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Maršal Odet de Foix, grof Lautrec, 1485-1528

Maršal Odet de Foix, grof Lautrec, 1485-1528


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Maršal Odet de Foix, grof Lautrec, 1485-1528

Maršal Odet de Foix, grof Lautrec (1485-1528) je bil francoski poveljnik italijanskih vojn, ki je bil najbolj znan po hudem porazu pri La Bicocci leta 1522.

Lautrec se je rodil leta 1485. Postal je pomemben po prestolu Frančiška I. in je vsaj delno dolžan napredovati kot brat Frančiškove ljubice Francoise, grofice Châteaubriant. Bil je del francoske vojske, ki je leta 1515 napadla Italijo, in se boril pri Frančiškovi veliki zmagi pri Marignanu (15.-16. September 1515). To je Frančišku dalo v posest Milan, Lautrec pa je bil imenovan za guvernerja.

Lautrec je bil nepriljubljen vladar. Po izbruhu prve vojne Habsburg-Valois (1521-26) se je soočil s špansko-nemško-papeško vojsko, ki ji je poveljeval sposobni italijanski vodja Prospero Colonna. Sprva je Colonna poskušal zavzeti Parmo, vendar je obleganje zavladalo. Colonna se je nato odločila, da se namesto tega osredotoči na Lautrecovo vojsko. Francozi so bili izigrani, Colonna pa je lahko napredoval proti Milanu. Lautrec ni mogel preprečiti Colonni, da bi prečkala Po, se pridružila svojim švicarskim zaveznikom, prečkala Addo in napredovala proti Milanu. Lautrecova nepriljubljenost je zdaj povzročila protifrancoski upor in 23. novembra je mesto padlo pod cesarstvo. V rokah Francozov je ostal le milanski grad. Lautrec se je moral umakniti v Como, takrat pod beneškim poveljstvom.

Lautrec je bil kmalu okrepljen, kar mu je dalo okoli 25.000 mož (vključno z 8.000 švicarskimi plačanci) in 10.000 beneških zaveznikov. Denarja je bilo malo, Švicarji pa niso bili plačani. Dogovorili so se, da bodo vodili eno bitko pred odhodom, zaradi česar je Lautrec hitro napadel. Odločil se je za napad na Colonnino utrjeno taborišče v La Bicocci blizu Milana. Colonna je imela manj moških, okoli 20.000, vendar so vključevali odlično špansko pehoto in so bili v močnem položaju, saj so obstoječim jarkom in stenam vrta v La Bicocci dodali okope.

Bitka pri La Bicocci (27. aprila 1522) se je začela s čelnim napadom na španske utrdbe. Lautrecovi švicarski vojaki niso dosegli napredka in so utrpeli zelo velike žrtve, v kratkem času so izgubili okoli 3000 mrtvih. Lautrec jim je poskušal pomagati, tako da je poslal svojo konjenico, da bi zaobšel španski položaj, vendar je to potezo milanska konjenica premagala pod Francescom Sforzo. Lautrec in njegove preživele čete so se morale umakniti proti vzhodu na beneško ozemlje, medtem ko so se preživeli Švicarji vrnili domov.

Konec leta 1524 je Frančišek I. vodil novo vojsko v Italijo. Lautrec se je pridružil tej sili in bil tako prisoten v katastrofalni bitki pri Paviji (24. februarja 1525). Tako kot Frančišek je bil Lautrec med bitko ujet. Po plačilu odkupnine so ga izpustili.

Frančiška so odpeljali v Španijo, kjer je na koncu sprejel Madridsko pogodbo (marec 1526), ​​s katero je uradno končal prvo vojno Habsburg-Valois. Nato so ga izpustili na francosko mejo

Kmalu po izpustitvi je Frančišek opustil pogodbo in sprožil drugo vojno Habsburg-Valois. Eden prvih rezultatov te obnovljene vojne je bila katastrofalna cesarska vreča v Rimu maja 1527. Čeprav je bil Karlo V. v zadregi zaradi pogleda svojih vojsk, ki so plenile Sveto mesto, mu je omogočil nadzor nad papežem Klementom, ki se je bil prisiljen predati pod pogoji v začetku junija.

Julija 1527 se je Lautrec vrnil v Italijo na čelu velike francoske vojske, ki jo je podprl voditelj Genove Andrea Doria. Lautrec je zavzel Alessandrijo in Pavijo, nato pa se pomaknil proti jugu, da bi rešil papeža Klementa, vendar je 26. novembra papež sklenil mir s Karlom V.

Čeprav Lautrec ni uspel pomagati papežu, se je še naprej premikal proti jugu. Januarja 1528 je začel hoditi proti Neaplju, do pomladi 1528 pa je lahko začel oblegati Neapelj, ki so mu znova pomagali Doria in Genovljani. Sprva je kampanja potekala dobro, potem pa je Frančišku uspelo odtujiti Dorio. Julija 1528 je vodja Genovcev zamenjal stran in se pridružil cesarski zadevi. Svojo floto je umaknil iz blokade v Neaplju in pomagal prinesti hrano v mesto. Genovljani so nato Francozom uvedli pomorsko blokado in v njihovem taborišču je začelo primanjkovati hrane. Lautrec zadevam ni pomagal z odtujitvijo mnogih neapeljskih plemičev, ki so prvotno podpirali francosko stvar.

V oblegalnem taborišču je izbruhnila kuga in vojska je začela trpeti velike izgube. Lautrec je bil ena od žrtev kuge, ki je 15./ 16. avgusta 1528 umrl zunaj Neaplja. 28. avgusta so bili Francozi prisiljeni odpraviti obleganje, kmalu zatem so se preživeli Lautrecove vojske predali.


  • Grofje Comminges
  • House of Comminges
  • Hiša Lescun
  • Hiša Aydie
  • Hiša Foix-Lautrec
  • Hiša La-Barthe
  • House of Comminges-Guitaut
  • Hiša Comminges-Lastronque
  • Hiša Comminges-Saint-Lary
  • Reference
  • Zunanje povezave

House of Comminges

VladarDatumiPlinska linijaOpombe
Garcia Aznar 836-846Comminges linijaPrvo znano število Comminges. Garcia se je agnatsko spustil iz Aznarja S ánchez iz Gasconyja.
Aznar Garcia 846-905Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Lupus I Aznar 905-935Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Aznar II 935-946Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Arnaud I. 946-957Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Roger I. Staro957-1011 Linija CarcassonneSinovi predhodnika so verjetno vladali skupaj. Roger je bil tudi ustanovitelj okrožja Carcassonne.
Arnaud II 957-988Comminges linija
Odo 1011-1035Comminges linijaSinovi Arnauda II. So vladali skupaj.
Roger II
Arnaud III 1035-1070Comminges linijaSin Rogerja II.
Roger III 1035-1105Comminges linijaSin Arnauda III.
Bernard I. 1105-1145Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Bernard II 1145-1153Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Bernard III 1153-1176Comminges linijaBrat predhodnika, rojen Dodon de Samatan, pozneje spremenil ime po bratovi smrti.
Bernard IV 1176-1225Comminges linijaSin predhodnika. Tudi po poroki grof Bigorre.
Bernard V. 1225-1241Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Bernard VI 1241-1295Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Bernard VII 1295-1312Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Bernard VIII 1312-1336Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Janez I. Posthumno1336-1339Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Peter Raymond I. 1339-1341Comminges linijaBrat Bernarda VIII.
Peter Raymond II 1341-1376Comminges linijaSin predhodnika.
Margaret 1376-1443Comminges linijaHči predhodnika. Sovladar s svojimi možmi, Janezom III., Grofom Armagnackom, Janezom Armagnacem (sin Gerauda, ​​vikont Fezensaguet) in Mathieujem iz Foixa. Ob njegovi smrti leta 1453 je francoski kralj Charles VII ponovno združil Comminges s francosko krono.

