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Daniel Boone je bil zgodnji ameriški mejnik, ki je zaslovel s svojimi lovskimi in sledilnimi odpravami skozi Cumberland Gap, naravni prehod skozi Apalaške gore v Virginiji, Tennesseeju in Kentuckyju. Boone je v svojem življenju dosegel status ljudskega junaka, vendar je večina njegove slavne podobe mešanica dejstev, pretiravanj in dokončnih izmišljotin.
Boone se je rodil 2. novembra 1734 v okrožju Berks v Pensilvaniji, šesti otrok od enajstih, ki so jih rodili imigrantski starši kvekerji, Squire in Sarah. Večino svojega otroštva je preživljal z negovanjem živine svoje družine in potepanjem po gozdu v bližini svojega doma.
Boone ni imel ustrezne izobrazbe, vendar je lahko bral in pisal, na brskanja po gozdovih pa je pogosto vzel bralno gradivo. Prvo puško je prejel pri 12 letih, naučil se je loviti in postal spreten strelec, ki je svoji družini pogosto zagotavljal svežo divjad. Po legendi je nekoč ustrelil panterja v srce, ko se je napolnilo.
Leta 1748 je Squire Boone prodal svojo zemljo in družino preselil na mejo Severne Karoline v dolini Yadkin. Po izbruhu francoske in indijske vojne leta 1754 se je Daniel Boone pridružil milici v Severni Karolini in služil kot popotnik - in se za dlako izognil umoru Indijancev med bitko pri Monongaheli (eni izmed številnih ameriških indijanskih vojn, v kateri se je Boone boril proti Indijancem) ).
Med bitko pri Fort Duquesne je preživel še en napad Indijancev, ko je pograbil konja in pohitel na konju.
Boone je med vojno sodeloval z Johnom Findleyjem, trgovcem, ki mu je povedal o divjini zahodno od Apalaških gora, imenovani "Kentucke", kraju, bogatem z divjadjo in priložnostmi. Findley je kasneje spremljal Booneja na njegovem prvem potovanju v Kentucky.
14. avgusta 1756 se je Boone poročil z Rebecco Bryan in nastanila sta se v dolini Yadkin in imela deset otrok. Boone je svojo veliko družino preživljal z lovom in pastmi. Jeseni in pozimi je pogosto več mesecev naenkrat izginil, spomladi pa se je vrnil, da je svoje pele prodal trgovcem.
Leta 1759 so Indijanci Cherokee napadli dolino Yadkin in mnoge njene prebivalce, vključno z družino Boone, prisilili v beg v okrožje Culpeper v Virginiji. Kot del milice v Severni Karolini je Boone veliko potoval po deželi Cherokee v gorah Blue Ridge.
Ena zgodba pravi, da je Rebecca na enem od svojih daljših potovanj mislila, da je Boone mrtev, in je imela razmerje z bratom, ki je rodil hčerko, za katero je Boone trdil, da je njegova.
Eden od šestih Boonovih sinov, Izrael, je bil ubit v bitki pri Blue Licks leta 1782, eni zadnjih spopadov v vojni za neodvisnost (Boone je bil tudi v bitki in je videl, kako je njegov sin umrl).
Boone v Kentuckyju
Jeseni 1767 se je Boone odpravil na kratek izlet skozi Cumberland Gap v Kentucky. 1. maja 1769 se je vrnil v Kentucky na daljše potovanje in pomagal odpreti pot za bodoče pionirje.
Indijanci Shawnee so 22. decembra ujeli njega in enega od njegovih spremljevalcev, jim ukradli školjke in jih opozorili, naj se nikoli več ne vrnejo. Boone se je vrnil domov, vendar ni nameraval upoštevati opozorila.
Boone se je z družino in skupino priseljencev julija 1773. vrnil v Kentucky. Oktobra so nezadovoljni Indijanci napadli člane stranke, vključno z Boonovim sinom Jamesom. Indijanci so jih brutalno mučili in ubili ter prisilili pretresene priseljence nazaj v Severno Karolino.
Vojna Lorda Dunmoreja
Po indijskem napadu je bil Boone poslan, da geodete v Kentuckyju obvesti, da je vojna z Indijanci neizbežna in da je naslednje leto v vojni Lorda Dunmoreja leta 1774 res izbruhnil oborožen spopad.
Po zmagi naseljencev v vojni Lorda Dunmoreja so Indijanci odstopili svoja dežela v Kentuckyju, Transilvanska družba Richarda Hendersona pa je najela Booneja, da je požaril cesto Wilderness Road skozi Cumberland Gap v osrednji Kentucky.
Ko je bil v Kentuckyju, je Boone ustanovil kolonijo Boonsborough in poslal družino, da se mu pridruži.
Indijski napadi so bili pogosti v Boonsboroughu in mnogi naseljenci so na koncu zapustili Kentucky.
5. julija 1776 so Indijanci ujeli Boonejevo hčerko Jemimo in dva njena spremljevalca. Boone je hitro uprizoril zasedo in rešil dekleta ter navdihnil zgodovinski roman, Zadnji od Mohikanov avtorja James Fenimore Cooper.
Februarja 1778 je Shawnee Chief Blackfish ujel Booneja in ga posvojil kot svojega sina. Boone pa je štiri mesece pozneje pobegnil in pomagal Boonsboroughu premagati Shawnee pri obleganju Boonsborougha.
Boone je decembra 1779 ustanovil naselje Boone Station. V naslednjih nekaj letih se je preselil v današnjo Zahodno Virginijo in služil v zakonodajnem organu Virginije.
Špekulant in lastnik sužnjev
Čeprav je bil znan kot vodja milice, lovec in geodet, Boone ni bil spreten v poslu. Po večini poročil je bil agresiven špekulant na zemljišču, ki se je pogosto zadolževal za nakup nepremičnine.
Boone je bil tudi lastnik sužnjev, ki je v nekem trenutku svojega življenja imel v lasti kar sedem sužnjev.
Po vrnitvi v Kentucky leta 1795 - Boone je imel dovolj časa za odprtje Wilderness Road oktobra 1796 - ni hotel pričati v tožbi zoper njega. Za njegovo aretacijo je bil izdan nalog in večina njegovih zemljišč je bila prodana.
Ker ni bil spreten pogajalec - njegova sposobnost branja pravnih dokumentov je bila v najboljšem primeru zanemarljiva - in po številnih tožbah, izgubah in neporavnanem nalogu za njegovo aretacijo je Boone do leta 1798 izgubil vso svojo zemljo v Kentuckyju.
Zadnja leta Daniela Booneja
V želji, da bi se izognili aretaciji, sta se Boone in njegova družina preselila v špansko Femme Osage, Missouri. Ko je Missouri postal del Združenih držav, je Boone spet izgubil svojo deželo, čeprav jo je kasneje večino pridobil in prodal.
Bil je cenjen vodja v Missouriju, leta 1807 pa ga je Meriwether Lewis, slavni vodja odprave Lewisa in Clarka, ki je takrat opravljal funkcijo guvernerja regije, imenoval za sodnika občine Femme Osage.
Boone se je pri 78 letih prostovoljno prijavil v vojno 1812, vendar mu je bil zavrnjen sprejem v oborožene sile. Leta 1817 se je vseživljenjski zunanji človek odpravil na zadnji lov v svojo ljubljeno divjino.
Boone je zadnja leta svojega življenja živel v Missouriju, kjer je 26. septembra 1820 v starosti 85 let umrl zaradi naravnih razlogov.
Zapuščina Daniela Booneja
Zapuščina Daniela Booneja temelji na preverjenih dejstvih in na številnih velikih zgodbah o njegovih dogodivščinah v divjini, ubijanju medvedov in boju z Indijanci.
Boone je bil predan zunanji človek, strasten raziskovalec in nadarjen lovec; bil pa je tudi reven poslovnež, lastnik sužnjev in vztrajen tvegalec, ki je izgubil veliko zaslužka.
Kljub temu je avtor John Filson pri objavi prispeval k temu, da je Boone postal živa legenda Odkritje, poravnava in sedanje stanje Kentuckeja, ki je vseboval dodatek z naslovom »Pustolovščine polkovnika Daniela Boona [sic]«.
