, no. 11). He is, to my knowledge, the only person in the Middle Kingdom to have done so. Nor was this done in other periods of Egyptian history. As stated above, I do not argue that this personage was Joseph but it seems possible that the idea of one person holding both these posts could be patterned after Joseph.

Perhaps, if Joseph was Vizier and Chief Steward in the last years of Sesostris II and the early years of Sesostris III, it is conceivable that after Joseph's retirement, Khnumhotep could have also have been granted both of these high court positions. We at the very least see that the combination is a possibility in the Middle Kingdom.

In conclusion, we have attempted to make the case that Joseph's career fits quite well in Dynasty 12, both Biblically and historically, and that there is no good reason to try to place him in the later Second Intermediate Period. He did, I believe, make a significant impact on Egyptian history, an impact which is reflected in events such as the breaking of the power of the Nomarchs and the combining of the offices of Vizier and Chief Steward of the King. As our knowledge of the Middle Kingdom increases, and as new archeological information from the delta is discovered and published, we can expect to understand both the Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period better, and we can expect to expand our knowledge of the Egyptian background of the Story of Joseph.


What is the story of Joseph and his brothers?

Joseph was the second youngest of twelve brothers born to Jacob, who was called Israel. In Genesis 37:3&ndash4 we read, “Now Israel loved Joseph more than any of his other sons, because he had been born to him in his old age and he made an ornate robe for him. When his brothers saw that their father loved him more than any of them, they hated him and could not speak a kind word to him.” The same passage also discusses two dreams Joseph had that angered his brothers the dreams indicated his brothers would someday bow to him. Joseph’s brothers also despised him due to their father’s overt favoritism toward him.

One day, Joseph traveled to check on his brothers while they were watching their sheep. His brothers plotted against him, threw him in an empty well, and later sold him as a slave to some traveling Midianites. Applying animal blood to his “ornate robe,” they returned home and made Jacob believe his son had been killed by wild animals.

In the meantime, Joseph was taken to Egypt and sold to the captain of the guard, Potiphar, as a household slave. Joseph was later falsely accused of attempting to rape Potiphar’s wife and thrown into prison. While in prison, Joseph accurately interpreted the dreams of two of Pharaoh’s servants, who were also incarcerated. Later, Pharaoh had a disturbing dream no one could interpret. One of the servants Joseph had previously helped then suggested to Pharaoh that Joseph could interpret the dream. Joseph was summoned from prison, and he interpreted Pharaoh’s dream in such a powerful way that he was appointed second-in-command over Egypt.

Pharaoh’s dream predicted seven years of famine. During the famine, Joseph’s older brothers came to Egypt to buy food. They did not recognize Joseph, now twenty years older, and he treated them harshly, pretending that he thought they were spies. Joseph kept one brother in prison until the others brought their youngest brother, Benjamin, back to Egypt to prove they were not spies. They brought Benjamin with them on a return trip, and, after a series of twists that included his brothers bowing before him&mdashin fulfillment of Joseph’s dream of long ago&mdashJoseph revealed himself to his brothers. They were shocked, yet soon glad to be reunited. Joseph sent word for the entire family to join them in Egypt until after the famine.

Later, when their father, Jacob, died, Joseph’s brothers feared that Joseph would take revenge against them for their prior treatment of him. They came to Joseph and begged for his forgiveness, appealing to a request their father had made before he died (Genesis 50:16&ndash17) Joseph wept when he heard their appeal. Revenge was the last thing on his mind. Joseph said to them, “Don’t be afraid. Am I in the place of God? You intended to harm me, but God intended it for good to accomplish what is now being done, the saving of many lives” (Genesis 50:19&ndash20).

In the story of Joseph and his brothers, we see the themes of forgiveness, the father-son bond, sibling rivalry, brotherly love, God’s sovereignty, and God’s greater good in times of suffering. Just like Joseph, we are called to forgive those who have offended us and see life’s experiences as part of God’s plan to help us serve others.


What Does the Coat of Many Colors Mean for Us?

So what? We may ask. Why should we care about a coat Joseph wore thousands of years ago?

We should care about the coat for a variety of reasons.

First, the coat illuminates how generations can often repeat the same mistakes as their parents. Jacob had felt slighted because Isaac favored Esau over him. If anyone should understand the frustration of favoritism, it should’ve been him.

But instead of breaking the cycle, he ups the ante.

When we read this passage, we should ask ourselves what bad habits we’ve picked up from our families and how they’ve driven a wedge into our relationships. We should exercise more awareness than Jacob had.

Second, this passage should serve as a cautionary tale about what happens when we exercise favoritism (James 2). This doesn’t just apply to families.

Do we show preferential treatment to those with wealth, to those with a large social media platform, to those who can grant us opportunities?

And conversely, how poorly do we treat those who are not our “favorites,” who don’t have positions of power or serve in a job we may deem to be lowly?

How often do we give out ornate coats to our favorites?

This passage helps us to analyze where we fall short in our own lives and how we can show God’s love to everyone equally.

Finally, we know that Josephus also catalogs this event. Most people do assert the authority of Josephus as a historian. The Jewish people had a strong heritage that stemmed from the events of the coat of many colors. This story would have been woven into the very fabric of their nation. They took it very seriously, and so should we as Christians now.

Photo Credit: ©iStock/Getty Images Plus/tatyana_tomsickova

Hope Bolinger is an editor at Salem, a multi-published novelist, and a graduate of Taylor University's professional writing program. More than 1,100 of her works have been featured in various publications ranging from Writer's Digest do Keys for Kids. She has worked for various publishing companies, magazines, newspapers, and literary agencies and has edited the work of authors such as Jerry B. Jenkins and Michelle Medlock Adams. Her modern-day Daniel trilogy released its first two installments with IlluminateYA, and the final one, Vision, releases in August of 2021. She is also the co-author of the Dear Hero duology, which was published by INtense Publications. And her inspirational adult romance Picture Imperfect releases in November of 2021. Find out more about her at her website.

This article is part of our People of Christianity catalog that features the stories, meaning, and significance of well-known people from the Bible and history. Here are some of the most popular articles for knowing important figures in Christianity:


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