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Missouri 2016 - zgodovina

Missouri 2016 - zgodovina


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Zgodovina

Kot zgodovinarji vemo, da so črnci v naši državi podvrženi nasilnemu rasizmu, ki se je začel že več kot 150 let prej deklaracija o neodvisnosti je imela en sam podpis. Ne moremo - ne smemo - prezreti, da naša zgodovina vsebuje takšne travestije, kot so atlantski prehod, suženjstvo, linčovanje, zakoni Jima Crowa, odvzem pravice do pravice, ponovni red, množično zapiranje in policijska brutalnost in še veliko več. Sistemski rasizem ni le del naše zgodovine. Danes živi v naših skupnostih.

Stojimo skupaj s tistimi, ki se borijo za izkoreninjenje struktur rasizma in krivice zaradi nedavnih umorov Georgea Floyda, Breone Taylor, Tonyja McDadeja, Ahmauda Arberyja in mnogih drugih. Skupaj z Ameriškim zgodovinskim združenjem, Združenjem za preučevanje afriškoameriškega življenja in zgodovine ter Organizacijo ameriških zgodovinarjev pozivamo vse člane naše skupnosti v kampusu, naj preučijo težke dele preteklosti naše države. Nenehno se moramo izobraževati in poslušati drug drugega, zlasti glasove temnopoltih študentov in alumnov, ki so v svojem kampusu delili svoje izkušnje z rasizmom in izključenostjo.

Zgodovina nas tudi spominja, da je sprememba možna, če se za to trudimo. Nedvoumno trdimo, da je življenje črncev pomembno.


Trg zdravstvenega zavarovanja v Missouriju: zgodovina in novice o državni menjavi

Državni park Roaring River, blizu Cassvillea, Missouri | Slika: Kyle Spradley / stock.adobe.com

Poudarki in posodobitve

    (za vpis ali spremembo načrta ni potreben kvalifikacijski dogodek) (plus pogled na to, kako so se premije skozi čas spreminjale pri menjavi Missouri ’s). , višji od vpisa leta 2020, vendar se je znižal z najvišjih 290.000 v letu 2016. z začetnimi roki do šestih mesecev. v Kansas Cityju za leto 2019 so se trije novi zavarovalnici pridružili leta 2020, Blue KC pa se je vrnil leta 2021 (in več podrobnosti o tem, kako se je udeležba zavarovalnice sčasoma spremenila na borzi Missouri ’s).
  • Poslanci so zavrnili predlog zakona, ki bi ustvaril pozavarovalni program za leto 2019.
  • Od načrtov za leto 2018 je Missouri postala učinkovita država za pregled obrestnih mer, kar pomeni, da državni uradniki (namesto zvezne vlade) pregledajo in odobrijo predlagane stopnje in načrte.

Pregled izmenjave Missouri

Missouri uporablja zvezno olajšano tržnico, kar pomeni, da se prebivalci vpišejo na HealthCare.gov, če želijo načrt prek borze. Osem zavarovalnic ponuja načrte na trgu Missouri od leta 2021, 215.311 ljudi pa se je v času odprtega vpisnega obdobja za pokritost leta 2021 vpisalo v načrte prek tržnice.

Kdaj se lahko vpišem v zdravstveno zavarovanje v Missouriju?

Običajno je vpis na voljo le med letnim odprtim obdobjem vpisa jeseni ali med posebnim obdobjem vpisa, ki ga sproži kvalifikacijski dogodek. Toda leta 2021 obstaja enkratna vpisna doba, povezana s COVID-om, ki se nadaljuje do 15. avgusta.

Prebivalci Missourija lahko s tem oknom prvič vstopijo v kritje, preidejo iz načrta zunaj borze na načrt na borzi ali preidejo iz enega načrta izmenjave v drugega. Vse to bi bilo morda potrebno, da bi najbolje izkoristili izboljšave premijskih subvencij, ki jih ponuja ameriški reševalni načrt, saj so subvencije leta 2021 večje in na voljo širše kot v preteklih letih.

Stopnje in načrti za leto 2021: Povprečno povečanje obrestne mere za približno 4,7%, plus Blue KC se je vrnil na posamezni trg in druga zavarovalnica je razširila območja kritja

Kot je opisano spodaj, je Blue KC (Blue Cross Blue Shield iz Kansas Cityja) prej ponudil individualno pokritost trga v Missouriju, vendar je konec leta 2017 zapustil celoten posamezen trg, skladen z ACA (na borzi in zunaj nje), pri čemer je ohranil samo vnuk in veljavni načrti. Za leto 2021 pa se je Blue KC vrnil na individualni trg v Missouriju, tako na borzi kot na borzi. Načrte ponujajo v istih 30 okrožjih v zahodnem Missouriju, kjer so prej ponujali individualno pokritost trga.

Medica je tudi do leta 2021 drastično razširila svojo pokritost in načrte ponuja v 46 okrožjih (v primerjavi s samo 13 v letu 2020).

Anthem (Health Alliance Life Insurance) se je za leto 2021 razširil na območje St.

Naslednje spremembe povprečnega tečaja so bile za leto 2021 izvedene za osem zavarovalnic na posameznem trgu Missourija in vse ponujajo načrte na borzi in na borzi:

  • Himna (življenjsko zavarovanje Healthy Alliance): 1,4% zmanjšati
  • Cigna: 1,3 -odstotno povečanje
  • Ambetter/Keltski (Centene): 9,1 -odstotno povečanje
  • Medica: 7,5% zmanjšati
  • SSM/WellFirst: 0,5% zmanjšati
  • Cox: 13,6 -odstotno povečanje
  • Oskar: 6,4 -odstotno povečanje
  • Blue KC (Blue Cross Blue Shield of Kansas City): Novo na trgu za leto 2021, zato ni veljavne spremembe tečaja

Skupna sprememba povprečne obrestne mere za leto 2021 je bila za posamezne tržne premije 4,7 -odstotna. Zemljevid pričakovane udeležbe zavarovalnic za leto 2021 je na voljo tukaj, seznam okrožij, ki prikazuje področja storitev vsakega zavarovalca, pa tukaj.

Kot vedno se spremembe premij nanašajo na premije po polni ceni, preden se uporabijo subvencije. Večina vpisanih na tržnici Missourija pa prejme subvencije za premije, ki izravnajo nekatere ali vse stroške njihovega kritja. Subvencije so leta 2021 po ameriškem načrtu reševanja večje in širše dostopne.