Američani in Evropejci so požrli romantične zgodbe Filsona in drugih avtorjev o tem, da je Boone prečkal nevarno divjino, se je kljub domišljijski naravi teh zgodb ubranil napadov divjih živali in divjakov, medtem ko se je odrival v neznano deželo.
Booneovo ime in zapuščina se danes spominjata na mestih, kot je dom Daniel Boone v okrožju St. Charles v Missouriju in v narodnem gozdu Daniel Boone v Kentuckyju.
Booneova zgodba je navdihnila knjige, filme in televizijske oddaje, vključno s televizijskimi serijami Daniel Boone (1964-1970) z Fess Parker, istim igralcem, ki je igral v Disneyjevi miniseriji Davy Crockett.
Daniel Boone. Državno zgodovinsko društvo Missouri.
Kdo je bil Daniel Boone? Domačija Daniel Boone.
Bralčev spremljevalec ameriške zgodovine. Eric Foner in John A. Garraty, urednika. Založništvo Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
2. novembra 1734 se je v majhni brunarici okrožja Berks, ki je bila zgrajena ob izviru, ki ga je še mogoče videti, rodil fant, katerega kariero bi skoraj vsak ameriški mladinec rad ponovil v svojem življenju. Daniel Boone je postal ameriški pionir gozdar, popotnik in indijski borec. Potoval je peš ali s konjem iz Pensilvanije v Severno Karolino na Florido v Tennessee v Kentucky v Missouri in naprej in nazaj. Toda ta kmetija v Pennsylvaniji, ki se nahaja ob cesti 422 blizu Baumstowna, devet milj južno od Readinga, je bil kraj, na katerega Daniel nikoli ni pozabil.
Kasneje v življenju se je Daniel vrnil na to kmetijo, nekoč z ženo in sinom Nathanom, da bi jim pokazal svoj dom. ” Tu je bil do 16. leta pripravljen na življenje raziskovalca, saj je imel vse na prostem za njegov laboratorij, Narava in moški (beli in rdečepolti) za njegove učitelje. Tu je obiskoval šolo življenja, iz katere Daniel nikoli ni diplomiral, ampak se je samo “ premaknil ” k novi pustolovščini in osvajanju.
Ta stalna želja, da bi šel naprej ali, kot je rekel, “ da bi našel več prostora za komolce, ” je bila družina med Booneji. Njegov oče Squire Boone je imel to željo (Squire je dano ime, ne naslov). Njegov dedek, George Boone III, je isto hrepenenje po novem Danielovem rojstvu, ko je začel razmišljati o prihodu v Ameriko, čutil enako. Tkalec v angleškem Devonshireju George Boone III je slišal za kolonijo kvekerjev, ki jo je William Penn ustanovil v Ameriki. Rečeno je bilo, da so ljudje vseh krščanskih religij živeli skupaj v harmoniji in uživali enako svobodo in priložnosti za vse. Tudi domorodni Indijanci so veljali za človeška bitja, ki so bili pošteni in gostoljubni, kar je njihovo prijateljstvo pridobilo do te mere, da se je regija, kjer so se Boonejevi na koncu naselili, imenovala Amity-ime, ki pomeni prijateljstvo.
Tako je George Boone III poslal svoje tri starejše otroke (leta 1712) v Ameriko, da raziščejo to neverjetno deželo svobode in prijateljstva. To sta bila njegov najstarejši sin George Boone IV, njegova hči Sarah in Squire Boone (ki je kasneje postal Daniel in oče#8217). Po osemtedenskem potovanju čez Atlantik so prispeli v Philadelphijo, a so se kmalu preselili v Abington (zdaj predmestje Philadelphia) in nato v Severni Wales v mestu Gwynned, kjer so se naselili valižanski in angleški kvekerji. Morda je bil najbolj navdušen od teh mladih pri prihodu v Ameriko Squire Boone. Za prijateljico Sarah Morgan, dečko iz Walesa, ki jo je poznal in mu je bila všeč v Devonshireu, je nekaj let prej odšla z družino v Philadelphijo. Squire jo je kmalu našel in dve leti kasneje sta se poročila. S svojo nevesto se je najprej preselil na kmetijo v okrožju Bucks. Ker pa je bila ta skupnost prenatrpana za Booneja, se je kmalu preselil v današnjo okrožje Berks, kjer je kupil zemljišče, ki je mejilo na kmetijo njegovega očeta Georgea Boonea III., Ki so ga medtem prepričala žareča poročila njegovih otrok. , jim sledil v Ameriko.
V tistem zgodnjem času je bila meja Berks County, Modra gora, nekaj kilometrov severno, pa je predstavljala steno med civilizirano Ameriko in indijskim ozemljem. Čeprav so beli naseljenci Amityja živeli v miru z Indijanci in jim pustili ključavnice v zaprtih prostorih, da so lahko Indijanci ponoči vstopili in spali ob ognjišču, se je izven modrega gorovja spopadov, znanih kot francoski in indijski, slišalo ropotanje. Vojne. Squire Boone je kot previdnostni ukrep pred napadom Indijancev zgradil svojo prvo kabino ob nikoli neuspešni pomladi. Nad izvirom in v prvem nadstropju je zgradil kamniti kamin, ki je postal “srce ” vseh poznejših stavb in stoji še danes.
Na tem ognjišču je Daniel Boone verjetno študiral tisto malo, česar se je naučil brati, pisati in računati. Nad kaminom visi puška Conestoga (ali “Pennsylvania ”), ki jo je domačiji podaril Daniel Beard, še en veliki skavt in prvi nacionalni komisar skavtov Amerike. Puška Pennsylvania je bila glavni instrument Daniel Boonea pri odpiranju zahoda. To je bilo tisto “sekretno orožje ” tistega dne, saj je imelo večjo natančnost kot britanska puška z gladko cevjo. Ljudje v Kentuckyju so pozneje zahtevali to puško in jo poimenovali “Kentucky Rifle, ”, kot so trdili tudi Boone (!). Dokazano pa je, da so puško Pennsylvania prvič izdelali naši pensilvanski nemški (ali “ nizozemski ”) obrtniki in so jo najprej izdelali v mlinih na vodno energijo ob Wyomissing Creeku v Berksu in Conestogi v okrožju Lancaster . Ta puška je bila v revoluciji v pomoč generalu Washingtonu kot Daniel Boone pri raziskovanju Kentuckyja.
Ko sta družina in bogastvo Squire Boone rasli, je povečal prvo brunarico in zgradil gospodarska poslopja. Njegov tkalski posel se je širil, dokler v njegovem domu ni bilo pet statvah. Ko je napredoval, je zgradil kovaško trgovino, kjer se je Daniel naučil podkovati konje in popravljati pas in vagone-na primer vagon Conestoga, ki je bil takrat glavno sredstvo tovornega prometa. Ta praktična, kovaška veščina je Danielu pomagala pri njegovem prvem delu, ko je (leta 1755) kot kovač in popotnik spremljal Braddockovo odpravo in se naučil prve lekcije o “Kako se ne boriti proti Indijancem. ” General Braddock, svež iz Evrope , ki je vztrajal pri formacijskih bojih, je hitel po bojišču in očital kolonialnim četam, da bi se “ stopile ”, da bi se morale boriti iz zavetja, kot so to počeli Indijanci, dokler ni doživel ponižujočega poraza zaradi slabše sile Francozov in Indijancev. Danielovo znanje o tem, kako popraviti puške in vozove, je bilo pri njegovih kasnejših odpravah neprecenljivo.
Splošno sprejeto sedanjo kamnito domačijo Boone je zgradil kasnejši lastnik, vendar obdaja izvir in prvotno ognjišče (ki je bilo “ obrnjeno okoli ” tako, da je ustvarilo odprtino na nasprotni strani). Talne deske širine “naključne ” (kar pomeni neenakomerno širino, saj so prišle iz pragozda) so iste, na katerih je sedel Daniel Boone in čistil svojo prvo puško.