Hiša Lescun

Leta 1462 je francoski kralj Louis XI ločil grofijo Comminges iz kraljeve domene in jo dal svojemu prijatelju.

  • 1462 �  : Jean de Lescun (nezakonski sin Arnaud-Guillaumea iz Lescuna, škofa v Aireju, in Ane iz Armagnaca, rojen  ? –, umrl 1472, znan kot Baraba iz Armagnaca, Maršal Francije)

Hiša Aydie

Ob smrti Janeza Lescunskega leta 1472 je grofija Comminges prešla v:

  • 1472 �  : Odet iz Aydie (mož Marie of Lescun, dedinja Lescun kot hči Mathieu iz Lescuna, sam verjetno bratranec Janeza iz Lescuna, rojen okoli 1425 – umrl 1498, konztel Francije, vrhovni poveljnik francoske vojske in bližnji svetovalec Luja XI.)

Leta 1498 je po smrti Odeta iz Aydieja, ki ni imel sina, francoski kralj Louis XII vsekakor ponovno združil grofijo Comminges s francosko krono. Potomci hčerke Odet iz Aydie so še naprej nosili naslov grofa Commingesa.

Hiša Foix-Lautrec

  • Jean of Foix-Lautrec, grof Comminges (1472 �).
  • Odet de Cominges, grof Comminges, maršal Francije (1494 �).
  • Enrique de Foix-Lautrec, grof Comminges (1528 �).
  • Claudia de Foix-Lautrec, sotekmovalka Rethela, Comingesa, Beauforta v Šampanji, podžupana Lautrec (1540 �).

Hiša La-Barthe

House of Comminges-Guitaut

Hiša Comminges-Lastronque

  • Roger James iz Commingesa, grof Commingesa (1718 �).
  • Roger Louis iz Commingesa, grof Commingesa (1785 �).
  • Roger Aymeric iz Commingesa, grof Commingesa (1789 �).

Hiša Comminges-Saint-Lary

  • Elie de Comminges-P éguilhan, grof Comminges in baron Saint-Lary (1840 �).
  • Aimery Elie de Comminges-P éguilhan, grof Comminges in baron Saint-Lary (1894 �).
  • Bertrand de Comminges-P éguilhan, grof Comminges (1925 �).
  • Jean-Odon de Comminges-P éguilhan, grof Comminges (1987 – do danes).

Slavni rojstni dnevi leta 1528

Znani ljudje, rojeni v tem letu v zgodovini

Januar 07 Jeanne d'Albret, kraljica Navarre/mati francoskega kralja Henrika IV se je rodila leta 1528.

1. marca 1528 se je rodil albrecht V von Wittelsbach, [velikodušni], vojvoda Bavarske

21. junij Na današnji dan v zgodovini se je rodila Marija Španska, cesarica Svetega rimskega cesarstva (1603).

7. julij Avstrijska Anna, vojvodinja Bavarska, hči Ferdinanda I. (r. 1590) se je rodila na ta dan v zgodovini.

Julij 08 Emanuel Philibert, vojvoda Savojski/guverner Nizozemske se je rodil leta 1528.

25. oktober Na ta dan v zgodovini se je rodil Seerp Galama, nizozemski plemič/vojak/politik.

2. november Na današnji dan v zgodovini se je rodil Peter S Lotichius, [Peter Lotz], novo latinski pesnik (zbrana dela)

12. november Na današnji dan v zgodovini se je rodil qi Jiguang, kitajski general († 1588)


Družina

Zakoniti bratje in sestre

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec, francoski maršal (1485–15. Avgust 1528) kuge v Neaplju. Poročena s Charlotte d’Albret, 1520, in imela sta 4 otroke.

Thomas de Foix, Seigneur de Lescun, seigneur de Coulommiers (1485 – 3. marca 1525) je umrl zaradi ran, prejetih v bitki pri Paviji. Francoski maršal od leta 1518.

André de Foix, Sire de Lesparre (1490–1547), francoski general. Grof de Montfort in vikont Villemur.

  • Maršal Thomas de Foix-Lescun, grofica Françoise de Foix in brat#8217
  • General André de Foix-Lesparre, grofica Françoise de Foix in brat#8217
  • Maršal Odet de Foix, vikont de Lautrec, grofica Françoise de Foix in brat#8217

Tašča

Tast: François de Laval-Montafilant, roj. 1462, d 5. januar 1503.

Tašča: Françoise de Rieux, roj. 1461 m 1486, d. 15. oktobra 1532.

Brother-in-law: mlajši brat, Pierre de Laval, Seigneur de Montafilant, r. 1502.


Jean de Foix (Lautrec)

Jean de Foix (* 1454 † po 1498) je bil edini, posmrtno rojen sin Pierra de Foixa († 1454) in njegove žene Catharine d'Astarac. Kot dedič svojega očeta je Jean prevzel podružnici Lautrec in Villemur. Zaradi Jeanove nezrelosti je njegov stric grof Gaston IV. Von Foix je vladal na svojih podedovanih deželah do svoje smrti leta 1472.

Po smrti svojega bratranca kralja Françoisa Fébusa iz Navarre leta 1483 je Jean podprl svojo sestro in dedičino Catherine proti njenemu stricu podčlanu Janezu Narbonskemu, ki je zanikal Katarino dediščino kraljestvu Navarra. Jean je deloval predvsem kot posrednik poroke med Katarino in Jeanom d'Albretom, ki bi jo lahko sklenili 14. junija 1484 v Orthezu.

Nato je Jean oblegal mesto Maubourguet, ki je imelo podpredsednika Narbonne. Moral pa je opustiti obleganje po kralju Ludwigu XII. Francije, ki je bil svak Janeza Narbonskega, se je z vojsko približal, da bi razbremenil mesto. Kljub temu se je Katharinina stranka končno uspela uveljaviti v tem boju za nasledstvo, ko je Johann von Narbonne odstopil od svojih zahtev v mirovni pogodbi, ki je bila sklenjena v Tarbesu 7. septembra 1497. Jean de Foix je s svojim podpisom med drugim pričal o tej pogodbi.


Dobrodelnost

Ta skulptura je ena izmed treh, ki predstavlja vrline, ki naj bi bile izklesane za spomenik Gastona de Foixa, poveljnika francoskih sil v Italiji. Vsak je pri drugem kiparju, zaposlen pri Agostinu Bustiju, znanem kot Bambaia, ki pomaga pri izdelavi številnih številk, potrebnih za naročilo. Trdnost in dobrodelnost sta bili za bojevnika primerni vrlini, saj sta predlagali moč in milost.