Za perspektivo, tukaj je povzetek, kako so se premije spreminjale na trgu Missouri v prejšnjih letih:

  • 2016: Povprečno povečanje za 13,9% Po orodju za pregled tečajev Healthcare.gov ’s so se povprečne spremembe tečaja za leto 2016 na borzi Missouri ’ gibale od zmanjšanja za približno 2% do povečanja za približno 30%, kar je skupno povprečno povečanje za 13,9 odstotka.
  • 2017: Povprečno povečanje za 25,5% Štirje prevozniki, ki so ponujali načrte prek borze v Missouriju, so imeli povprečno zvišanje tečaja, ki se je gibalo od 9% do skoraj 41%, kar je skupno povprečno povečanje za 25,5 odstotka.
  • 2018: Povprečno povečanje za približno 40% Pred letom 2018 se je Missouri odložil zvezni vladi za pregled obrestnih mer za individualno tržno zavarovanje, skladno z ACA. Toda to se je leta 2017 spremenilo z novo državno zakonodajo, državne stopnje zavarovanja pa so pregledale in odobrile stopnje leta 2018. Udeležba na borzi Missouri ’s se je za leto 2018 znižala na tri zavarovalnice (Humana in Blue KC sta zapustila trg, pridružila pa sta se mu Celtic/Ambetter). Skupno povprečno povečanje obrestnih mer za dva obstoječa zavarovalnika (Cigna in Anthem) je znašalo skupno povprečno povečanje za približno 40 odstotkov.
    Vsi trije zavarovatelji so v svojih vlogah za obrestne mere navedli, da temeljijo na stopnjah za leto 2018 na predpostavki, da bodo zvezna sredstva za zmanjšanje stroškov delnic (CSR, subvencije za delitev stroškov) do leta 2018 odpravljena (to se je izkazalo za pravilno predpostavko, saj Trumpova administracija je oktobra 2017 prekinila financiranje družbene odgovornosti podjetij). Zavarovatelji morajo še vedno zagotoviti znižanje delitve stroškov upravičenim vpisnikom, vendar so bili stroški tega vključeni v premije za leto 2018, saj zvezna vlada teh stroškov za zavarovalnice ne pokriva več.

Ker pa so bili premije k srebrnemu načrtu dodani stroški zmanjšanja delitve stroškov (CSR) (tako je tudi v letu 2019) in ker zneski subvencij premij temeljijo na stroških srebrnega načrta, so bile subvencije za premije precej večje 2018 kot v letu 2017.

Vpis na izmenjavo v Missouriju: 2014-2021

215.311 ljudi se je v okviru odprtega vpisnega obdobja za obdobje 2021 vpisalo v zasebne načrte prek izmenjave v Missouriju, v primerjavi z 202.750 leto prej (vendar še vedno precej nižje od več kot 290.000, ki so se za leto 2016 vpisali na kritje). Število vpisov se bo verjetno povečalo v večjem delu leta 2021 zaradi enkratnega obdobja vpisa, povezanega s COVID-om, ki se nadaljuje do 15. avgusta.

Za perspektivo si oglejte številke predhodnih vpisov v izmenjavo Missouri ’s:

  • 2014: Vpisanih je 152.335 ljudi
  • 2015: Vpisanih je 253.430 ljudi
  • 2016Vpisanih: 290.201 oseb
  • 2017: Vpisanih je 244.382 ljudi.
  • 2018: Vpisanih je 243.382 ljudi.
  • 2019: Vpisanih je 220.461 ljudi
  • 2020: Vpisanih je 202.750 ljudi
  • 2021: Vpisanih je 215.311 ljudi

Po vsej državi se je v 2017 vpis zmanjšal za približno 5%, čeprav se je vpis v Missouri ’s zmanjšal močneje, za približno 16%. Padec vpisa v letih 2017 in 2018 je bil posledica različnih dejavnikov, vključno z negotovostjo glede prizadevanj GOP za razveljavitev ACA, odločitve Trumpove administracije, da bo močno zmanjšala sredstva za borzno trženje in pomoč pri vpisu, ter močnega povečanja premij za ljudi, ki niso & #8217t upravičen do subvencij za premije (do teh zvišanj je deloma prišlo zaradi nestabilnosti trga, ki so jo povzročila prizadevanja GOP za razveljavitev ACA). Leta 2018 se je v državi v povprečju zmanjšal vpis za približno 5%. Vpis se je po vsej državi leta 2021 povečal prvič po nekaj letih, tako je bilo tudi v Missouriju.

Spremembe udeležbe zavarovalnice pri menjavi Missouri ’s skozi čas

Aetnina hčerinska družba Coventry je na borzi v Missouriju ponujala načrte do konca leta 2016, vendar je dva tedna pred začetkom odprtega vpisa za kritje leta 2017 nenadoma zapustila borzni trg. Z oddelkom za zavarovanje Missourija sem se leta 2016 pogovarjal o tržnem deležu Coventryja#8217 in rekli so, da se je velikost posameznega trga “eksplodirala ” v Missouriju in da je Coventry pobral nesorazmerno število novih vpisnikov, ker so bile njihove stopnje med najnižjimi v državi.

UnitedHealthcare je konec leta 2016 tudi zapustil borzo v Missouriju in prenehal prodajati posamezne tržne načrte, skladne z ACA, na borzi ali zunaj nje.

Tako je imela menjava Missouri ’s štiri sodelujoče zavarovalnice za leto 2017. Toda dva izmed njih - Humana in Blue KC - sta napovedala, da bosta konec leta 2017 zapustila borzo, in nista ponudila načrtov za leto 2018. Druga dva - himna (zdrava Alliance Life) in Cigna - sta še naprej ponujali pokritost na borzi (udeležba družbe Cigna ’ je bila omejena na 10 okrožij na območju St. Louis in pet okrožij na območju Kansas City).

V 25 okrožjih v zahodnem Missouriju je bližajoči se izstop Blue KC-ja na začetku pomenil, da v letu 2018 ni bilo zavarovalnic, ki bi ponudile kritje menjalnih tečajev (vse razen petih okrožij na območju Kansas Cityja, kjer je kritje ponujala tudi Cigna). Blue KC je v svoji napovedi opozoril, da so do leta 2016 izgubili več kot 100 milijonov dolarjev na svojih individualnih tržnih načrtih, skladnih z ACA, izgube pa označili za nevzdržne.

Blue KC je iskal in dobil izvzetje od petletne prepovedi ponovnega vstopa na trg po izstopu (prepoved ponovnega vstopa je uredba HIPAA, ki dolgo pred datumom ACA). Ker so Blue KC še naprej obnavljali svoje starševske načrte in starše, njihov izstop s posameznega trga, ki je skladen z ACA, ni veljal za popoln izstop s trga, kar jim je omogočilo, da lahko kadar koli v prihodnosti znova prodajajo posamezne tržne načrte (ponovno se pridružijo posamezniku na trgu za leto 2021, tako na borzi kot na borzi).

Junija 2017 je direktorica zavarovalništva Missouri Chlora Lindley-Myers napovedala, da se bo Ambetter/Celtic Insurance (družba Centene) pridružila borzi za leto 2018, in bo ponudila kritje v vseh 25 okrožjih, ki bi sicer ostala brez zavarovalnice v po izhodu Blue KC ’. Skupno sta Ambetter/Celtic leta 2018 ponudila načrte izmenjave v 40 okrožjih v Missouriju.