Preostanek domačije Boone, vključno s hlevom, kovačnico in brunarico, je bil zanimivo opremljen z gospodinjskimi pripomočki, pohištvom, statvami, kovaškim orodjem-vse vrste, ki so jo uporabljali, ko je bil Daniel Boone mlad. Indijski skavti in gozdarji so potovali z lahkoto, zato za potomce niso zbirali zbirateljskih predmetov. Če pa bi Daniel Boone danes ponovno obiskal svoje rojstno mesto, bi ponovno obiskal pomlad, odprto ognjišče in široke talne deske.
Od šolanja v zaprtih prostorih, “booklarning, ” je imel Daniel zelo malo. Ali je kdaj obiskoval šolo, je še vedno sporno. Številna pisma, dokumenti in poročila, ki jih je napisal, kažejo, da nikoli ni obvladal črkovanja. Napis, ki ga je izrezljal na drevesu v Tennesseeju “D. Boon cilled A. Bar on tree leta 1760, ” prikazuje eksperimentalno naravo njegovega črkovanja. Druga, (tudi v Tennesseeju), “D. Boon killa bar na tem drevesu 1773, ” kaže malo izboljšanja v trinajstih letih. Zanimivost teh napisov pa je znanje o lesarstvu, ki ga je prikazal Boone. Svoje napise je običajno izrezljal na bukovih drevesih, ki rastejo tako počasi, da širjenje lubja dolga leta ne izkrivlja črk. Napis iz leta 1760 je bil še vedno dovolj jasen, da so ga lahko fotografirali sto let kasneje.
Znano je, da je bil dedek Daniela Booneja#8217 dobro izobražen v Angliji, njegov dedek pa je bil učitelj. Tako je mogoče domnevati, da so ga poučevali sorodniki Daniela#8217, kajti ko je njegov učitelj stric obupal nad Danielovim črkovanjem, se je Squire Boone nasmehnil in rekel: & Pustite dekletom (10 črkovanje, Daniel bo streljal. 8221 In dejstvo, da je Daniel po naselju Boonesboro v Kentuckyju veliko časa preživel v geodetskih raziskavah, kaže, da je obvladal matematiko.
Za usposabljanje samozavesti in iznajdljivosti je Daniel Boone v okrožju Berks našel eno najboljših zgodnjih šol v Ameriki. Kot navaja John Mason Brown v Daniel Boone: The Opening of the Wilderness:
Gozdar, pravi gozdar Danielove vrste#8217, je več kot človek, ki je najsrečnejši v gozdu in se je naučil vse lekcije, ki ga morajo naučiti. Pravi gozdar se ne boji zvokov, ki jih ponoči slišijo v gozdu, ali divjih živali, na katere naletijo podnevi. Tudi misel, da bi bil v njih popolnoma sam, ga ne prestraši. Če res pozna gozd, gozdar ve, da se bo z njim pogovorila njihova tišina.
Če želite pridobiti občutek varnosti v puščavi, se morate že kot otrok naučiti varnosti med moškimi. Okrožje Berks je bilo takrat idealno mesto za to, da bi Daniela to naučili. Kajti to je bilo tedaj stičišče številnih ljudi, ki so se učili sodelovati v miru. Vsaka nacionalna skupina je prinesla darila, Daniel pa je imel od vseh korist. Nemci iz Pennsylvanije so razvili puško Pennsylvania in vagon Conestoga (omenjeni prej) in so bili tako strokovni za kmetovanje, da so se mnogi Angleži in Valižani iz kmetovanja obrnili na lov, ulov, rudarstvo in obrti, ki so jih prinesli s seboj. Angleži so prispevali jezik, pravo, vlado, geodezijo, tkanje. Ta izmenjava talentov in spretnosti se je odvijala v mnogih delih kolonialne Amerike, a okrožje Berks je bilo eno redkih krajev, kjer je ta prijazna izmenjava vključevala Indijance. Ta srečna situacija, ta miniaturni in združeni narodi ” so izobraževali in pripravili Daniela Booneja, da postane Veliki iskalec poti.
Od teh prijaznih divjakov se je bodoči indijski borec učil ne le njihovega lesa in jezika Delawarov, ampak tudi navade, značaj in način razmišljanja in občutkov rdečih mož. Tako je pridobil to osupljivo sposobnost razmišljanja o Indijancu, ki mu je v poznejšem življenju, ko je sledil Indijancem, natančno vedel, kaj bodo naredili naprej. John Bakeless, v Master of the Wilderness: Daniel Boone, pravi, “ Mnogi dokumenti iz njegovih let v Kentuckyju prikazujejo, da je Daniel Boone svojim tovarišem zagotovil, da bodo Indijanci storili tako in tako, kot so vedno počeli! ”
Mnogo let kasneje, ko je Daniela in njegove spremljevalne lovce ujela skupina Indijancev, je opazil, da je med njimi pogum, ki ga pozna. Namesto da bi bil mračen in se bal skalpanja ali mučenja, se je pretvarjal, da je vesel ponovnega srečanja s svojimi indijskimi prijatelji. Svoj del je izvajal tako dobro, da so ga nekateri njegovi beli tovariši sumili na izdajo. Toda Indijance je tako popolnoma prepričal, da ga je poglavar posvojil kot sina. Danielova glava je bila obrijana do spredaj, oblekel se je in živel kot Indijanec. Toda na koncu je izkoristil prvo priložnost za pobeg in rešil prijatelje ter dokazal svojo zvestobo.
Ko se je njegova družina preselila v dolino Yadkin (v Severni Karolini), je bil Daniel še nesrečen, a razsvetljen z rdečim moškim. V tekmovanju za tekmovanjem je premagal ambicioznega poguma, ki je bil končno tako razjarjen zaradi teh porazov, da je napovedal, da bo ubil Daniela. Pogumni so izginili, ko je slišal, da je Danielin oče, ki je pozabil na mirne kvekerske poti, odšel ven s sekiro v roki, da bi dobil moškega, ki je grozil njegovemu sinu. Ta izkušnja je Daniela naučila ohraniti prijateljstvo Indijancev in se pretvarjati, da ne more ustreliti tako dobro kot oni. Že začel je razmišljati o Indijancu. ”
Daniel se je izobraževal v lesarstvu in lovu na parceli nekaj kilometrov od domačije Boone, ki jo je njegov oče kupil za pašo goveda. Ker je bilo iz pragozdov očiščenih le dovolj pionirskih kmetij, da so zbrali potrebne pridelke za prehrano družine in kmetijske zaloge, so številni kmetje poleti poslali svoje govedo, da bi ga pitali na oddaljenih spodnjih zemljiščih. Do šestnajstega leta sta Daniel in njegova mati družinsko čredo popeljala na te oddaljene pašnike. Oba sta živela v grobi brunarici, medtem ko je Squire Boone ostal doma, skrbel za svoje tkanje, kovaštvo in kmetijo.
Daniel je bil pri prvi ekspediciji star komaj deset let. Ustvaril je lastno orožje, najprej leseno palico s kopico težkih korenin na dnu, pozneje pa je nabrusilo iz dolge palice. S temi se je naučil na težji način ” ubiti majhno divjad ter razvil natančnost oči in cilja. Pri dvanajstih ali trinajstih je dobil svojo prvo cenjeno puško. Njegove dolžnosti, zjutraj izgon živine in zvečer zaokroževanje v zbrano čredo, so mu pustile dovolj časa za lov. Toda Daniel ni ubil zgolj zaradi zabave. Ubil je, da bi živel. Majhna divjad, ki jo je prinesel, je bila potrebna za hrano, jeleni za hrano in oblačila, boljše kože pa so bile v Philadelphiji po ugodnih cenah prodane.
Dejstvo, da bi njegov oče tej veliki odgovornosti zaupal Daniela, ne dokazuje le, da je bila Amity nenavadno mirna in varna, ampak tudi, da je bil Squire Boone dober učitelj in je zaupal v svojega sina. Ta priložnost, da jo izkoristi sam, in da dokaže svojo zanesljivost in moškost, je Daniela Booneja pripravil na preizkušnje, ko je leto ali dve živel popolnoma sam v divjini indijskega ozemlja.