Dobrodelnost je tradicionalno predstavljena bodisi z ognjem bodisi z dvema ali tremi dojenčki. Otroci bi lahko simbolizirali vero in upanje, ki brez dobrodelnosti niso nič (glej C. Ripa). Nenavadno je predstavljati dobrodelnost samo z enim otrokom, ker je podobna Devici in otroku.

Glede na strukturo in organizacijo langobardskih delavnic v 16. stoletju je skoraj nemogoče z gotovostjo reči, kateri kipar je bil odgovoren za posamezen kos. Annali della Fabbrica del Duomo prikazuje, da je Busti leta 1517 dobil dovoljenje, da mu pomaga pri spomeniku Gaston de Foix Gian Giacomo di San Gallo, Giovanni Pietro in Ambrogio da Bornago ter Ambrogio Pomero iz Duoma. Naslednje leto so se mu pridružili še štirje kiparji iz Venerande Fabbrica, Cristoforo Lombardo, Giovanni Ambrogio da Cremona, Agostino del Pozzo in Ambrogio da Arluno, pa tudi Giovanni Antonio da Osnago, Andrea da Saronno in Ambrogio Dolcebuono. Tako je bilo skupaj enajst članov delavnice Duomo, pa tudi sam Agostino Busti in Benedetto Cervi "Pavese", ki je bil po Lomazzovem pričevanju leta 1585 odgovoren za bojne reliefe (glej reliefe).

Čeprav se zdi, da so ohranjene risbe spomenikov Bambaie predstavitvene risbe in ne neposredni modeli za posebne strukture, nam lahko dajo vpogled v tedanje prakse delavnic.

Glede na število sodelavcev, ki so sodelovali pri projektu, je moral Busti pripraviti podrobno risbo celotne grobnice in zagotoviti več posameznih skic posameznih kosov, ki jih bodo izrezali njegovi pomočniki. Verjetno bi Busti kot vodilni kipar projekta sam izrezljal nekaj ključnih kosov ter izpopolnil in poenotil skulpture svojih pomočnikov, da bi ustvaril harmonično celoto.

Skupaj z drugimi dvema kipcema v muzeju Victoria in Albert (4912-1858 in 332-1903) ter reliefi, podobami in kipci v Castello Sforzesco in Pinacoteca Ambrosiana v Milanu ter Museo Civico v Torinu bi lahko bil del spomenika Gastona de Foixa.

Zelo podobne skulpture Fortitude and a Virtue v nasprotnih pozah sedanjim kipom najdemo v Muzeju umetnosti Kimbell v Fort Worthu. Busti uporablja podobne figure Odpornosti, Dobrodelnosti in drugih vrlin v številnih svojih grobnicah in spomenikih, pa tudi v risbi, ki je običajno povezana s grobom Gastona de Foixa. Zaradi pogostega pojavljanja takšnih skulptur jih je skoraj nemogoče pripisati nobenemu posebnemu spomeniku ali posameznemu umetniku. Ta ponovitev podobnih del je tudi dober pokazatelj sodelovanja v delavnici, saj ni bilo nenavadno, da so pomočniki kopirali nekaj svojih mojstrskih primerov in modelov ter tako ponudili kose za prihodnji kiparski kompleks.

Vendar poreklo skulptur v Fort Worthu podpira idejo, da so bile nekoč del spomenika Birago, ki je tudi razstavljen in razpršen. Zdi se, da so sedanji kipci nekoliko prej, saj položaj te Fortitude sovpada neposredno z Ledo Leonarda da Vincija, ki se pogosto omenja kot model za to skladbo, medtem ko je kip Kimbell obrnjen in bi se zato zdelo pozneje prevzemite mojstre Fortitude. Sedaj izgubljena vpisana plošča z datumom spomenika Birago iz leta 1522, tako da so bila dela na spomeniku De Foix ustavljena. Če so torej naši kipi res starejši od objektov v Fort Worthu, bi datum sovpadal s Francosko grobnico, prvo Bustijevo obsežno komisijo.

Dobrodelnost je tradicionalno predstavljena bodisi z ognjem bodisi z dvema ali tremi dojenčki. Otroci bi lahko simbolizirali vero in upanje, ki brez dobrodelnosti niso nič (glej C. Ripa). Nenavadno je predstavljati dobrodelnost samo z enim otrokom, ker je podobna Devici in otroku.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), prvič dokumentiran leta 1512, ko sta se z bratom Polidorom prijavila v Fabbrica del Duomo za zaposlitev. Predlagano je bilo, da je nekaj let svojega oblikovanja preživel v Franciji, da bi pojasnil, zakaj so ga leta 1512 v Milanu tako malo poznali, ko so ga že imenovali "maestro", in zakaj ga je izbral francoski kralj , da bi izklesal spomenik svojemu nečaku Gastonu de Foixu v S. Marti v Milanu. Edino njegovo znano delo pred to veliko komisijo je pogrebni spomenik pesnika Lancina Curzija, ki se je začel leta 1513. Zdi se, da je leta 1514 odpotoval v Rim, kjer je študiral skulpturo rimskih grobnic in sarkofage, ki jih je uporabil pri naslednjih spomenik, grob Gaston de Foix. Leta 1522 je dokončal grob Gian Marca in Zenone Birago, šest let kasneje pa je prejel naročilo za nadaljnjo grobnico v S. Marti, za Giovannija Antonia Bellottija. Od leta 1535 dela Bambaia predvsem v milanski katedrali, kot kipar in učitelj mladim vajencem. Njegova zadnja znana naloga je bil marmorni grob S. Evasia v stolnici Casale Monferrato, ki ga je zapustil, da ga je dokončal Ambrogio Volpi. Umrl je junija 1548 v Milanu.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) je bil nečak francoskega Ludvika XII. Leta 1511 je prevzel poveljstvo nad francosko vojsko, ki se je borila v vojni lige Cambrai, sprva je bil uspešen proti silam Svete lige in zavzel Brescio in Bergamo. V bitki pri Ravenni leta 1512 je premagal Špance pod vodstvom Ramona de Cardone, vendar je bil med naslednjim zasledovanjem ubit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) maršal Francije. V italijanskih vojnah se je boril pri Marignanu (1515) in bil pozneje guverner Milana. Poražen pri La Bicocci (1522) je bil prisiljen evakuirati Italijo. Kot guverner Languedoca je dobil uslugo in bil leta 1523 postavljen za maršala. Leta 1527 je vodil francosko odpravo v Italijo in ponovno osvojil Milano, vendar je med obleganjem Neaplja umrl zaradi kuge.

Kralj Frančišek I. (1494-1547), imenovan oče in obnovitelj črk, in prvi francoski renesančni monarh, je bil okronan leta 1515 in je vladal do svoje smrti leta 1547. Bil je glavni pokrovitelj umetnosti, ki je zaposloval številne priznane renesanse. umetnika, najbolj znana Benvenuto Cellini in Leonardo da Vinci. Frančišek I. je bil odgovoren tudi za gradnjo ali obnovo velikega števila dvorcev v Franciji, vključno z dvorcem Blois in Fontainebleau. Politično je neuspešno poskušal postati cesar Svetega rimskega sveta in vpleten v številne vojne z Italijo.