Menjava Missourija se je leta 2018 s štirih zavarovalnic znižala na tri

Tako je imela menjava Missouri ’s leta 2018 tri zavarovalnice: Anthem (življenjsko zavarovanje zdrave zveze), Cigna in Ambetter/Celtic (Centene). Toda to se je za leto 2019 povečalo na štiri, pri čemer je Medica ’s junija 2018 objavila, da se nameravajo pridružiti izmenjavi Missouri na območju Kansas Cityja (okrožja Cass, Clay, Jackson in Platte) od leta 2019. Medica je začela ponujati načrte za Kansas strani območja Kansas City leta 2018 in se razširil na stran Missouri za 2019.

Ministrstvo za zavarovanje v Missouriju je ustvarilo zemljevid, ki prikazuje območja pokritja štirih posameznih zavarovalnic na trgu za leto 2019 (načrti so na voljo tako na borzi kot zunaj nje). V štirih okrožjih na območju Kansas City so načrti na voljo pri treh zavarovalnicah (Cigna, Medica in Ambetter/Celtic).

Potrošniki na območju St. Louis so lahko leta 2019 izbirali med dvema zavarovalnicama, prav tako lahko potrošniki na jugozahodu Missourija. Toda večina podeželskih območij države je še naprej imela samo enega zavarovalnika, ki ponuja načrte - v večini primerov bodisi Anthem (Zdravo življenje zaveznikov) bodisi Keltsko/Ambetter.

Pokritost himne in#8217 se je leta 2018 skrčila, leta 2019 pa se je razširila

Do konca leta 2017 je Anthem ponujal načrte izmenjave v večini Missourija - povsod, razen v 30 zahodnih okrožjih, ki jih je oskrboval Blue KC. Za leto 2018 pa se je udeležba Anthem ’ zmanjšala na 68 okrožij (celoten seznam je v sporočilu za javnost), zavarovalnica pa je ugotovila, da gre za vse okraje, ki sicer ne bi imeli zavarovalnic, ki bi nudile kritje.

Med območji, na katerih je himna izstopila, sta bila okrožje Boone (Columbia) in območje St. Na obeh področjih so bili načrti Cigne na voljo za leto 2019.

Himna je zapustila teh 16 okrožij: Barry, Boone, Christian, Franklin, Greene, Jasper, Jefferson, Lawrence, Lincoln, Newton, Saint Charles, Saint Francois, Saint Louis, Sainte Genevieve, Warren in Washington. Za leto 2019 pa je Anthem povečalo območje pokritosti na 76 okrožij in se vrnilo v okrožja Barry, Boone, Christian, Greene, Jasper, Lawrence, Newton in Saint Francois.

Trije novi zavarovalnici so se za leto 2020 pridružili tržnici Missouri ’

Poleg štirih obstoječih zavarovateljev so se za načrtovano leto 2020 borzi Missouri ’s pridružili še trije novi zavarovalnici:

  • Cox Health Systems je začel ponujati načrte EPO v sedmih okrožjih na območju Springfielda (Barry, Christian, Greene, Lawrence, Stone, Taney in Webster, ki so vsi na območju 8). Cox leta 2019 ni sodeloval na posameznem trgu v Missouriju, ponudili pa so načrte zunaj borze leta 2018. Za leto 2020 so vložitve Coxa in#8217s opozorile, da bodo njihovi načrti na voljo le prek borze, po napovedih pa naj bi jih bilo okoli 8000 ljudi.
  • Oscar Health je za leto 2020 začel ponujati kritje na borzi in zunaj nje na območju Kansas Cityja (okrožja Jackson, Clay in Platte). Prijave oskarjev#8217 so pokazale, da so pričakovali približno 2500 posameznih udeležencev na trgu za leto 2020. Oscar prej ni ponudil kritja na posameznem trgu Missourija.
  • Zdravstveno zavarovanje SSM (WellFirst) je začelo ponujati kritje na borzi in zunaj nje v okrožjih St. Charles, County Louis in St. Louis City, ki so vsi na bonitetnem območju 6. SSM je integriran sistem dostave z uveljavljeno prisotnostjo. na srednjem zahodu, vendar prej niso ponudili kritja na posameznem trgu Missourija.

Blue KC se leta 2021 vrne na zahodno tržnico Missourija

Vseh sedem obstoječih zavarovalnic še naprej ponuja kritje na borzi Missouri ’ leta 2021 z različnimi območji kritja, Blue KC pa se je vrnil na trg. Blue KC ponuja kritje v istih 30 zahodnih okrožjih Missourija, kjer so prej ponujali kritje.

Zakonodajalci so obravnavali zakonodajo za oblikovanje pozavarovalnega programa, vendar je niso sprejeli

Pozavarovanje se nanaša na sistem, v katerem lahko zavarovalnice prenesejo nekatere dragocene škode na tretjo osebo (pozavarovalni program). Pozavarovanje se začne, ko škoda doseže določeno raven, nato pa pozavarovalni program plača odstotek škode, dokler ne doseže druge določene stopnje. ACA je vključevala zvezni pozavarovalni program, vendar je bil začasen in je trajal le do leta 2016. Za preprečevanje naraščajočih premij in stabilizacijo lokalnih zavarovalnih trgov države vse bolj uveljavljajo svoj lastni program pozavarovanja. Od leta 2021 štirinajst držav prejema zvezna “ prehodna ” sredstva za pozavarovanje.

Pozavarovanje povzroči nižje celotne premije, kar pomeni, da so tudi subvencije premij nižje. Namesto da bi zvezna vlada prihranila prihranke pri subvencijah nižje premije, lahko država uporabi 1332 odstop, da prihranke prenese v državo. Nato država porabi denar za kritje večine stroškov izvajanja pozavarovalnega programa.

Zakonodajalci Missourija so leta 2018 obravnavali H.B.2539 / SB1071, vendar noben zakon ni dosegel celotnega glasovanja. Zakonodaja bi ponovno aktivirala nekdanji sklad zdravstvenega zavarovanja Missouri (državno združenje z visokim tveganjem pred ACA), vendar bi namesto tega postal pozavarovalni sklad Missouri. Pristojbine, ki so bile predhodno odmerjene zavarovalnicam v okviru MHIP, bi se začele znova uporabljati za financiranje pozavarovalnega programa. Med letoma 1991 in 2014 so prevozniki v Missouriju plačali povprečno skoraj 6,5 milijona dolarjev pristojbin za MHIP.

Poleg državnega financiranja bi zakonodaja državo naložila, naj zaprosi za opustitev 1332, da bi pridobila zvezne prihranke za financiranje pozavarovalnega programa, začenši leta 2019. V državah, ki so že prejele zvezna finančna sredstva za pozavarovanje zvezna sredstva krijejo večino stroškov programa.

Ker pa zakonodaja ni sprejela, Missouri ne prejema nobenega zveznega finančnega sredstva za pozavarovanje.