Leta 1750, ko je bil Daniel 16 let, se je Squire Boone z družino preselil v dolino Yadkin v Severni Karolini. Zakaj je Daniel in oče#8217 preselil, ni jasno. Po uspešnem poslovanju in vzponu na položaj nadzornika “nadzornika##8221 v kvekerski cerkvi je bilo s kolegi v cerkvi nekaj težav pri porokah hčerke in kasneje sina zunaj denominacije. Močnejši razlog za njegov odhod pa je bil ta, da je Amity iz divjine na začetku prerasla v skupnost in kmetijska zemljišča brez kolobarjenja pridelkov (ki so jih takrat poznali le Nizozemci iz Pensilvanije) postajala izčrpana. Do leta 1750 so mnogi kvekerji in “ nizozemski ” prijatelji Squire Boone ubrali pot skozi dolino Shenandoah proti jugozahodu, kjer je bilo na voljo zemljišče za prevzem.
Daniel Boone se je v dolini Yadkin prvič srečal s sovražnimi Indijanci. V bližini so živeli prijazni Catawbasi, zunaj pa so bili Cherokeesi, ki so v naslednjih letih postali Daniel's#8217s problem. Leta 1755 je Daniel spremljal Braddockovo ekspedicijo proti Fort Duquesnu, ne kot vojak, ampak kot voznik vagona Conestoga, in se je iz tega katastrofalnega poraza naučil, kako se ne boriti proti Indijancem.
Mladič, ki je odšel, se je vrnil. Kmalu zatem se je poročil z Rebecco Bryan, sosedovo hčerko#8217, s črnimi očmi in lasmi in#8221 ter trdnostjo značaja, ki jo je zahtevalo življenje na meji.
Žene so imele potem malo časa za počitek, saj so morale kuhati hrano, izdelovati oblačila, oblikovati sveče in krogle, skrbeti za vrt in živino, drobiti maslo, vzgajati družine in negovati, medtem ko so čakali, da se znani mož skavti vrnejo domov. Potem so morali svoje može z družinami pospremiti v puščavo, vse domače naloge nadaljevati z improvizirano opremo in se s puško pripraviti, da se pridružijo boju proti Indijancem. Rebecca Bryan Boone, ki je bila “domača direktorica ”, medtem ko je bil Daniel “avprečni agent ”, bi lahko zahtevala enake pravice do slave, ki jo je osvojil Daniel. In verjetno bi jim jih Daniel podelil Daniel!
Ponosni na svojo zmago nad odpravo Braddock, so Indijanci vdrli v obmejna naselja, vključno z dolino Yadkin. Da bi rešili svojo družino, sta Rebecca in Daniel Boone za dve leti pobegnila v Virginijo. Do takrat so bili Cherokeesi poraženi. Sklenili so mir in z njegovim prihodom sta se Daniel in Rebecca preselila nazaj v Yadkin in tam kupila veliko kmetijo.
Toda Daniel je bil lovec, ne kmet. V naslednjih nekaj letih je romal. Šel je daleč na jug do Floride, kupil hišo in posestvo v Pensacoli v upanju, da se mu bo tam pridružila njegova družina. Toda enkrat v življenju je bolnica Rebecca dejala: “Ne! ” Ni si mogla predstavljati Daniela v državi brez igre, ki jo je navajen streljati.
Boone se je vrnil in nato naredil več lovskih izletov v Tennessee in Kentucky. Toda prelomnica v njegovem življenju je prišla, ko se je John Finley, ki ga je spoznal na poti v Fort Duquesne, pripeljal do njegovih vrat kot trgovec. John Finley mu je povedal o tajnih vratih “ tajnih vrat ” skozi gore v Kentucky, pozneje znani kot pot##8220Warrior ’s, ”, in mu dal sanjati o bogatih loviščih onstran gora.
Daniel je komaj čakal, da bo odkril to skrivno in slabo označeno indijansko pot skozi Cumberland Gap do dežele, kjer je bilo po Finleyjevih besedah v izobilju divjih puranov, potniški golobi so v času selitev zatemnili sonce in črede bivolov tako velik, da je moral lovec biti previden, da ga ne ubijejo v stampedu. 1. maja 1769 se je Daniel odpravil na pot s petimi tovariši, bratom Squirejem, svakom Johnom Stuartom in sosedi. Premikali so se počasi, obremenjeni s tovornimi konji in opremo za daljše bivanje, po gorah Blue Ridge, odkrili Cumberland Gap in naleteli na Warrior's ’s Pot, ki je bila tako spretno označena, da je moral skavt “misliti indijsko ” da ga najdem.
V sedmih mesecih lova so nabrali dragoceno zalogo kože, vendar so ugotovili, da so svoje glavno taborišče postavili preblizu Bojevnikove poti in da so jih odkrili. Ujeti so bili, sad sedemmesečnega lova#8217, ki jim je bil odvzet, in ko jih je vodja Shawneeja izpustil, je opozoril: "Pojdi domov in ostani, sicer te bodo osi in rumeni jopiči zbodli do smrti." pri poskusu pridobivanja nekaterih konjev je bil Daniel spet ujet, a si je z dejstvom, da se pretvarja, da je srečen z indijskimi prijatelji, pridobil zaupanje svojih ujetnikov, zato so sprostili stražo in pobegnil je s svojimi tovariši. Ti možje so imeli dovolj Kentuckyja in so se praznih rok vrnili na svoje domove. Toda neustrašen Daniel se je odločil ostati, njegov edini spremljevalec eno leto v puščavi je bila njegova najljubša dolga puška. Daniel je zbral še eno ogromno zalogo peletov. Njegov brat Squire je prišel s tovornimi konji in zalogami. Ko pa so že skoraj prišli do Yadkina, jih je skupina severnih Indijancev ujela in oropala, zato se je Daniel vrnil domov samo z znanjem, ki ga je pridobil v skoraj dveh letih v puščavi.
“Great Pathfinder, ” kljub temu je danes vedno sprejemal poraz kot#8220domače delo ”, ki ga je treba jutri preučiti za zmago.
Naslednji dve leti je Daniel obnavljal bogastvo svoje družine in se pripravljal na naslednjo odpravo. Ugotovil je, da Yadkin ni več to, kar je bil prej. Uvedeni so bili visoki davki in nepošteno pobrani. Jezni kolonisti so bili organizirani kot “The Regulatorji ”, da bi se uprli zakonu. Te zgodnje vstaje so napovedovale revolucijo, ki je kmalu prišla.
Nato se je Daniel odločil, da bo svojo družino odpeljal s seboj v puščavo-in Rebecca je bila pripravljena. Zdaj kot ovire ni imel le “ (indijskih) ose in rumenih jopičev##8221, ampak tudi prepoved kralja Georgea III, ki je svojim “ljubečim podložnikom ” prepovedal, da bi se naselili onkraj Apalaških gora. 25. septembra 1773 se je Daniel odpravil s svojo in še petimi družinami ter bratoma Rebecco, ki sta raje pustila svoje družine doma, dokler se ni začela poravnava.
Na prvi družinski ekspediciji je naletel na preizkušnje in obrate, skozi katere je lahko šel le nepremagljiv Daniel, nato pa prosil za več. Njegov sin James, poslan nazaj po zaloge, je bil ujet in mučen do smrti. Izbruhnila je vojna lorda Dinsmorea z Indijanci in družina Boone se je morala umakniti v dolino Clinch. Potem je kapitan Daniel Boone skozi to vojno služil v milici.
Na naslednji odpravi je Boone vodil trideset moških, ki jih je pri projektu razvoja zemljišč zaposlil Richard Henderson. Na cilj so prispeli 6. aprila 1775. To je bil Big Lick tik pod ustjem Otter Creeka na reki Kentucky. Daniel je ambicijo svojega mladega življenja dosegel z ustanovitvijo Boonesbora v Kentuckyju.
Toda ustanovitev je bila veliko lažja od ohranjanja. Vojna za neodvisnost je bila le leto dni stran. Boonesboro je bilo treba braniti skozi to. Daniel je nekaj let preživel v indijskem ujetništvu. In po vojni so bila leta raziskovanja in delitve zemljišča. Iskren Daniel, ki je lahko ubijal medvede in bivole ter se v vojni barvi soočil z divjimi Indijanci, ni bil kos njegovemu tedanjemu politiku in odvetniku. Večkrat je mislil, da je lastnik ogromnih zemljišč, vendar je ugotovil, da jih je izgubil zaradi zvijače v zakonu. Tako se je Daniel nenehno premikal naprej in nazadnje, v Missouri, kjer je leta 1820 umrl v starosti 86 let-za tisto izjemno starost.