Santa Marta, Milano. Avguštinska cerkev in samostan S. Marta je bila zgrajena v prvih desetletjih 16. stoletja, ki jo je Richini v celoti preuredil v letih 1621-1624 in zatrl leta 1798. Sodobni sklici na cerkev ne dajejo veliko več podrobnosti o njeni arhitekturi ali okras. Poleg glavnega oltarja, posvečenega sveti Marti, je znano, da je bila ena kapelica dana svetemu Mihaelu, ena pa Devici Mariji.

Duomo, Milano. Dumo se je začel leta 1387 na mestu, kjer je prej obstajalo več cerkva, po ukazu Giana Galeazza Viscontija. Gradnja se je izkazala za zastrašujočo in pogosto so bili najeti in odpuščeni arhitekti in svetovalci. Od tistih, ki so delali na katedrali, sta najbolj opazna Leonardo in Bramante.

Duomo je bil dokončan več kot 500 let od začetka gradnje in je bil po zaključku posvečen Devici Mariji.

Spomenik Gastonu de Foixu se je začel po vstopu Francozov v Milano leta 1515 in ustavil leta 1521, ko so jih špansko-nemško-papeške skupine prisilile, da zapustijo mesto.

Risbe Bustija v Louvru in V&A drugih spomenikov vključujejo zelo podobne kipce.

Da so spomenik postavili v cerkvi Santa Marta v Milanu, potrjujejo dokumentarni dokazi, na primer pisma župnice samostana S. Marta, pa tudi spisi Vasarija in Lomazza, ki sta še videla dele groba v prvotnem kontekstu.

Ta skulptura je ena izmed treh, ki predstavlja vrline, ki naj bi bile izklesane za spomenik Gastona de Foixa, poveljnika francoskih sil v Italiji. Vsak je pri drugem kiparju, zaposlen pri Agostinu Bustiju, znanem kot Bambaia, za pomoč pri izdelavi številnih številk, potrebnih za naročilo. Trdnost in dobrodelnost sta bili za bojevnika primerni vrlini, saj sta predlagali moč in milost.

Dobrodelnost je tradicionalno predstavljena bodisi z ognjem bodisi z dvema ali tremi dojenčki. Otroci bi lahko simbolizirali vero in upanje, ki brez dobrodelnosti niso nič (glej C. Ripa). Nenavadno je predstavljati dobrodelnost samo z enim otrokom, ker je podobna Devici in otroku.

  • Papež-Hennessy, John, ob pomoči Lightbowna, Ronalda, Kataloga italijanskega kiparstva v muzeju Victoria in Albert, London: HMSO, 1964, (3 zvezki) letn. 2, str. 541.
  • Popis umetniških predmetov, pridobljenih leta 1860. V: Popis predmetov v oddelku za umetnost v muzeju v South Kensingtonu, razporejen glede na datume njihove pridobitve. Vol I. London: Natisnila George E. Eyre in William Spottiswoode za H.M.S.O., 1868, str. 42
  • Maclagan, Eric in Longhurst, Margaret H. Katalog italijanskega kiparstva. Besedilo. London: Muzej Victoria in Albert, 1932, str. 118
  • Raggio, Olga, "Katalog italijanskega kiparstva v muzeju Victoria in Albertt" v Art Bulletinu. Letnik L, 1968, str. 102
  • Williamson, Paul (ur.), Evropsko kiparstvo v muzeju Victoria and Albert, London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1996, str. 93

Vrlina morda resnica, zmernost ali pravičnost

Ta kip je eden izmed treh, ki naj bi bil izklesan za spomenik Gastona de Foixa, poveljnika francoskih sil v Italiji. Vsak je pri drugem kiparju, zaposlen pri Agostinu Bustiju, znanem kot Bambaia, ki pomaga pri izdelavi številnih številk, potrebnih za naročilo.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), prvič dokumentiran leta 1512, ko sta se z bratom Polidorom prijavila v Fabbrica del Duomo za zaposlitev. Predlagano je bilo, da je nekaj let svojega oblikovanja preživel v Franciji, da bi pojasnil, zakaj so ga leta 1512 v Milanu tako malo poznali, ko so ga že imenovali "maestro", in zakaj ga je izbral francoski kralj , da bi izklesal spomenik svojemu nečaku Gastonu de Foixu v S. Marti v Milanu. Edino njegovo znano delo pred to veliko komisijo je pogrebni spomenik pesnika Lancina Curzija, ki se je začel leta 1513. Zdi se, da je leta 1514 odpotoval v Rim, kjer je študiral skulpturo rimskih grobnic in sarkofage, ki jih je uporabil pri naslednjih spomenik, grob Gaston de Foix. Leta 1522 je dokončal grob Gian Marca in Zenone Birago, šest let kasneje pa je prejel naročilo za nadaljnjo grobnico v S. Marti, za Giovannija Antonia Bellottija. Od leta 1535 dela Bambaia predvsem v milanski katedrali, kot kipar in učitelj mladim vajencem. Njegova zadnja znana naloga je bil marmorni grob S. Evasia v stolnici Casale Monferrato, ki ga je zapustil, da ga je dokončal Ambrogio Volpi. Umrl je v Milanu junija 1547.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) je bil nečak francoskega Ludvika XII. Leta 1511 je prevzel poveljstvo nad francosko vojsko, ki se je borila v vojni lige Cambrai, sprva je bil uspešen proti silam Svete lige in zavzel Brescio in Bergamo. V bitki pri Ravenni leta 1512 je premagal Špance pod vodstvom Ramona de Cardone, vendar je bil med naslednjim zasledovanjem ubit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) maršal Francije. V italijanskih vojnah se je boril pri Marignanu (1515) in bil pozneje guverner Milana. Poražen pri La Bicocci (1522) je bil prisiljen evakuirati Italijo. Kot guverner Languedoca je dobil uslugo in bil leta 1523 postavljen za maršala. Leta 1527 je vodil francosko odpravo v Italijo in ponovno osvojil Milano, vendar je med obleganjem Neaplja umrl zaradi kuge.

Glede na strukturo in organizacijo langobardskih delavnic v 16. stoletju je skoraj nemogoče z gotovostjo reči, kateri kipar je bil odgovoren za posamezen kos. Annali della Fabbrica del Duomo prikazuje, da je Busti leta 1517 dobil dovoljenje, da mu pomaga pri spomeniku Gaston de Foix Gian Giacomo di San Gallo, Giovanni Pietro in Ambrogio da Bornago ter Ambrogio Pomero iz Duoma. Naslednje leto so se mu pridružili še štirje kiparji iz Venerande Fabbrica, Cristoforo Lombardo, Giovanni Ambrogio da Cremona, Agostino del Pozzo in Ambrogio da Arluno, pa tudi Giovanni Antonio da Osnago, Andrea da Saronno in Ambrogio Dolcebuono. Tako je bilo skupaj enajst članov delavnice Duomo, pa tudi sam Agostino Busti in Benedetto Cervi "Pavese", ki je bil po Lomazzovem pričevanju leta 1585 odgovoren za bojne reliefe (glej reliefe).

Čeprav se zdi, da so ohranjene risbe spomenikov iz Bambaie predstavitvene risbe in ne neposredni modeli za posebne strukture, nam lahko dajo vpogled v prakse delavnic tistega časa.