Med zasedanjem leta 2018 so poslanci v Missouriju zavrnili tudi račune, ki bi podaljšali dovoljeno trajanje kratkoročnih načrtov, razširili dostop do zdravstvenih načrtov združenja, razširili Medicaid in Medicaidu dodali delovno zahtevo.

Preglednost in pregled cen

Maja 2016 so poslanci v Missouriju soglasno sprejeli SB 865, guverner Nixon pa ga je podpisal v začetku julija. Novi zakon je pozval k številnim spremembam državnih sistemov zdravstvenega varstva, vključno z dodatno preglednostjo stopenj zdravstvenega zavarovanja.

Pred marcem 2017 je bila Missouri ena od štirih držav brez učinkovitega postopka preverjanja obrestnih mer za načrte, skladne z ACA (do aprila 2016, ko je Alabama izvedla postopek učinkovitega pregleda obrestnih mer, jih je bilo pet). Državni regulatorji niso imeli dejavne vloge pri pregledu predlaganih obrestnih mer, oddelek za zavarovanje Missourija pa sploh ni imel dostopa do vlog. Zvezna vlada (zlasti CCIIO – Center za informiranje potrošnikov in zavarovalni nadzor) je izvedla postopek pregleda stopnje za Missouri, stopnje pa so bile objavljene na strani za pregled cen Healthcare.gov ’s.

SB 865 daje državnim regulatorjem nekoliko več manevrskega prostora, vendar jim dejansko ne daje možnosti, da zanikajo spremembe obrestnih mer, ki niso upravičene. Po novem lahko regulatorji zdaj pregledajo in objavijo predloge za obrestne mere ter ugotovijo, ali so predlagane stopnje razumne. Če niso, bodo regulatorji o tem obvestili zdravstvene zavarovalnice, vendar bodo zavarovalnice še vedno imele možnost izvajanja predlaganih stopenj. V tem primeru bo država lahko objavila dejstvo, da so bile neupravičene tarife uveljavljene, vendar država ne bo imela pooblastila, da prevoznikom prepreči izvajanje stopenj, ki niso upravičene.

Treba je opozoriti, da je ta sistem CCIIO prej zagotovil v Missouriju. Zvezna vlada lahko ugotovi, ali so predlagane stopnje v državi upravičene, vendar zavarovalnicam ne more preprečiti uvedbe neupravičenih obrestnih mer. Zdaj, ko je SB 865 začel veljati, je država prevzela postopek, ki ga je prej vodil CCIIO.

CMS je 17. marca 2017 obvestil Missouri, da se šteje, da ima država učinkovit program pregleda obrestnih mer. Takrat so se le tri zvezne države - Oklahoma, Teksas in Wyoming - še vedno zanašale na CCIIO za pregled obrestnih mer, kar je še vedno tako.

Omejitve navigatorja zvezni sodnik trajno blokira

Missouri je ena od približno 15 držav, ki imajo za navigatorje bolj omejevalne zahteve glede usposabljanja in certificiranja, kot jih zahtevajo zvezni standardi. Zakonodaja Missourija navigatorjem tudi prepoveduje, da "svetujejo glede koristi, pogojev in značilnosti določenega zdravstvenega načrta ali svetujejo, kateri zdravstveni načrt za izmenjavo je boljši ali slabši za določenega posameznika ali delodajalca."

Več zdravstvenih zagovorniških skupin je izpodbijalo omejitev svetovanja, češ da je to osnovna funkcija navigatorjev. Januarja 2014 se je zvezni sodnik strinjal in izdal odredbo o ustavitvi izvrševanja zakona. Aprila 2015 se je strinjalo zvezno pritožbeno sodišče, ki je odločilo, da Missouri navigatorjem ne more omejiti, da bi ljudem pomagali pri vpisu v načrte prek Healthcare.gov.

Marca 2016 je zvezni sodnik trajno blokiral tri oddelke omejitev Missourija za navigatorje. Navigatorjem v Missouriju ni mogoče preprečiti svetovanja vpisnikom (upoštevajte, da je to omejeno na razlago razlik med nasveti o izbiri načrta, ki jih lahko zagotovi le pooblaščeni proizvajalec zavarovanj). Prav tako jim ni mogoče prepovedati razpravljanja o načrtih za menjavo s potrošniki. In končno, od navigatorjev ni mogoče zahtevati, da napotijo ​​trenutno zavarovane potrošnike, da poiščejo nasvet pri pooblaščenem proizvajalcu zavarovanj. Sodnik je opozoril, da naj bi bili navigatorji nepristranski in bi jih prisilili, da ljudi napotijo ​​k zavarovalnim zastopnikom - ki jim je dovoljeno priporočiti en načrt nad drugim - odpraviti nekaj nepristranskosti, ki velja za navigatorje.

Zgodovina izmenjave Missourija

Mnogi zakonodajalci v Missouriju so se vztrajno borili proti zakonu o ugodni negi in uveljavljanju trga zdravstvenega zavarovanja.

Zakonodaja o vzpostavitvi izmenjave je bila uvedena, vendar v letih 2011 in 2012. ni bila sprejeta. Kljub pomanjkanju zakonodajnega dovoljenja so bile ustanovljene nekatere začetne delovne skupine. Leta 2011 je takratna vlada. Jay Nixon je ustanovil Koordinacijski svet borze za zdravstveno zavarovanje, ki je opravil nekaj začetnih pregledov in načrtovanja. Tudi leta 2011 je senat ustanovil Začasni odbor za izmenjave zdravstvenih zavarovanj, da bi preučil možnosti Missourija za vzpostavitev državne izmenjave.

Člani začasnega odbora senata niso dovolili uporabe zveznega denarja. Aprila 2012 je zakonodajni organ v Missouriju zavrnil donacijo v višini 50 milijonov dolarjev za nadgradnjo državnega informacijskega sistema Medicaid, saj so nekateri zakonodajalci menili, da bo sistem uporabljen kot odskočna deska za izgradnjo državne borze.

Maja 2012 je zakonodajni organ v Missouriju odobril volilni ukrep, s katerim je izvršilni veji preprečil, da bi brez zakonodajne ali ljudske odobritve odobril državno borzo zdravstvenega zavarovanja-čeprav je guverner Nixon večkrat izjavil, da njegova uprava ne bo odobrila izmenjave po izvršilnem ukazu. Glasovalci so glasovanje sprejeli novembra 2012, država pa ni izpolnila obveznosti zvezne borze.

Januarja 2015 je republikanski senator Bob Onder vložil predlog zakona, ki naj bi po njegovem mnenju blokiral posamezni mandat Zakona o dostopni negi. SB 51 bi zdravstveni zavarovalnici odvzel dovoljenje za prodajo polic v Missouriju, če bi sprejel zvezne subvencije za police, ki se prodajajo na zveznem trgu. Vprašljivo je, kakšen vpliv bi imel zakon, če bi bil sprejet. Eden od pravnih strokovnjakov je za revijo St. Louis Post-Dispatch povedal: "To je nekakšna vaja v jalovost." Nazadnje predlog zakona ni napredoval iz odbora.