Nikoli ni našel miru, ki ga je zapustil v okrožju Berks. Kljub temu je milijonom Američanov, ki danes tam živijo, odprl velike možnosti Srednjega zahoda.
Kaj bi po vašem mnenju storil, če bi Daniel Boone danes ponovno obiskal okrožje Berks? Verjetno bi obiskal spominsko pomlad in ognjišče v svojem starem domu, vzel puško iz Pennsylvanije in preveril, ali je točno tako kot “Tick-Licker, ”, in se sprehodil do daljnega pašnika, kamor sta z mamo vzela čredo za poletno pašo in se je najprej naučil “ iti sam. ” In zagotovo bi bil vesel, če bi odkril, da je njegov dom postal državno zgodovinsko svetišče, da je območje Amity, ki ga je naučilo in postalo Veliki Pathfinder se je zdaj imenoval Daniel Boone Public School Jointure in da so mladi, ki jih zanima lesarstvo in od zunaj, organizirani kot svet tabornikov Daniel Boone.
Tako kot v zgodbi Maeterlincka in modre ptice, The Blue Bird, bo Daniel Boone morda odkril, da je bila sreča, ki jo je vedno iskal in je nikoli ni našel, res tukaj doma v okrožju Berks, kjer se je veliko različnih ljudi zgodaj naučilo živeti skupaj v svobodi in prijateljstvu.
Ta članek je bil prvotno objavljen v zimskem letu 1959-1960 v reviji Historical Review of Berks County
Daniel Boone se je rodil 2. novembra 1734 v bližini Readinga v Pensilvaniji, šesti od enajstih otrok, rojenih Squireju Booneju, kmetu in špekulantu z zemljišči (oseba, ki kupuje zemljišče v upanju, da se bo njegova vrednost povečala in prodala za dobiček) in Sarah Morgan. Njegova formalna izobrazba je bila omejena, bolj se je zanimal na prostem. Z družino se je leta 1751. preselil v Severno Karolino. Po delu za svojega očeta je Boone postal vagon (voznik vagona) in kovač.
Leta 1755 se je Boone kot popotnik pridružil generalu Edwardu Braddocku (ok. 1695 ), poveljniku britanskih sil v Severni Ameriki. Boone je med francosko in indijsko vojno (1754 ), vojno med Britanci in Francozi za nadzor nad zemljišči v Severni Ameriki, sodeloval pri Braddockovem poskusu zavzetja Fort Duquesne (doo-KANE, zdaj Pittsburgh, Pensilvanija). Med pohodom je spoznal lovca Johna Finleyja, katerega govor o divjini v Kentuckyju je močno vplival na kariero Booneja. Ko je ukaz Braddock 's uničila francoska in indijska zaseda, je Boone rešil življenje na konju.
Boone married Rebecca Bryan on August 14, 1756, and settled down in North Carolina, believing that he had all he needed—Ȫ good gun, a good horse, and a good wife." Finley's stories of Kentucky, though, never really left Boone's mind.
Most people think of Daniel Boone as a great explorer and hunter. Though he certainly was these things, he was also much more. Born in Reading, Pennsylvania in 1734, Daniel was the sixth of 11 children born to Squire Boone and Sarah Morgan. He took an interest in the outdoors at an early age and quickly became a good hunter, learning first to hunt with a handmade spear and later, with a rifle given to him by his father.
In 1750, at the age of 15, Daniel and his family moved to the backwoods of North Carolina. As Daniel became older, he started making a living by hunting. By 1765, four times as many people lived in the Yadkin Valley in North Carolina than when the Boones first moved there. The increase in people made hunting more difficult, and Daniel had to travel further and further from home to find game. Daniel also had a large amount of debt from taking out loans to buy hunting provisions. When John Findley approached Daniel about prosperous game in what today is the state of Kentucky, he decided to join the hunting trip and in 1767, went on his first large expedition westward. The land in Kentucky proved to be plentiful in game and was greatly appealing. Daniel permanently moved from North Carolina and sealed his place in history as the person who settled Kentucky.
Boone flourished in his new home. He held many government jobs including lieutenant colonel, legislative representative and sheriff. By 1799, Kentucky was becoming too crowded for the Boone family, so when they were invited by the Spanish to move to Upper Louisiana (present day Missouri) they gladly accepted.
When Daniel Boone came to Missouri, he was 65 years old. He brought his wife, Rebecca, and several of his children with him. Daniel acquired 850 acres located about four miles from the Historic Daniel Boone Home at Lindenwood Park. Though the home on our site is named after Boone, it was actually the home of his youngest son, Nathan Boone. Daniel appeared to have spent little time on his actual property, choosing rather to spend his time in his son's home. The home took several years to construct since it is four stories tall and the limestone walls are 2.5 feet thick. It was built in this way to provide protection in the event of an attack from the nearby Indians. While in Missouri, Daniel kept very busy at his appointed position as Commandant of the region and a Syndic, or judge. Daniel Boone passed away in the home on Sept. 26, 1820.
Missouri provided the Boone family with all the essentials they needed to survive: good land rich for farming and bountiful with trees and plants, natural water sources, and plenty of game to hunt for food. The Historic Daniel Boone Home at Lindenwood Park brings the story of Daniel Boone to life and helps enliven the frontier experience. Though life was quite different in the 1800s, the values of family, exploration and fortitude needed to face the hard life of the frontier remain just as strong and true today. Discovery has brought us far and it is people like Daniel Boone who helped pave the way.
The Life and Times of the Real Daniel Boone
“Many heroic actions and chivalrous adventures are related of me which exist only in the regions of fancy. With me the world has taken great liberties, and yet I have been but a common man.”
When you say the name “Daniel Boone,” all sorts of images pop up. Among these are: Outdoorsman. Adventurer. Trailblazer. Warrior. Countryman. Revolucionarno. Most people picture Daniel Boone as a man in a coonskin cap, sitting around reading the Bible by a raging fire in the deep, dark wilderness.
But there’s a difference between the myth we’ve created and the man who actually existed. While some of those larger than life myths have their basis in truth, Daniel Boone lived an extraordinary life—even if he didn’t wear a coonskin cap!
Daniel Boone was born on November 2, 1734 in Berks County, Pennsylvania. His father was Squire Boone, an English Quaker immigrant, and his mother was Sarah Boone, also a Quaker. Daniel was the sixth of eleven children.
His brother’s wife taught him basic reading and writing skills, and after his schoolteacher expressed dismay over Daniel’s education, his father was quoted as saying, “let the girls do the spelling and Daniel can do the shooting.” At the age of 12, Daniel received his first shotgun, and he became such an excellent shot that he provided the family with most of their food.
In 1750, Squire moved his family from Pennsylvania to the Yadkin River in North Carolina. During those years, Daniel became a professional hunter working in the Appalachian Mountains. Sometimes, Boone would be gone for months at a time.
As a gifted hunter and frontiersman, Boone needed to learn Indian ways, languages, and laws so that he could serve as an intermediary between Europe and Native Americans. These skills helped him tremendously and added to his reputation as a great leader and frontiersman. However, Boone was first and foremost a survivor. When he was fighting in the French and Indian War beside the British, he abandoned the fight rather than die, because he believed that living to see another day was better than dying for a cause that was not his own.
On August 14, 1756, Daniel married Rebecca Bryan, a neighbor in the Yadkin River Valley. The couple originally lived in a small cabin on Squire’s farm and would go on to have 10 children. Daniel supported his family by working as a hunter and trapper, and he was often gone on long hunts that could last weeks or months. In fact, when Boone joined the militia during a Cherokee uprising, his expeditions into Cherokee territory beyond the Blue Ridge Mountains kept them apart for over two years.
Boone continued to move his family several times, hoping to find a place where he could support his family and lay down roots. However, after returning to the Yadkin River Valley, he realized that it had become too heavily populated and that game was scarce. He also was out of money because of failed land deals and was often in court because he could not pay his debts. At this point, Boone headed westward to find a better place in Kentucky.