Glede na število sodelavcev, ki so sodelovali pri projektu, je moral Busti pripraviti podrobno risbo celotne grobnice in zagotoviti več posameznih skic posameznih kosov, ki jih bodo izrezali njegovi pomočniki. Verjetno bi Busti kot vodilni kipar projekta sam izrezljal nekaj ključnih kosov ter izpopolnil in poenotil skulpture svojih pomočnikov, da bi ustvaril harmonično celoto.

Skupaj z dvema kipcema v muzeju Victoria in Albert (4912-1858 in 7100-1860) ter reliefi, kipi in kipci v Castello Sforzesco in Pinacoteca Ambrosiana v Milanu ter Museo Civico v Torinu bi lahko bil del spomenika Gastona de Foixa.

Zelo podobne skulpture Fortitude and a Virtue v nasprotnih pozah sedanjim kipom najdemo v Muzeju umetnosti Kimbell v Fort Worthu. Busti uporablja podobne figure Odpornosti, Dobrodelnosti in drugih vrlin v številnih svojih grobnicah in spomenikih, pa tudi v risbi, ki je običajno povezana s grobom Gastona de Foixa. Zaradi pogostega pojavljanja takšnih skulptur jih je skoraj nemogoče pripisati določenemu spomeniku ali kateremu koli posameznemu umetniku. Ta ponovitev podobnih del je tudi dober pokazatelj sodelovanja v delavnici, saj ni bilo nenavadno, da so pomočniki kopirali nekaj svojih mojstrskih primerov in modelov ter tako ponudili kose za prihodnji kiparski kompleks.

Vendar poreklo skulptur v Fort Worthu podpira idejo, da so bile nekoč del spomenika Birago, ki je tudi razstavljen in razpršen. Zdi se, da so sedanji kipci nekoliko prej, saj položaj te Fortitude sovpada neposredno z Ledo Leonarda da Vincija, ki se pogosto omenja kot model za to skladbo, medtem ko je kip Kimbell obrnjen in bi se zato zdelo pozneje prevzemite mojstre Fortitude. Sedaj izgubljena vpisana plošča z datumom spomenika Birago iz leta 1522, tako da so bila dela na spomeniku De Foix ustavljena. Če so naši kipi res starejši od objektov v Fort Worthu, bi datum sovpadal s Francosko grobnico, prvo Bustijevo obsežno komisijo.

To vrlino predstavlja ženska figura, oblečena v klasične halje, s tančico ali plaščem, ki je prepletena na glavi in ​​zavezana na desno ramo. Na glavi je krona ali diadem, v levi roki majhen zvitek, v desni pa drži en konec tančice.

Ni povsem jasno, katera vrlina je predstavljena s tem kipom, saj njeni atributi niso prepričljivi za nobeno posebno vrlino ali drugo alegorično osebnost. Retorika včasih v roki drži delno odvijen zvitek (glej J. Hall), medtem ko je Resnica pogosto prikazana kot razkrita figura, kar bi lahko bil tudi pomen geste desne roke. Predlagano je bilo tudi, da ta številka pooseblja zmernost ali pravičnost.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), prvič dokumentiran leta 1512, ko sta se z bratom Polidorom prijavila v Fabbrica del Duomo za zaposlitev. Predlagano je bilo, da je nekaj let svojega oblikovanja preživel v Franciji, da bi pojasnil, zakaj so ga leta 1512 v Milanu tako malo poznali, ko so ga že imenovali "maestro", in zakaj ga je izbral francoski kralj , da bi izklesal spomenik svojemu nečaku Gastonu de Foixu v S. Marti v Milanu. Edino njegovo znano delo pred to veliko komisijo je pogrebni spomenik pesnika Lancina Curzija, ki se je začel leta 1513. Zdi se, da je leta 1514 odpotoval v Rim, kjer je študiral skulpturo rimskih grobnic in sarkofage, ki jih je uporabil pri naslednjih spomenik, grob Gastona de Foixa. Leta 1522 je dokončal grob Gian Marca in Zenone Birago, šest let kasneje pa je prejel naročilo za nadaljnjo grobnico v S. Marti, za Giovannija Antonia Bellottija. Od leta 1535 dela Bambaia predvsem v milanski katedrali, kot kipar in učitelj mladim vajencem. Njegova zadnja znana naloga je bil marmorni grob S. Evasia v stolnici Casale Monferrato, ki ga je zapustil, da ga je dokončal Ambrogio Volpi. Umrl je junija 1548 v Milanu.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) je bil nečak francoskega Ludvika XII. Leta 1511 je prevzel poveljstvo nad francosko vojsko, ki se je borila v vojni lige Cambrai, sprva je bil uspešen proti silam Svete lige in zavzel Brescio in Bergamo. V bitki pri Ravenni leta 1512 je premagal Špance pod vodstvom Ramona de Cardone, vendar je bil med naslednjim zasledovanjem ubit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) maršal Francije. V italijanskih vojnah se je boril pri Marignanu (1515) in bil pozneje guverner Milana. Poražen pri La Bicocci (1522) je bil prisiljen evakuirati Italijo. Kot guverner Languedoca je dobil uslugo in bil leta 1523 postavljen za maršala. Leta 1527 je vodil francosko odpravo v Italijo in ponovno osvojil Milano, vendar je med obleganjem Neaplja umrl zaradi kuge.

Kralj Frančišek I. (1494-1547), imenovan oče in obnovitelj črk, in prvi francoski renesančni monarh, je bil okronan leta 1515 in je vladal do svoje smrti leta 1547. Bil je glavni pokrovitelj umetnosti, ki je zaposloval številne priznane renesanse. umetnika, najbolj znana Benvenuto Cellini in Leonardo da Vinci. Frančišek I. je bil odgovoren tudi za gradnjo ali obnovo velikega števila dvorcev v Franciji, vključno z dvorcem Blois in Fontainebleau. Politično je neuspešno poskušal postati cesar Svetega rimskega sveta in vpleten v številne vojne z Italijo.

Santa Marta, Milano. Avguštinska cerkev in samostan S. Marta je bila zgrajena v prvih desetletjih 16. stoletja, ki jo je Richini v celoti preuredil v letih 1621-1624 in zatrl leta 1798. Sodobni sklici na cerkev ne dajejo veliko več podrobnosti o njeni arhitekturi ali okras. Poleg glavnega oltarja, posvečenega sveti Marti, je znano, da je bila ena kapelica dana svetemu Mihaelu, ena pa Devici Mariji.

Duomo, Milano. Dumo se je začel leta 1387 na mestu, kjer je prej obstajalo več cerkva, po ukazu Giana Galeazza Viscontija. Gradnja se je izkazala za zastrašujočo in pogosto so bili najeti in odpuščeni arhitekti in svetovalci. Of those who worked on the Cathedral, Leonardo and Bramante are the most notable.

The Duomo was completed over 500 years from the start of construction and was dedicated to the Virgin Mary upon completion.

The drawings by Busti in the Louvre and the V&A of other monuments include very similar statuettes. Slightly less skilled in carving and finish and less elegant than the other two statues.

Monument for Gaston de Foix, begun after the entry of the French into Milan in 1515 and stopped in 1521, when they were forced by the Spanish-German-Papal troups to leave the city.