Povezave za izmenjavo zdravstvenih zavarovanj v Missouriju

Profil državne menjave: Missouri
Pregled družinske fundacije Henry J. Kaiser o napredku Missourija pri oblikovanju državne borze za zdravstveno zavarovanje.


Cottey College je ena najbolj edinstvenih institucij v ameriškem visokem šolstvu edina ženska univerza v lasti in podpori žensk.

P.E.O. Sestrinstvo je mednarodna filantropska organizacija, v kateri so ženske SLAVITE napredek žensk, IZOBRAŽEVAJ ženske s štipendijami, štipendijami, nagradami, posojili in skrbništvom na Cottey College, in MOTIVIRAJTE ženske, da dosežejo svoje najvišje želje.

P.E.O. je 21. januarja 1869 ustanovilo sedem študentov na Iowa Wesleyan College v Mount Pleasantu v Iowi. Danes je P.E.O. se je od tega majhnega števila sedem članov povečalo na skoraj četrt milijona članov v poglavjih po ZDA in Kanadi s sedežem v Des Moinesu v Iowi.

P.E.O. prišel v Missouri 3. oktobra 1886, ko je bil v Unionvilleu organiziran kapitul zvezne države Missouri. V Missouriju imamo več kot 300 aktivnih poglavij in več kot 12.000 aktivnih članov!

P.E.O. je ženska organizacija za ženske in ženske. P.E.O. podpira ženske tako s prijateljstvi in ​​sestrinskimi vezmi kot z izobraževalnimi štipendijami, štipendijami, nagradami in posojili.

P.E.O. je ena najstarejših ženskih organizacij v Severni Ameriki. Kar se je leta 1869 začelo kot vez prijateljstva med sedmimi mladimi ženskami, je zraslo na skoraj 6000 lokalnih poglavij več kot 225.000 članov v ZDA in Kanadi. Zapuščina, ki se je prenašala skozi generacije žensk, P.E.O. ima globoke korenine v lokalnih skupnostih in naš vpliv sega v vse konce sveta.

Leta 1927 je P.E.O. Sestrinstvo sprejeto College Cottey kot darilo Virginije Alice Cottey Stockard. Nevada, Missouri, je njen dom. Tako je Cottey College postala edina nesektaška šola v lasti in podpori žensk.

Cottey College je neodvisna, liberalna umetnostna in znanstvena šola za ženske. Od leta 1884 je šola mladim ženskam ponudila priložnost, da se učijo in odrastejo v vodje, vzornike in samozavestne posameznike.

Danes je edinstvena kombinacija Cotteyjevega izobraževanja samo za ženske, visokih akademskih standardov, osredotočenosti na razvoj vodstva, zavezanosti mednarodnim izkušnjam za vsakega študenta in motivirane, visokoenergetske skupnosti v središču njenega uspeha.


Sem samostojni pisatelj, specializiran za zgodovino Ozarkov in okolice. Napisal sem osemnajst književnih knjig, dva zgodovinska romana in številne članke. Moje zadnje knjige so Bigamija in prelivanje krvi: Škandal Emme Molloy in umor Sarah Graham, Polnočni atentati in druga zla: Kriminalna zgodovina okrožja Jasper, Mo. in Lynchings, Umor in druga zlobna dejanja: Kriminalna zgodovina Greena Okrožje, Mo.

Struktura Weaubleau in skalne žoge

4 komentarji:

Pravite, da je krater širok 19 kilometrov, vendar to ni ravno prav. Struktura udarca - obseg površine, ki je bila zaradi udarca spremenjena - je široka 19 kilometrov, sam krater pa je precej manjši in osredotočen južno od Viste.

Hvala za dodatne informacije. Nikoli nisem videl strukture Weaubleau in nikoli nisem bil v Vista.

Pravzaprav je nekoliko dvoumno, če ga označujemo kot "kvoter", saj je topografija območja velika mešanica hribov in dolin. Kar zadeva "okrogle skale", je nekaj kilometrov severno od Weaubleauja, MO na Bear Creeku, stara domačija. Očitno so med kopanjem ribnika pred mnogimi leti našli popolnoma na stotine skoraj popolnih okroglih skal, od baseballa do košarke. Ker jih običajno najdemo na širokem območju, se zdi zelo malo verjetno, da bi se pojavili le v bližini udarnega platišča.

Že desetletja sem lovil posest na miljo kvadratnih

Hvala za dodatne informacije, Ed, od nekoga, ki pozna področje. Nisem nikoli obiskal tega kraja.


Največji prispevek Eric Greitens v zgodovini Missourija

Dirka za to, da postane republikanski kandidat Missourija za guvernerja, je po milostivini rečeno sranje trkajočih egov in izbočenih bančnih računov. V ponedeljek se je eden izmed volilnih skrinjic kandidatov nekoliko povečal - za približno 2 milijona dolarjev.

Kot Louis po pošti ugotavlja, da je donacija v višini 1,975 milijonov dolarjev za kampanjo Erica Greitensa ta teden največji politični prispevek v zgodovini Missourija posameznemu kandidatu.

Toda od kod ta denar? Vemo, da ga je podaril zvezno registriran odbor za kampanje ali "super PAC", imenovan "SEALs for Truth." In to je to.

Zakaj skrivnost? Čas ima nekaj opraviti s tem. Datum donacije skupine Greitens pomeni, da se je 30. junija izognila roku za prijavo prispevkov v drugem četrtletju, zato "SEALS for Truth" svojih finančnih podatkov ne bo treba razkriti šele oktobra, dolgo po primarnih volitvah 2. avgusta.

Toda pri tej donaciji je veliko bolj iznajdljiv (in morda zaskrbljujoč) vidik. Po zakonu lahko super PAC sprejme neomejene količine denarja, vendar tega denarja ne more podariti neposredno zvezni kampanji ali politični stranki. Super PAC, kot je na primer "SEALS for Truth", bi kršil zvezni zakon, če bi neposredno prispeval k predsedniški ali kongresni kampanji.

Toda darovanje za državno kampanjo, kot je Greitens? Izkazalo se je, da ni zakona proti temu.

Iz Po pošiljanju:

Tiskovna predstavnica zvezne volilne komisije je v torek potrdila, da bo "SEALs for Truth" kot super PAC prepovedano dajati kakršen koli denar neposredno kongresni ali predsedniški kampanji - vendar FEC nima pristojnosti, če ta denar pošlje državi Missouri -kandidat na ravni.

Uradniki volitev v Missouriju so že dejali, da nimajo možnosti omejiti denarja, ki ga donirajo zvezni PAC, državnim kandidatom, če je to javno razkrito.

V bistvu je "SEALS for Truth" uspelo oblikovati vrzel, ki zajema državne in zvezne volilne zakone. Kot super PAC mora ohraniti anonimnost svojih donatorjev do četrtletnega roka za poročanje oktobra, in ker skupina denar preusmerja v državno kampanjo, se izogiba kršenju zakonov, ki prepovedujejo neposredna darovanja zveznim kampanjam.