In 1769, Boone was captured by a band of Shawnees who considered him to be a poacher. They confiscated all of Boone’s skins and told him to leave and never return. However, the hunting and trapping was so good there that Boone continued to do both. He returned to North Carolina in 1771, and in 1773, he packed up his family and headed west. However, a band of Delawares, Shawnees, and Cherokees decided to attack Boone’s party and two members were gruesomely tortured and killed. This led the Boones to end their expedition and return home.
Following an agreement with the Cherokee to sell their land claims, Boone was hired by a rich landowner and sent off to blaze a path into the new frontier. It would become known as The Wilderness Trail, and it stretched through the Cumberland Gap and into central Kentucky. By the end of the 18 th Century, more than 200,000 settlers had followed that trail to a new life along the frontier.
Boone continued on to the Kentucky River, where he established a settlement named Boonesborough. Finally, Boone went back for his family and brought them all to the settlement named for him. But trouble and adventure had a way of finding Boone. His daughter, Jemima, and several of her young girlfriends were all kidnapped by a band of Shawnee and Cherokee men and taken into the wilderness.
Boone gathered a posse of men and followed them, striking when they stopped to eat a meal. Boone and his party rescued all of the girls and drove off the kidnappers. This story became one of the many tales about Boone’s life that made his myth grow. In fact, it served as the inspiration for Nathaniel Hawthorne’s beloved story, The Last of the Mohicans.
During the years that followed, Boone joined the militia and served in the Revolutionary War was captured by the Shawnee, adopted by Chief Blackfish and renamed Sheltowee (“Big Turtle”) escaped and warned the settlers of Boonesborough that the Shawnee were about to attack led the resistance to the attack and won, despite the fact that his group was greatly outnumbered and was later court-martialed because some believed he was loyal to the Shawnee, but he was cleared of all charges against him and even promoted following his testimony to the court.
By the time he was 50 years old, the life he had forged in the wilderness was romanticized in a book written by John Filson that Boone later called ridiculous. True or not, it made Boone into a celebrity and a legend of the American frontier.
While Boone was considered the person who opened up the frontier to other settlers, he didn’t really benefit from it. He was a failed land speculator and spent much of his time in debt. He lost title to the lands he bought in Kentucky and finally left the United States for a fresh start. He moved his entire family to Missouri—then called Spanish Louisiana—in 1799.
Boone spent the final years of his life working as a syndic (magistrate) in Femme Osage county. He seemed more interested in treating people fairly than sticking strictly to the letter of the law. Following the Louisiana Purchase, Boone lost his Spanish land claims once again, but sued for their return and won. However, he had to sell off his lands to settle claims still held by old Kentucky debtors.
He spent his last years in the company of his wife, children and grandchildren, hunting as much as his health allowed. His wife Rebecca died in 1813 and he passed away on September 26, 1820.
The legend of Daniel Boone, however, lives on to this day. In the 19 th century, Boone became a folklore hero through novels that were filled with tall tales. Boone was said to have wrestled bears, swung from vines, and killed huge numbers of Indians. His family tried to point out that all of these adventures were absolutely false Boone was actually very friendly with the Shawnee and Cherokee people, respected their culture and ways, and even went hunting with the same people who kidnapped him!
The Legend Continues with Fess Parker as Daniel Boone
In the 20 th century, Boone’s legend continued to grow. He was the subject of the TV series, Daniel Boone, that ran on NBC from 1964 to 1970. The popular theme song for the series described Boone as a “big man” in a “coonskin cap”, and the “rippin’est, roarin’est, fightin’est man the frontier ever knew!”
Fess Parker as Daniel Boone
Fess Parker starred as Boone, and since he was a tall actor who also played the popular role of Davy Crockett in an earlier TV show, that was how he would be portrayed.
Today, audiences still enjoy the life and legend of Daniel Boone and all of his adventures on INSP.
Daniel Boone despised coonskin caps! He considered them “uncivilized” and instead wore a beaver hat—the same type of hat worn by his father, Squire, and the Quaker men Daniel knew in Pennsylvania. So why is he always depicted in a coonskin cap? That’s because an actor who was helping to sell engravings of Boone’s portrait was hired to play Boone in a minstrel show called “The Hunters of Kentucky.” Since he couldn’t find a beaver hat, he wore a coonskin cap—and another part of the Daniel Boone legend was born.
Daniel Boone - Children, Home and TV Show - HISTORY
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Introducing Daniel Boone
You remember that when the Last French War began, in 1756, the English colonists lived almost entirely east of the Alleghany Mountains. If you will look at your map, you will see how small a part of our present great country they occupied.
Even up to the beginning of the Revolution the Americans had few settlers west of the Alleghanies, and had done very little there to make good their claims to land.
Yet at the close of the war we find that their western boundary-line had been pushed back as far as the Mississippi River. How this was done we shall see if we turn our attention to those early hunters and backwoodsmen who did great service to our country as pioneers in opening up new lands.
One of the most famous of these was Daniel Boone. He was born in Pennsylvania, and, like many of the heroes of the Revolution, he was born in the &ldquothirties&rdquo (1735).
As a boy, Daniel liked to wander in the woods with musket and fishing-rod, and was never so happy as when alone in the wild forest. The story is told that while a mere lad he wandered one day into the woods some distance from home and built himself a rough shelter of logs, where he would spend days at a time, with only his rifle for company.
As he was a &ldquogood shot,&rdquo we may be sure he never went hungry for lack of food. The game which his rifle brought down he would cook over a pile of burning sticks. If you have done outdoor camp cooking, you can almost taste its woodland flavor. Then at night as he lay under the star-lit sky on a bed of leaves, with the skin of a wild animal for covering, a prince might have envied his dreamless slumber.
This free, wild life made him thoroughly at home in the forests, and trained him for the work he was to do later as a fearless hunter and woodsman.
When Daniel was about thirteen years old his father removed to North Carolina and settled on the Yadkin River. There the boy grew to manhood. After his marriage, at twenty, he built himself a hut far out in the lonely forest, beyond the homes of the other settlers.
But he was a restless man and looked with longing toward the rugged mountains on the west. Along the foothills other pioneer settlers and hunters had taken up their abode. And young Boone&rsquos imagination leaped to the country beyond the mountains, where the forest stretched for miles upon miles, no one knew how far, to the Mississippi River. It was an immense wilderness teeming with game, and he wanted to hunt and explore in it.
He was twenty-five when he made the first &ldquolong hunt&rdquo we know about. At this time he went as far as what is now Boone&rsquos Creek, in eastern Tennessee.
Other trips doubtless he made which increased his love for wandering and in 1769, nine years after his first trip, having heard from a stray Indian of a wonderful hunting-ground far to the west, he started out with this Indian and four other men to wander through the wilderness of Kentucky.
For five weeks these bold hunters threaded their way through lonely and pathless mountain forests, facing many dangers from wild beasts and Indians.
Daniel Boone - Children, Home and TV Show - HISTORY
Daniel Boone cabin at Netherland Inn in Kingsport
by W. Dale Carter, copyright 2009
Log cabin on grounds of Netherland Inn complex
The purpose of this article is to set the record straight about the history of the so-called "Boone Cabin" located on the grounds of the Netherland Inn complex. A sign is located beside the cabin with the follow inscription:
&ldquoIn 1979/80 this 1773 cabin was carefully dismantled and moved from beside the Kentucky Wilderness Road in Duffield, Virginia and reassembled here on the foundation of the Netherland Inn Slave Cabin home of a beloved, Jordan Netherland & his wife Jane Lynn. This was the 1773-75 home of Daniel & Rebecca Boone and later the Ephriam Fraley home. It is a fine specimen of the typical early pioneer log architecture of the region&rdquo.
Interpretative marker at Netherland Inn (see inset left for "1773 Boone Cabin")
While there is some notion that Daniel Boone and his family lived in a log cabin in Duffield, Virginia from the Fall of 1773 until the early Summer of 1775, the idea is without merit and is based on local folklore and is not supported by any known documentation. Factual documentation clearly shows that Boone set out with a party of five families from his home in North Carolina on his way to Kentucky. He traveled as far as the mouth of Wallins creek in present day Lee County, Virginia, but he was forced to abort the journey when the Indians attacked a part of the expedition that was traveling about three miles to the rear of the main party. His son James was killed. The Boone expedition party decided it was too dangerous to continue the journey to Kentucky and some of the members of the Boone expedition returned to their homes in Carolina. Boone decided to take his family to the safety of Moore&rsquos fort located in Castlewood, Russell County, Virginia. His family resided there from October 1773 until June of 1775.