That the monument was placed in the church of Santa Marta in Milan is confirmed by documentary evidence, such as letters from the prioress of the convent of S. Marta, as well as the writings of Vasari and Lomazzo, who still saw parts of the tomb in its original context.

This statue is one of three thought to have been carved for the monument of Gaston de Foix, commander of the French forces in Italy. Each is by a different sculptor, employed by Agostino Busti, known as Bambaia, to assist in producing the many figures required for the commission.

Agostino Busti (1483-1548), first documented in 1512, when he and his brother Polidoro applied to the Fabbrica del Duomo for employment. It has been suggested that he must have spent some of his formative years in France, to explain why he was so little known in Milan in 1512, when he was already titled a 'maestro', and why he was selected by the King of France, to sculpt the monument for his nephew Gaston de Foix, in S. Marta, Milan. The only known work by him before this major commission is the funeral monument for the poet Lancino Curzio, begun in 1513. He seems to have travelled to Rome in 1514, where he studied Roman tomb sculpture and sarcophagi, lessons which he applied to his next monument, the tomb of Gaston de Foix. In 1522 he completed the tomb of Gian Marco and Zenone Birago and six years later he received a commission for a further tomb in S. Marta, for Giovanni Antonio Bellotti. From 1535 Bambaia works mainly on the Cathedral of Milan, as a sculptor and a teacher to young apprentices. His last known commission was the marble tomb of S. Evasio in the cathedral of Casale Monferrato, which he left to be completed by Ambrogio Volpi. He died in Milan in june 1547.

Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) was a nephew of Louis XII of France. In 1511 he took command of the French army fighting in the War of the League of Cambrai he was initially successful against the forces of the Holy League, capturing Brescia and Bergamo. At the Battle of Ravenna in 1512, he defeated the Spanish under Ramon de Cardona but was killed during the subsequent pursuit.

Odet de Foix, Vicomte de Lautrec (1485-1528) marshal of France. In the Italian Wars he fought at Marignano (1515) and was subsequently governor of Milan. Defeated at La Bicocca (1522), he was forced to evacuate Italy. He recovered favor as governor of Languedoc and was made marshal in 1523. In 1527 he headed the French expedition to Italy and reconquered Milan but died of plague while besieging Naples.

  • Inventory of Works of Art Acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum in the Years 1903 - 1904. In: List of Works of Art Acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum, During the Year 1903, Arranged According to the Dates of Acquisition with Appendix and Indices. London: Printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office, by Wyman and Sons, Limited, 1907, p. 55
  • Maclagan, Eric and Longhurst, Margaret H. Catalogue of Italian Sculpture. Text. London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1932, p. 119
  • Raggio, Olga. Catalogue of Italian Sculpture in the Victoria and Albertt Museum. Art Bulletin. Letnik L, 1968, p. 102
  • Pope-Hennessy, John. Catalogue of Italian Sculpture in the Victoria and Albert Museum. Volume II: Text. Sixteenth to Twentieth Century. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1964, pp. 541-543
  • Fiorio, Maria Teresa. Bambaia. Catalogo complete delle opera. Florence, 1990, pp. 30-32, p. 49, no. 3.23, illus. str. 51
  • Agosti, Giovanni. Bambaia e il Classicismo Lambardo. Turin, 1990, pp. 146, 161, fig. 78

January–June Edit

    – King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeats the Swedes, at Lake Åsunden in Sweden. The Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger is mortally wounded in the battle. He is rushed towards Stockholm, in order to lead the fight against the Danes from there, but dies from his wounds on February 3. [1] – Revolt of the Comuneros: Citizens of Toledo, Castile opposed to the rule of the Flemish-born Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, rise up when the royal government attempts to unseat radical city councilors. – Moctezuma II, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, is declared deposed due to his captivity by conquistadorHernán Cortés. His brother Cuitláhuac rises to the throne. – King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France meet at the famous Field of the Cloth of Gold. [2] – Revolt of the Comuneros: Segovia is blockaded. – Pope Leo X issues the bull Exsurge Domine (Arise O Lord), threatening Martin Luther with excommunication, if he does not recant his position on indulgences and other Catholic doctrines.

July–December Edit

    – La Noche Triste (Night of Sorrow): The forces of Cuitláhuac, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, gain a major victory against the forces of conquistadorHernán Cortés. This results in the death of about 400 conquistadors, and some 2,000 of their Native American allies. However, Cortés and the most skilled of his men manage to escape and later regroup. – Otumba near Lake Texcaco: The Spaniards defeat the Aztecs. [3]
    – Martin Luther writes To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation. – Christian II makes his triumphant entry into Stockholm, which had surrendered to him a few days earlier. Sten Sture's widow Christina Gyllenstierna, who has led the fight after Sten's death, and all other persons in the resistance against the Danes, are granted amnesty and are pardoned for their involvement in the resistance. – Suleiman I succeeds his father Selim I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. – Cuitláhuac, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan, dies from smallpox. He is succeeded by his nephew Cuauhtémoc. (Feast of St. Ursula) – The islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon are discovered by Portuguese explorer João Álvares Fagundes, off Newfoundland. He names them Islands of the 11,000 Virgins, in honour of Saint Ursula. – Charles V is crowned King of Germany. –4 – Christian II is crowned king of Sweden. The coronation is followed by a three-day feast in Stockholm. – At the end of the third day of Christian's coronation feast, several leading figures of the Swedish resistance against the Danish invasion are imprisoned, and tried for high treason. –10 – Stockholm Bloodbath: 82 noblemen and clergymen, having been sentenced to death for their involvement in the Swedish resistance against the Danish invasion, are executed by beheading. – After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific (the strait is later named the Strait of Magellan). – Martin Luther burns a copy of The Book of Canon Law (see Canon Law), and his copy of the Papal bull Exsurge Domine.

Date unknown Edit

  • The Franciscan friar Matteo Bassi is inspired to return to the primitive life of solitude and penance, as practiced by St. Francis, giving rise to the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin. returns to Cananor.
  • Aleksandra Lisowska (Roxelana) is given as a gift to Suleiman I on the occasion of his accession to the throne. creates the public mail service of Portugal, the Correio Público.

January–June Edit

    – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther, in the papal bullDecet Romanum Pontificem. [4] – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, opens the Diet of Worms in Worms, Germany. [5] – Suleiman the Magnificent suppresses a revolt by the ruler of Damascus. – The Nydala Abbey Bloodbath takes place at Nydala Abbey, Sweden the abbot and many monks are murdered by Danes. [6]
      makes first European contact with Guam. is summoned to appear before the Diet of Worms.
      arrives at Cebu. preaches an inflammatory sermon to students at Erfurt, while on his way to Worms.

    July–December Edit

      Pfaffensturm: Students rebel against priests in Erfurt. – Fall of Tenochtitlan: Hernán Cortés and allied local indigenous peoples of the Americas defeat the Aztec forces of Cuauhtémoc, the last Tlatoani (Aztec Emperor), at Tenochtitlan in the Valley of Mexico. – Fall of Tenochtitlan: Cuauhtémoc surrenders to Cortés, thus incorporating the Aztec Empire into the Spanish Empire and ending the Late Postclassic period in Mesoamerica. – Belgrade is captured by the Ottoman army of Suleiman the Magnificent. – Spanish–German–Papal forces under Prospero Colonna force FrenchMarshalOdet de Lautrec to abandon Milan. – The Zwickau prophets arrive in Wittenberg, disturbing the peace and preaching the Apocalypse.