Zdaj, preden začnete graditi podobo Greitens in se pripraviti na metanje tekme: Spomniti se je treba, da njegovi nasprotniki guvernerjev sami zbirajo ogromne količine denarja. Financ, ki sovraži davke, Rex Sinquefield, je v kampanjo nekdanje predsednice parlamenta Missouri Catherine Hanaway vložil skoraj 4 milijone dolarjev. Edini razlog, da je ta donacija "največja", je, da je Sinquefield svoje prispevke razdelil v manjše vsote. Podjetnik John Brunner je za financiranje svoje kampanje porabil milijone svojega denarja. Ta teden je guverner guverner Peter Kinder od Davida Humphreysa in njegove sestre Sarah Atkins prejel skupaj milijon dolarjev.

Spremljajte Dannyja Wicentowskega na Twitterju na @D_ Towski. Avtorju pošljite e-pošto na [email protected]

Podprite lokalno novinarstvo.
Pridružite se Riverfront Times Novinarski klub

Lokalno novinarstvo je informacija. Informacije so moč. In verjamemo vsi si zasluži dostop do natančnega neodvisnega poročanja o svoji skupnosti in državi. Naši bralci so nam pomagali nadaljevati to poročanje v letu 2020, zato smo hvaležni za podporo.

Pomagajte nam ohraniti to pokritost leta 2021. Ne glede na to, ali gre za enkratno priznanje tega članka ali za obljubo članstva, bo vaša podpora namenjena lokalnemu poročanju naše majhne, ​​a mogočne ekipe.


Louis, Missouri. Glavno mesto Združenih držav?

Sliko uporablja CC-4.0, uporabnik wikicommons Daniel Schwen

Čeprav se zdi, da je danes že vnaprej sklenjen zaključek, da je glavno mesto Združenih držav Washington DC, v prvih 100 letih obstoja države skoraj ni bilo tako opredeljeno. The location, ten square miles straddling the Potomac River with portions in both Maryland and Virginia, was established by law in 1790 with the Permanent Seat of Government Act (legislation recently dramatized by the song “The Room Where It Happens” from the musical Hamilton), but this didn’t satisfy all Americans. Over the course of the young country’s first century, the topic of where to locate the capital would come up three more times.

The first, little more than a suggestion, was in 1814, after the British burned Washington during the War of 1812 (for more on this you can check out my post on the selection of Columbus, KY as the new capital). The second challenge came about in 1846. The greater debate centered around whether Congress should retrocede Alexandria out of the District of Columbia and back to Virginia. At one point the debate shifted to whether the Government even could, let alone should, change the area of the capital. This, in turn, led to a broader discussion between Senators John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and William Allen of Ohio over whether the capital could be relocated. [1] Calhoun referenced a trade convention he attended in Memphis the previous year, during which the idea of relocating the US capital somewhere west was discussed, only to have the idea laughed out of the hall. [2] Allen retorts that the reason for that was not the notion of moving the seat of government, but rather the lack of a definitive location. [1]

While it may seem silly to us today (and perhaps to some even then) to talk of moving the capital, in the nineteenth century Washington DC was not a pleasant place. Built on a stretch of low ground and lacking modern drainage the city was frequently muddy, flooded, or just outright stunk. Ulysses S. Grant would write of the capital in 1870 that it was “a most unsightly place…disagreeable to pass through in summer in consequence of the dust arising from unpaved streets, and almost impassable in the winter from the mud.” [12] As the nation expanded westward, representatives from those far-away states were becoming more and more irritated by the long trek to a muddy tidal plain.

Washington DC in 1861, looking southwest. Detail from an engraving in Harper’s Weekly January 4, 1862

As you might guess, the movement to relocate the capital began in Congress as a counterpoint to spending bills which included significant amounts to clean up the District of Columbia. Beginning in December of 1867 with Rep. John A. Logan (Ill.) three resolutions were introduced into Congress with the aim of relocating the capital to the Mississippi Valley, rather than spend gross sums cleaning up what some viewed as a lost cause. [3][4][5] The third such proposal finally came to a vote in 1868, with 77 for removal, 97 against, and 15 abstaining. While it was voted down, the number in favor was something of an eye-opener to representatives from the East (one of whom joked prior to the vote “…is not a part of New York and northern Pennsylvania in the valley of the Mississippi?” [5] ).

Rep. John A. Logan (Ill.)

Outside of government, the movement got its first jump-start from Joseph Medill, editor of the Chicago Tribune. In an editorial published July 4, 1869, Medill not only laid out the logical reasons to move the capital to a more central location but also named St. Louis, MO as the ideal spot. [6] While nearly universally condemned in the Eastern press, the idea took root in the Midwest, especially in St. Louis. Spear-headed by staunch St. Louis booster Logan Uriah Reavis, a committee was formed to call formally for a national convention to consider relocation of the national capital to the Mississippi Valley. Letting no grass grow under them, the committee, with Reavis as secretary, issued their formal call in the press and to each state’s governor on August 12. The convention was set for October 20. [6]

Reavis was something of a unique character (a picture of the man can be found here and will tell you almost as much about him as I can by writing about him!). According to James Neal Primm, in his work “Lion of the Valley”, Reavis was “an Illinois newspaperman who had hustled real estate in Falls City, Nebraska, before he bought the faltering St. Louis Daily Press in 1866.” [7] The paper failed, but Reavis emerged with a vision of St. Louis as the beating heart of the nation, writing that St. Louis “cannot escape the magnificence of its destiny. Greatness is the necessity of its position.” [8] He had written a book on the subject in 1868 called “A Change of National Empire” detailing not only the arguments in favor of St. Louis, but also those against maintaining the current capital in Washington. Two years later he would follow this up with another volume “St. Louis: The Future Great City of the World”, written in equally ardent terms.

Despite Reavis’ dogmatic enthusiasm, the reaction to a convention was decidedly lukewarm. Even the Chicago Tribune, the paper that first broached the idea, felt that the call for a convention through newspapers was rushed, and should have been preceded by a gathering of representative opinion on a more national scale. [2]

Despite this tepid response, acceptances did trickle in. When the convention opened that fall in St. Louis’ Mercantile Library Hall, representatives were present from twenty-one states and territories (although none from an Atlantic state). Over three days the St. Louis Capital Convention would pass eight articles, laying out the history behind their views and vowing to condemn any Congressional spending to improve Washington. [9] While it did include a carriage tour of the city, a banquet, and a river excursion, the Convention didn’t accomplish much or generate significant national interest in relocation.

Joseph Medill, editor of the Chicago Tribune, who first suggested St. Louis as the US capital

However, the Convention’s call to block Federal appropriations for the improvement of Washington DC met with a little more success. Larger bills were blocked, although smaller ones still managed to pass. An effort to organize the resistance within Congress was led by Rep. Logan, but ultimately proved ineffective.