The Draper manuscripts located in the Wisconsin Historical Society collections at Madison Wisconsin has the following document:
&ldquoAn amusing story is told of the Boone family while they were living in Moore's Fort by Mrs. Samuel Scott of Jessamine County, Kentucky, who was also at the time living in the fort. Mrs. Scott says the men had become very careless in guarding the fort, lounging outside the gates, playing ball and in general lax in their duties. One day Mrs. Boone, her daughter, Mrs. Hannah Carr and some of the other ladies loaded their guns lightly, went out from the fort, shut the gates and shot their guns off in rapid succession like the Indians. The men all scrambled for the fort, but finding the gates shut none could get in, but one young man who managed to climb over the stockade wall. So great was their consternation that some of the men ran right through the pond in front of the fort. After they were finally let in the gates Mrs. Scott says the men were so mad some of them wanted to have the women whipped.&rdquo
Per Emory Hamilton based on the Draper MMS 11 CC 224, this document proves the Boone family was living in Castlewood at Moore&rsquos Fort, Russell County, Virginia, not Duffield in Scott County.
The first owners of the area known today as Duffield were James Parberry, John Preston Jr., and John Balfour. Each obtained a land grant from the Commonwealth of Virginia. John Balfour sold his land grant to John McKinney on 16 Feb 1802 recorded in Lee County Deed Book 1, page 212. When McKinney attempted to establish the bounds of his newly acquired land, he found about 100 acres of his purchase lay within the boundary of the Preston grant and a lawsuit was filed in Augusta County to resolve the conflict of the property surveys. (1)
First landowners in the area of Duffield, Virginia
Due to the great distance of travel from Scott County to Augusta County depositions were taken of local residents and submitted to the court as evidence, and these depositions were recorded in the Augusta County court records. These depositions shed light on the early settlement around Duffield. The depositions show there was no permanent settlement made in the Duffield area before 1775. The Hoosers, Felty and his son John and Abraham built cabins on the North Fork of Clinch River in the Flat Lick around 1777. They were driven from their settlement by the Indians and the area &ldquoremained unsettled and dangerous until after 1785 because of the Indians&rdquo. It is illogical to suggest that Daniel Boone settled his family in the flat lick area in the fall of 1773.
In 1773, not a single family resided in the area around Duffield. The nearest settlement was at Fort Blackmore several miles to the east and on the Clinch River. Several families attempted to settle in Powell Valley in 1774, but they were driven from their homes with the onset of &ldquoDunsmore&rsquos War&rdquo and retreated to the safety of Fort Blackmore and Moore&rsquos fort.
I have researched log home construction for near forty years with the objective of estimating the date of construction of a log building by observing the type of notch used to connect the logs at the corners of the building. Three types of notches were used in this section of the country, namely saddle notch, V notch, and half dove-tail notch.
- The very earliest cabins were constructed using round logs and saddle notches. The construction was simple and most anyone with an axe could erect a cabin in a few days. The cabins had no windows and no floor except the raw earth and the roof was constructed of bark or split shingles supported on poles and held in place with weight poles.
- A more permanent cabin would have been constructed of small logs 8 to 10 inches in diameter and hewn on two sides to a log thickness of 6 inches, and the logs were connected at the corners by a V notch. The V notch is a simple notch that an unskilled craftsman could make using only an axe as a tool.
- The half dove-tail notch is a far superior notch for connecting logs, but it is a complicated notch to fabricate requiring a craftsman with some specials skills that the average person does not possess. To date, I have not identified a single log house in southwest Virginia or northeast Tennessee built before about 1840 that used the half dove-tail notch. The so-called Boone Cabin at the Netherland Inn is constructed with the half dove-tail notch and the craftsmanship of the notches is not of high quality.
The cabin located at the Netherland Inn is constructed using half-dovetail notches. Half-dove tail notches were not used to build log houses in the area before about 1840. Therefore I conclude the so-called Boone cabin was built after 1840 and more likely after the Civil War.
A careful analysis of the construction details and architectural features lead me to believe that the cabin is a hybrid. That is, it contains logs from two or more log buildings. The workmanship is poor. On the south end of the cabin, some of the logs are heavily weathered and other logs are weathered very little. The slope of the half-dovetail notches varies from no slope at all to a slope of 20-30 degrees. The next to the top log on the southwest corner of the building is approximately 4 inches off the center line of the building corner.
Southwest corner of cabin at Netherland Inn
The most unique feature of the building is the construction of the top log on the west side. The log rests on a projection of the log below it. The log it rests on is a short log that butts against another log. This feature is structurally unsound. The top log is hewn on four sides to a dimension of approximately 6 inches by 12 inches and forms the eaves of the house. The rafters rest on this log. I have never before seen this feature in a log house. It is obvious the design of the eave was not incorporated into the design of the original building. The logs on both ends of the cabin that support the eave log contain butt joints, which means they were not a part of the original cabin.
North end of cabin at Netherland Inn
The north end of the cabin is a patch-work of logs that have been pieced together to form the north end of the cabin. Six of the logs contain butt joints. The next to the top log northwest corner joint is out of alignment by at least four inches. It is clear the builders of the cabin used logs from two or more log buildings to construct the north end of the building.
Northwest corner of cabin at Netherland Inn
The sign at the cabin states the &ldquocabin was carefully dismantled and moved from beside the Kentucky Wilderness Road and reassembled&rdquo. This statement leads one to believe the cabin at the Netherland Inn end looks exactly as it did before it was moved to its present site. In my opinion, this statement is not true. The so-called Boone cabin was built with logs from dismantled log buildings. Apparently the workers that erected the cabin at the Netherland Inn complex were not able to find logs that would span the distance between the corners and had to resort to using two logs butt-jointed together to make the span between corners.
This cabin is not &ldquoa fine specimen of the typical early log home architecture of the region.&rdquo Half-dovetail notches were not used in the construction of the early log homes of the area. The unique design of the eaves of the cabin is one of a kind. No other log cabin in the area was constructed with this design. At least seven butt joint logs were used in the construction. No early log home would have used a butt joint. Trees were plentiful, if a log was not long enough to span the distance between the corners a new log would have been cut and notched to fit.
Finally, the log cabin construction is poorly crafted and no way can it be an original log cabin. Boone never lived in the cabin, the cabin was not built in 1773 and Boone never lived at Duffield. The sign next to the cabin needs to be corrected. The public and school children should not be misinformed and lead to believe that they have seen the cabin that the legendary Daniel Boone once lived in. What a travesty!
The true site of the cabin where Daniel Boone was supposed to have lived is located in Russell County, Virginia on the David Gist land claim near Moore&rsquos Fort in Castlewood.
Actual site where Daniel Boone lived on Gist land near Moore's Fort in Castlewood, Russell Co., VA
Rebecca Bryan Boone
Rebecca Bryan was born in Virginia on January 9, 1738, to Joseph Bryan, Sr. and Alee Linville. When she was 10, Rebecca moved with her Quaker family to the Yadkin River valley in the western Piedmont region of North Carolina. Daniel Boone was born in Pennsylvania in 1734, and his family settled near the Bryans in 1750, when Daniel was 15.
Rebecca and Daniel began their courtship in 1753, and married three years later on August 14, 1756. Their marriage lasted fifty-six years, and they had ten children – six sons and four daughters. The new Mr. and Mrs. Boone didn’t have their own cabin, so they stayed with his folks until they built their own cabin on Sugar Tree Creek. Shortly after they moved into their new home, their first child was born.
During the French and Indian War, Daniel Boone joined British Major General Edward Braddock on his march to attack Fort Duquesne, a French fortification located in present-day Pittsburgh. George Washington, then a young colonial militia leader, also joined the march.
During the trip, Boone worked as a wagoner alongside a trader named John Findley who had traveled to the Native American villages in Ohio and beyond. John told Boone about a place the Native Americans called Kentucke – a hunting ground packed with deer, buffalo, bear, and turkey.