    Date unknown Edit

      publishes Commentaria cum amplissimus additionibus super anatomiam Mundini in Bologna, including observation of the vermiform appendix. [9] is founded in the archipelago of Puerto Rico.
    • The Principality of Ryazan is annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow.

    January–June Edit

      – Pope Adrian VI (born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, Dedens or Dedel [10] Hadrianus in Latin) succeeds Pope Leo X, as the 218th pope. The only Dutch pope, he will be the last non-Italian elected for more than 450 years. – Spanish konkvistadorGil González Dávila sets out from the gulf of Panama to explore the Pacific coast of Central America. He explores Nicaragua and names Costa Rica when he finds copious quantities of gold in Pacific beaches. – Battle of Bicocca: French and Swiss forces under Odet de Lautrec are defeated by the Spanish in their attempt to retake Milan, and are forced to withdraw into Venetian territory. [11] – England presents an ultimatum to France and Scotland. [12] – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor visits King Henry VIII of England, and signs the Treaty of Windsor, pledging a joint invasion of France, bringing England into the Italian War of 1521–1526. [13]

    July–December Edit

      – The English army attacks Brittany and Picardy from Calais, burning and looting the countryside. [14] – Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I begins his siege to expel the Knights of St. John in Rhodes.
    • August – The Knights' Revolt erupts in Germany. – The Vittoria, one of the surviving ships of Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, returns to Sanlúcar de Barrameda in Spain, under the command of Juan Sebastián Elcano, becoming the first ship to circumnavigate the world. - Luther Bible: Martin Luther's translation of the Bible's New Testament into Early New High German from Greek, Das newe Testament Deutzsch, is published in Germany, selling thousands in the first few weeks. – 1522 Almería earthquake: It is a major 6.8 to 7.0 Mw earthquake, that occurs in the capital of Almeria and the Andarax Valley, near Alhama de Almería. It has a maximum felt intensity of X–XI (extreme), and kills about 2,500 people, making it the most destructive earthquake in Spanish history. The city of Almería is totally destroyed, and there is serious destruction in 80 other towns in Granada, large cracks are observed in various walls and towers. [15] -October 22 – The 1522 Vila Franca earthquake takes place in the municipality of Vila Franca do Campo, at the time the provincial capital, located on São Miguel Island, in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores.
    • November – The Diet of Nuremberg opens. – The Ottomans finally break into Rhodes, but the Knights continue fierce resistance in the streets. – Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights, who are allowed to evacuate. They eventually re-settle on Malta, and become known as the Knights of Malta.

    Date unknown Edit

    • The third edition of Erasmus's Greek Textus Receptus of the New Testament, Novum Testamentum (with parallel Latin text), is published in Basel.
    • Chinese Ming dynasty War Ministry official He Ru is the first to acquire the Portuguesebreech-loadingculverin, while copies of them are made by two Westernized Chinese at Beijing, Yang San (Pedro Yang) and Dai Ming.
    • Australia is sighted by a Portuguese expedition led by Cristóvão de Mendonça, who maps the continent and names it Jave la Grande ("The Greater Java"), according to the theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia.
    • The Portuguese ally with the Sultanate of Ternate and begin the construction of Fort Kastela.
    • The Portuguese along with King Ilato of the Goratalo kingdom constructs the Otanaha Fortress.

    January–June Edit

      – Christian II is forced to abdicate as King of Denmark and Norway. – The Ningbo Incident: Two rival trade delegations from Japan feud in the Chinese city of Ningbo, resulting in the pillage and plunder of the city. – Gustav Vasa is elected king of Sweden, finally establishing the full independence of Sweden from Denmark, which marks the end of the Kalmar Union. This event is also traditionally considered to be the establishment of the modern Swedish nation. [16]

    July–December Edit

    • c. July – Martin Luther's translation of the Pentateuch into German (Das allte Testament Deutsch) is published. – Jan van Essen and Hendrik Vos become the first FlemishLutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels. – Wijerd Jelckama, a Frisian warlord and military commander, is executed in Leeuwarden, ending the Frisian rebellion fought by the Arumer Black Heap. – Spanish conquest of Nicaragua: Agreement for an expedition by conquistadores into Nicaragua. – Following the death of Pope Adrian VI, the Medici cardinal is elected 219th pope as Clement VII. [17]

    Date unknown Edit

    • The Ming dynasty Chinese navy captures two Western ships with Portuguesebreech–loadingculverins aboard, which the Chinese call a fo–lang–ji (Frankish culverin). Glede na Ming Shi, these cannons are soon presented to the Jiajing Emperor by Wang Hong, and their design is copied in 1529. [18] : The Swabian League destroys 23 robber baron castles.

    January–June Edit

      – Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano, on board La Dauphine in the service of Francis I of France, sets out from Madeira for the New World, to seek out a western sea route to the Pacific Ocean. – SpanishconquistadorPedro de Alvarado destroys the K'iche' kingdom of Q'umarkaj, taking the capital, Quiché. (approximate date) – da Verrazzano's expedition makes landfall at Cape Fear. – Verrazzano's expedition makes the first European entry into New York Bay, and sights the island of Manhattan. [19][20] – Battle of the Sesia: Spanish forces under Charles de Lannoy defeat the French army in Italy, under William de Bonnivet. The French, now commanded by François de St. Pol, withdraw from the Italian Peninsula. – Atiquipaque, the most important city of the Xinca people is conquered by the Spanish resulting in a significant reduction in the Xinca population. – Battle of Acajutla: Spanish conquistadorPedro de Alvarado defeats a battalion of Pipiles, in the neighborhoods of present day Acajutla, El Salvador. [21]

    July–December Edit

    • Summer – Paracelsus visits Salzburg he also visits Villach during the year. – Verrazzano's expedition returns to Dieppe.
    • August–September – Marseille is besieged by Imperial forces, under the Duke of Bourbon. – Protestant theologians Martin Luther and Andreas Karlstadt dispute at Jena. – A French army invading Italy, under King Francis, besieges Pavia. – Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba founds the city of Granada, Nicaragua, the oldest Hispanic city in the mainland of the Western Hemisphere.

    January–June Edit

      – The Swiss Anabaptist Movement is born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptize each other in the home of Manz's mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. – Battle of Pavia: German and Spanish forces under Charles de Lannoy and the Marquis of Pescara defeat the French army, and capture Francis I of France, after his horse is wounded by Cesare Hercolani. While Francis is imprisoned in Lombardy and then transferred to Madrid, the first attempts to form a Franco-Ottoman alliance with Suleiman the Magnificent against the Habsburg Empire are made. [22] – The last Aztec Emperor, Cuauhtémoc, is killed by Hernán Cortés. – In the German town of Memmingen, the pamphlet The Twelve Articles: The Just and Fundamental Articles of All the Peasantry and Tenants of Spiritual and Temporal Powers by Whom They Think Themselves Oppressed is published, the first human rights related document written in Europe. – German Peasants' War in the Holy Roman Empire: Battle of Leipheim – Peasants retreat. – Albert, Duke of Prussia commits Prussian Homage. –15 – German Peasants' War: Battle of Frankenhausen – Insurgent peasants led by radical pastor Thomas Müntzer are defeated. – Martin Luther marries ex-nun Katharina von Bora. [23] The painter Lucas Cranach the Elder is one of the witnesses. – Henry VIII of England appoints his six-year old illegitimate son Henry FitzRoyDuke of Richmond and Somerset. –24 – German Peasants' War: Battle of Pfeddersheim – Peasants defeated in the last significant action of the war, in which over 75,000 peasants have been killed.