In the meantime, Reavis had hit the trail to drum up support. Making a tour of the Northeast and penning numerous letters to the sympathetic New York Tribune, he called for a second convention, this one to be in Cincinnati. The Cincinnati Capital Removal Convention began on October 25, 1870, but if the response to the St. Louis Convention had been tepid, that to the Cincinnati Convention was downright frigid. As before, all states were asked to send delegates, but this time only seven actually did.

The final nail in the coffin for the cause of capital removal came on December 5, 1870, when, in his remarks addressing the opening of the 41 st Congress’ 3 rd session President Ulysses S. Grant specifically included requests that appropriations be passed for the improvement of Washington, specifically the archives for the State Department, which were housed in a rented building and in sorry shape. [10] Congress would debate various appropriations for the next few months, with Logan championing the opposition, but eventually an appropriations bill for the improvement of public works around Washington was passed on March 3, 1871. Grant would sign it that same day. [11] Two years later he would applaud Congress’ efforts, telling them “the city of Washington is rapidly assuming the appearance of a capital of which the nation may well be proud.” [12]

And what of Logan U. Reavis, the charismatic, outspoken champion of a Midwest Capital? He would continue to champion his cause, despite his words falling on deaf ears. He would pen books on various topics before passing away in St. Louis, on April 19, 1889, at the age of 58. [13] His son, Logan Uriah Reavis, Jr., a writer himself, would carry on his father’s work to a lesser extent, penning several opinions on the topic of capital removal for the New York Herald-Tribune as late as 1949. [14]

[1] Cong. Globe, 29 th Cong., 1 st Session, 1046. 1846.

[2] Sioussat, George L. “Memphis as a Gateway to the West.” Tennessee Historical Magazine, Tennessee Historical Society. Vol.3, No.2. June, 1917: 77-114. Print.

[3] Cong. Globe, 40 th Cong., 2 nd Session, 209. 1867.

[4] Cong. Globe, 40 th Cong., 2 nd Session, 935. 1868.

[5] Cong. Globe, 40 th Cong., 2 nd Session, 1084-1085. 1868.

[6] Clark, Olynthus B. “The Bid of the West for the National Capital.” Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association for the Year 1909-1910. Ed. Benjamin F. Shambaugh. Cedar Rapids: The Torch Press, 1911. 214-290. Print.

[7] “Lion of the Valley” James Neal Primm, James Neal. Lion of the Valley: St. Louis, Missouri, 1764-1980. St. Louis: Missouri Historical Society Press, 1981. Print.

[8] Reavis, L.U. A Change of National Empire or Arguments in Favor of the Removal of the National Capital from Washington City to the Mississippi Valley. St. Louis: J.F. Torrey, 1869. Print.

[9] “The Capital Convention.” New York Times 22 October 1869: 1. Print.

[10] Cong. Globe, 41 st Cong., 3 rd Session, 8. 1871. President Grant’s annual message to Congress

[11] Cong. Globe, 41 st Cong., 3 rd Session, 1941. 1871.

[12] Cong. Record, 43 rd Cong., 1 st Session, 17. 1873. President Grant’s annual message to Congress

[13] “Obituary- Logan Uriah Reavis.” Newyorška tribuna 27 April 1889: 7. Print.

[14] Reavis Jr., Logan Uriah. Letter. New York Herald-Tribune 27 February 1949, 12 June 1949. Print.


Vsebina

Final poll closing times on Election Day.

Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College these electors in turn directly elect the President and Vice President.

President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U.S. Senator from Illinois, is ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment in accordance with Section I of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expires at 12 noon on January 20, 2017.

2008 presidential election

In the 2008 election, Obama was elected president, defeating the Republican nominee, Governor Rick Perry of Texas, with 53% of the popular vote and 68% of the electoral vote, succeeding two-term Republican President John McCain, the former Senator from Arizona. Since the end of 2009, Obama's first year in office, polling companies such as Gallup have found Obama's approval ratings to be between 40–50%.

2010 midterm elections

In the 2010 midterm elections, the Democratic Party suffered significant losses in Congress the Republicans gained 63 seats in the House of Representatives – taking back control of the chamber in the process – and six seats in the Senate, though short of achieving a majority. As a result of the Republicans' recapture of the House after losing it to the Democrats in the 2006 midterm elections, . became the 53rd Speaker of the House of Representatives, making Obama the first President in 16 years to lose the House of Representatives in the first half of his first term, in an election that was characterized by the economy's slow recovery.

2012 presidential election

In the 2012 presidential election, Obama defeated former Governor of Massachusetts Mitt Romney with 51% of the popular vote and 62% of the electoral vote. Meanwhile, despite minor losses, Republicans retained their majority of seats in the House of Representatives while Democrats increased their majority in the Senate.

Speculation about the 2016 campaign began almost immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the 2012 election. Frequently mentioned names for 2016 were Governor John F. Kennedy and Senator Hillary Clinton for the Democrats and Senator Marco Rubio for the Republicans.

2014 midterm elections

In the 2014 midterm elections, voter turnout was the lowest since 1942: 36% of eligible voters voted. The Republicans retained control of the House of Representatives, increasing their majority to its largest since March 4, 1929, and came two seats short of a majority in the Senate.


Missouri 2016 - History

It seems like every store I've gone into recently has a display of adult coloring books. Some stores are even hosting wine and coloring nights! What is this trend all about? Well, it turns out coloring helps adults unwind and relieves stress. By focusing on coloring, adults set aside their worries and their stressful schedules and are transported back to a simpler time. I admit, that I was a skeptic. But, I tried it and it worked!

Confessions of a Teacher Who Lets Her Students Play with Food

twists is to let my students use food as a manipulative. In particular, I like to have my students use gummy bears to create scenes that represent various topics. It may seem a little odd, but my students (even my too cool for just about anything Seniors) love this change of pace. Here are some different ways I've used gummy bears in my classes.

How I Cut My Grading Time by at Least Half

I teach high school on the alternating block schedule - meaning I teach 6 class in total, but I only see 3 classes a day. I have a total of 173 students (. ). So on days with quizzes or tests, I end up with 173 quizzes or tests to grade.

Here's some scary math:
If it takes me just 15 seconds to grade each student's 25 multiple choice question quiz, it'll take me about 45 minutes to grade them all. If it takes me 1 minute to grade 100 matching/multiple choice questions on a test, I'll spend almost 3 hours grading those tests (not even including any written parts!). I don't know about you, but there's a lot I'd rather be doing than all this grading!

10 YouTube Channels That Rock!

I am slightly obsessed with finding quality YouTube videos for Middle and High School Social Studies classes. Let's face it, there are A LOT of bad YouTube videos out there and it can be painful to find a video that is entertaining, yet educational.

So here's my list of 10 YouTube Channels you should check out, bookmark, and maybe even subscribe.

Survival Tips for Teaching a Subject You Hate

Want to know a secret?