As the men neared Fort Duquesne, they were overpowered and suffered huge losses. Boone grabbed a horse from his wagon team and escaped, eventually returning to North Carolina but dreaming of Kentucky.
The Boones moved back on the Yadkin River in North Carolina in 1759, and Daniel bought 640 acres from his father for 50 pounds. He built Rebecca a cabin there and put in a crop of corn. Soon after, he was off west into the mountains. He’d come home and farm a bit in the spring and summer and then disappear again. In the fall he’d hunt come winter he’d be off trapping beaver.
Eventually, John Findley sought Daniel Boone out and asked him to accompany him on a trip to Kentucky. Joined by four others, they set out in 1769 and crossed through the Appalachian Mountains via Cumberland Gap. Few white men had dared to cross the mountains. The men built a base camp, and spent several months hunting and exploring the great wilderness.
Image: Daniel Boone
Engraving from a painting by Chester Harding
The Shawnee Indians captured Boone’s hunting party several months into the expedition. They claimed the area as their hunting ground, and believed anything caught there belonged to them. The Shawnee took the men’s supplies and deerskins. Boone escaped and finally returned home in March 1771, penniless and empty-handed.
A skilled woodsman, crack shot, and tireless traveler, Daniel Boone journeyed into Kentucky for long periods of time, hunted, then brought back the furs to trade. This often left Rebecca and the ten children she had between 1757 and 1781 behind. She was adept at surviving on her own, and the solid foundation the family relied on for their survival.
Then Daniel decided to sell his farm and take his family into the wilderness – and Rebecca was willing. On September 25, 1773, Daniel set out with his own family and five others and Rebecca’s brothers, who preferred to leave their families at home until a settlement had been started. Their belongings were transported on horseback because the Cumberland Gap wasn’t yet wide enough for wagon crossings.
They were intercepted by Shawnee in an attack that resulted in the death of Boone’s oldest son, James. The party was forced to retreat to the Clinch River in North Carolina, which was the Boones’ next home. They stayed there for almost two years.
During that time Rebecca’s uncle, James Bryan, showed up on their doorstep one day, and his news was not good. His wife had died and there he was with six children to care for, ranging in age from six to sixteen. Rebecca told James to bring the children in to live with her and Daniel. Soon thereafter, the Boones’ ninth child was born.
In 1775, a friend hired Boone to cut a path into Kentucky for a new settlement on land purchased from the Cherokee. Boone led about thirty axmen through the wilderness to clear a path, which eventually became a route to the new frontier and was called the Wilderness Road.
When the group reached the Kentucky River, they built a fort and called it Boonesboro, and other settlers followed. Because Boonesboro was situated in a remote area at the edge of the frontier, settlers fortified the village with a high-fenced wall. Native Americans frequently attacked Boonesboro, hoping to drive the settlers back east.
On Sunday, July 14, 1776, Jemima Boone and her two friends, Elizabeth and Frances Callaway, were canoeing on the Kentucky River when they were captured by a small party of Cherokee and Shawnee men. The settlement of Boonesboro was greatly alarmed and sent out a rescue party organized by Daniel Boone. After three days of searching, they found Jemima and the Callaway girls across the Ohio River.
Image: Jemima Boone’s Rescue
Lithograph by George Fasel
Daniel Boone himself was captured by the Shawnee in 1778. Impressed with his scouting and hunting skills, the Shawnee chief adopted Daniel as one of his own. He lived among the Shawnee for four months before escaping and returning to Boonesboro.
John Filson’s 1784 publication, The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boone made Boone a legend in his own time, although Filson stretched the truth in many instances, trying to make Boone’s adventures sound even more fascinating.
After the publication of Filson’s book folks started asking Daniel to locate, survey, and stake out tracts of land for them in Kentucky. He obliged them and set the price for his services at one half of the land he surveyed. By 1788, Rebecca’s husband owned some 50,000 acres of prime Kentucky land.
Whether or not Daniel realized it, he often surveyed land that had previous claims on it. He also had a tendency to put off establishing legal title to the land, and others might have used this delay to establish title for themselves on lands he had surveyed.
As a result, thousands of acres were lost by his customers, which meant Daniel’s portions were lost, too. It wasn’t long before people started to regard this honest backwoodsman as a fraud, and the lawsuits began. Daniel started selling off his own land to pay people back, but discovered that he didn’t always have clear title to it.
In 1792, Kentucky was admitted into the Union as the 15th state. Litigation arose that questioned many settlers’ title to their lands. The Boones eventually lost all their property in Kentucky due to title errors or to pay off debts.
In 1799, Daniel Boone led his family and other settlers across the Mississippi River into Spanish-held Missouri, which was called Upper Louisiana . Spanish authorities were eager to have settlers in the area, and granted Boone 850 acres in the Femme Osage District of what is now Missouri.
Daniel built a canoe from a six-foot poplar tree so he could move some household items by river, and made the journey with his wife, two of his daughters and their husbands, and son Daniel Morgan Boone. Several other Kentucky families came, and son Nathan Boone soon followed.
Image: Boonesboro Kentucky
By the following winter, Rebecca, Daniel, and various others of their extended family were settled on tracts of land on the lower Missouri River, which totaled thousands of acres. Best of all for Daniel, there was a whole new stretch of wilderness for him to explore.
Daniel he was made a commandant, or syndic , in that area. As a syndic, he settled disputes that arose among the settlers. He became famous for holding court under a large tree on his son Nathan’s land. This tree came to be known as the Judgment Tree.
The Boones were doing well in Missouri, until the Louisiana Purchase. In 1804, they again lost their land claims after Spain transferred the territory to France, which in turn sold it to the United States. The Boones remained in the area, living on land family members had secured. Their claim to another tract of land was confirmed by Congress in 1812, in consideration of Daniel’s services.
Rebecca had moved many times during her lifetime. She had created numerous homes in North Carolina, Virginia, Kentucky, and finally Missouri where she spent the last fourteen years of her life.
Rebecca Bryan Boone died on March 18, 1813, at the age of 75. She was buried at the Boone-Bryan family cemetery in the Marthasville area overlooking the Missouri River.
In 1815, Nathan Boone was discharged from the Missouri Rangers and moved back into his log home at Femme Osage, and started building a large stone structure that represented his rising status in the community. The walls were built of native blue limestone that were two and a half feet thick. He used oxen to drag the large chunks of limestone to his property.
Daniel Boone helped oversee the construction, and is said to have carved the walnut mantelpieces for the seven fireplaces. The house also includes black walnut beams and oak floorboards, and a ballroom on the top level. Though it is often referred to as the Daniel Boone Home, but it was actually Nathan’s home. Daniel Boone lived in the home from time to time, and spent his final moments there.
Daniel Boone died at Nathan Boone’s home in Defiance, Missouri, on September 26, 1820, the age of 86 – a remarkably old age for the times. He was buried beside his loving wife.
Bratje in sestre
- Sarah Cassandra Boone 1724-1815 Poročena 29 May 1742, Berks Co., PA, doJohn Wilcoxson 1720-1782
- Israel Boone 1726-1756 Poročena 31 December 1747 doMary S. Wharton
- Samuel J. Boone 1728-1814 Poročena in 1748, North Carolina, doSarah Day 1731-1819
- John Morgan Boone 1730-ca 1808 Married toElizabeth Dagley 1730..1736-
- Elizabeth Boone 1733-1825 ZWilliam Grant 1726-1804
- Nancy Boone 1733- ZJames McElwee 1722-1807
- Jacob Boone 1735-1780
- Mary Boone 1736-1819 Poročena in 1755, Rowan Co., NC, doWilliam Bryan 1733-1780
- George Boone 1739-1820 Poročena 28 November 1764, Rowan Co., NC, doNancy Ann Linville 1744-1814
- Edward Boone 1740-1780 Poročena, Rowan Co., NC, doMartha Bryan 1737-
- Squire Boone 1744-1815 Poročena 8 August 1765, Rowan Co., NC, doJane VanCleave 1749-1829
- Hannah Boone 1746-1828 Poročena 5 May 1777, Yadkin, Rowan Co., NC, doRichard Pennington 1752-1813