Just because I'm a Social Studies teacher doesn't mean I love every subject that falls under the category of Social Studies. In fact, when I began teaching, I had an intense dislike of World History!

My first job was my dream job - teaching all U.S. History classes. Then, my husband and I moved to a different state. I found myself teaching, of all subjects, WORLD HISTORY! I had to figure out how to teach a subject I hated without making my students hate it, too.

What is Google Drive?

Teaching the Space Race

January 1958

October 1958

January 1961

April 1961

May 5, 1961

May 25, 1961

Today


Looking for some easy prep activities for your lesson? You might like these available in my History Gal Teachers Pay Teachers Store :)

A Fun Idea for End of Year Tests

My daughter and her friends will take two End of Grade (EOG) tests this week. Last week, her teacher sent all the parents an email asking us to send in envelopes for the students to open on the mornings of their tests. Inside the envelope, we could place quotes, motivational messages, pictures, etc. to help motivate our kids and to ease some of their test anxiety. What a great idea!

Until. I started thinking. What if I write something that makes her erupt into tears? What if I include something that inadvertently adds to her fear of the test? That would just be a disaster!

All of a sudden, this simple request from her teacher began stressing ME out! I thought about not doing it. But, quickly tossed that idea aside when I realized it would even be worse if she was the only one in her class without an envelope to open.

So, I went back to brainstorming and I came up with the idea of creating some jokes to make my daughter smile and hopefully laugh before she has to get serious and take her tests.

Now, joke creation is definitely not my forte! I got some help from Leah Cleary who is a master of words and my joke idol to create six joke puzzle cards. I divided them up into two sets and put each set into an envelope.


Hopefully, these joke puzzle cards will not make my daughter erupt into tears or add to her test anxiety, but instead give her a good laugh before she has to sit and take, in my daughter's words, a "long and boring test."

If you think your own child or class would like these joke puzzle cards, click below!

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Stopping the Parent Freak-Out Over End of Year Testing

It's that time of year. Almost every email, phone call, and correspondence from my daughter's school reminds us that End of Grade testing is almost here. Her teacher talks about it. Her friends talk about and even parents are talking about it.

I get it, but I don't like it. It's the season of high stakes testing. Jobs and even funding rests on the performance of the students on these tests. And, as the tests get closer, I see my daughter and her friends become more and more stressed about taking these tests.

*NEWSFLASH* Stressed kids don't perform well on tests!

Here are 3 things that we are doing at our house to help our daughter:

1. We are making a conscious effort to downplay these End of Grade (EOG) tests. Our daughter is a high achiever. She wants to do everything well. And, she has it in her head that these tests carry so much weight that she will fail 4th grade if she bombs them. Talk about some self-imposed pressure! When she brings up her EOG tests, we tell her they are no big deal that they are just a way for her to show off what she already knows and that no matter what she scores on the test there is no way she will fail 4th grade.

2. We are making our actions match our words. We can't tell her the tests are no big deal and then contradict it with our actions. The other day, my daughter asked if she could skip her 6:00-6:45 ballet class next week since the next day she was taking an EOG. My answer? No. If I let her skip ballet class just because she has a test the next day, I'm subconsciously telling her that this test is so important she needs to skip her extra-curricular activities. It would give extra validation to her stress.

3. We are making our actions match our words. I repeated this on purpose because it is hard to stop the parent freak-out. I mean well when I talk to her each day about how she is feeling about the test, if she is studying for the test at school, if she thinks she is ready for the test, etc. I mean well when I put her to bed extra early the night before the test and have a breakfast of champions the morning of the test. I mean well when I remind her to wear comfortable clothes and to wear her hair back so it won't be in her eyes on the day of the test. I do all of these things because I want my daughter to perform well on the test. However, am I helping or hindering her? If I really believe and want my daughter to believe that the EOGs are no big deal, why am I doing these things? Making my actions match my words is harder than it seems. I definitely haven't perfected things. But, my hope is that through my words and actions, my daughter will come to the realization that EOG tests, while long and boring, are nothing to stress and worry about.

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Thriving on a Teacher's Salary: Let's Talk Credit Cards

You know the slogans. You hear them on the radio and see the commercials on television and online. You get mailings from credit card companies enticing you with fantastic rewards and bonus points.

So, how many cards are in your wallet? I intentionally have just 1.

Reality Check #1: Credit card companies don't offer us credit cards out of the goodness of their hearts. Credit cards companies run a business. If they weren't making a profit, they wouldn't be enticing us to sign up.

Credit card companies make their money by charging businesses fees when a customer uses a credit card and by charging us interest on any unpaid bill balances we carry. Do you know what the interest rates are on your credit cards? Did you know that if you make a late payment, credit card companies can increase that interest rate? For example, if I were to miss a payment, my credit interest rate jumps from 18% to almost 30%!

Credit card companies are now required to show you how long it would take you to pay off your credit card bill if you just made the minimum payment and what the total cost would be.

Imagine you had a balance of $3000 on your credit card and you pay the minimum balance of $30 a month. If you did not charge another penny to this credit card, it would take you 15 years and over $6000 to pay off your credit card bill!

According to a 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances by the U.S. Federal Reserves, 38% of Americans carry credit card debt. If you have credit card debt and are wondering where to even start in paying down your debt, check out Credit Card Insider's article How to Pay Off Debt.

Reality Check #2: When you make a credit card purchase, you are getting a 30 day or so no-interest loan from your credit card provider.


It's not free money. It's a loan with terms and conditions. Yes, I love the ease of making purchases with my credit card, but it is really easy to overspend since I don't have to actually pay for my purchases until later.


My mom gave me very important piece of advice when I got my first credit card as a freshman in college. She said to treat every credit card purchase like a debit and deduct it from the balance in my checkbook. That way, when the credit card bill arrived, I would have already deducted the money from my account and all I would have to do was write the check. It's a strategy I use to this day. There is no stress when the credit card bill arrives because I know the money is there in my checking account. At any given time, I know exactly how much I have left in my account to spend because I have counted that credit card purchase, not as a loan, but as if I had actually used my own money for the purchase.


Reality Check #3: You may not need all those credit cards in your wallet.


When my husband and I made the decision to live on just his teaching salary so I could stay home with our kids, we took a long, hard look at the credit cards we were carrying and made the decision to cancel all but two (one for him and one for me).

I probably had half a dozen retail credit cards from some of my favorite stores. I realized that these cards encouraged me to spend more than I really should. It was too easy to buy $300 worth of clothes and just swipe the credit card. I canceled the cards and cut them up. Now, I always say no when the sales clerk asks if I would like to save an additional 20%. Of course, I'd love to save that extra 20% - I am a bargain hunter at heart - but, I have committed to staying within our budget and not overspend. Maybe, you don't have the same problem I had. But, if you are carrying debt on multiple cards - especially retail cards - it may be time to take your own long, hard look at what you are carrying in your wallet.

Credit cards definitely have their uses and I use mine almost daily. It is just important to use credit cards as part of a budget and not as a way to buy more than you can afford.


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