    July–December Edit

      – Santa Marta, the first city in Colombia, is founded by Spanish konkvistadorRodrigo de Bastidas.
    • December – The first French ambassador to reach the Sublime Porte, Jean Frangipani, sets out for Constantinople.

    Date unknown Edit

      , capital of the Pocomam Maya State, falls to the Spanish conquistadores of Pedro de Alvarado (in modern-day Guatemala) after a three-month siege.
    • European-brought diseases sweep through the Andes, killing thousands, including the Inca.
    • The Bubonic plague spreads in southern France.
    • Printing of the first edition of William Tyndale's New TestamentBible translation into English in Cologne is interrupted by anti-Lutheran forces (finished copies reach England in 1526).
    • The Navarre witch trials (1525-26) begin.
    • The Chinese Ministry of War under the Ming dynasty orders ships having more than one mast sailing along the southeast coast to be seized, investigated, and destroyed this in an effort to curb piracy and limit private commercial trade abroad.
    • The Age of Samael ends, and the Age of Gabriel begins, according to Johannes Trithemius.

    January–June Edit

      – Treaty of Madrid: Peace is declared between Francis I of France and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Francis agrees to cede Burgundy and abandons all claims to Flanders, Artois, Naples, and Milan. [24] – Battle of Panipat: Babur becomes Mughal emperor, invades northern India and captures Delhi, beginning the richest dynasty in the world, the Mughal Empire, which lasts until 1857. – Francis repudiates the Treaty of Madrid and forms the League of Cognac against Charles, including Pope Clement VII, Milan, Venice, and Florence. – A transit of Venus occurs, the last before optical filters allow astronomers to observe them. – Emperor Go-Nara ascends to the throne of Japan.

    July–December Edit

      – The Spanish ship Santiago, from García Jofre de Loaísa's expedition, reaches the Pacific Coast of Mexico, the first to navigate from Europe to the west coast of North America. – Milan is captured by the Spanish. – Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar becomes the first European to sight the Marshall Islands, in the Pacific Ocean. [25] – Battle of Mohács: The Ottoman army of Sultan Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian army of King Louis II, who is killed in the retreat. Suleiman takes Buda, while Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and John Zápolya, Prince of Transylvania, dispute the succession. As a result of the battle, Dubrovnik achieves independence, although it acknowledges Turkish overlordship. – Paracelsus arrives at Strasbourg.

    Date unknown Edit

    • Spring – The first complete printed translation of the New Testament of the Bible into the English language by William Tyndale arrives in England from Germany, printing having been completed in Worms by Peter Schöffer the younger (with other copies being printed in Amsterdam). In October, Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of London, attempts to collect all the copies in his diocese and burn them.
    • The first official translation is made of the New Testament into Swedish the entire Bible is completed in 1541.
    • Gunsmith Bartolomeo Beretta (in Italian) establishes the Beretta Gun Company, which will still be in business in the 21st century, making it one of the world's oldest corporations.

    January–June Edit

      – Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I of Austria as King of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin. – Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, is drowned in the Limmat in Zürich, by the Zürich Reformed state church. – Battle of Khanwa: Babur defeats Rajput ruler Rana Sanga. This and two other major Moghul victories lead to their domination of northern India. Dhaulpur fort is taken by Babur. [26]
        is appointed as town physician of Basel, Switzerland.
      • The Confederation of Shan States sack Ava, the capital of the Ava Kingdom.

      July–December Edit

        – The first known letter is sent from North America by John Rut, while at St. John's, Newfoundland. – Sixty Anabaptists meet at the Martyrs' Synod in Augsburg. – Diet of Odense (Denmark): King Frederick I declares religious tolerance for Lutherans, permits marriage of priests and forbids seeking papal pallium (approval) for royal appointments of Church officials. [28][29] – Battle of Tarcal: Ferdinand, future Holy Roman Emperor, defeats John Zápolya and takes over most of Hungary. John appeals to the Ottomans for help.

      Date unknown Edit

      • The Spanish conquest of Guatemala's highlands is completed the first city in Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja is founded.
      • Members of the University of Wittenberg flee to Jena, in fear of the bubonic plague. (at Sutton Coldfield, in the West Midlands of England) is founded by Bishop John Vesey. is founded as a grammar school at Walthamstow, England, by Sir George Monoux, draper and Lord Mayor of London.
      • The Ming dynasty government of China greatly reduces the quotas for taking grain, severely diminishing the state's capacity to relieve famines through a previously successful granary system.
      • The second of the Dalecarlian rebellions breaks out in Sweden.

      January–June Edit

        – Gustav I of Sweden is crowned king of Sweden, having already reigned since his election in June 1523. [30]
        • Peasant uprising in Dalarna, Sweden: The rebel campaign fails, and the rebel leader, later known as Daljunkern, flees to Rostock. explores the Sierra de la Plata along the Río de la Plata, and begins to travel up the Paraná River. [31] visits Colmar in Alsace.

        July–December Edit

          – Andrea Doria defeats his former allies, the French, and establishes the independence of Genoa. – Álvaro de Saavedra Cerón arrives in the Maluku Islands. – Cardinal Thomas Wolsey founds a college in his birthplace of Ipswich, England, which becomes the modern-day Ipswich School (incorporating institutions in the town dating back to 1299). – The Treaty of Gorinchem is signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Charles, Duke of Guelders. – Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions become the first known Europeans to set foot on the shores of what is present-day Texas.

        Date unknown Edit

          gains autonomy under Ottoman power. Conquistador Francisco de Montejo attempts an invasion of the Yucatán, but is driven out by the Maya peoples. takes direct control of Acapulco. breaks out in England. [33] in Windsor Castle is completed. in France is begun. begins work on the fortifications of Florence. publishes The Book of the Courtier.
        • In Henan province, China, during the mid Ming dynasty, a vast drought deprives the region of harvests for the next two years, killing off half the people in some communities, due to starvation and cannibalism. [34] leaves Basel.

        January–June Edit

          – The Örebro Synod provides the theological foundation of the Swedish Reformation, following the economic foundation of it, after the Reduction of Gustav I of Sweden. – Battle of Shimbra Kure: ImamAhmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, with 200 men armed with matchlocks, defeats the army of Dawit II, Emperor of Ethiopia. [35] – Blood libel against the Jewish community of Bosen (formerly in Hungary, today in Slovakia), on the first day of Passover. Three Jews are accused and killed, while the boy is discovered alive, kidnapped for the benefit of the scheme. – The Flensburg Disputation is held, a debate attended by Stadtholder Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (later King Christian III of Denmark), between Lutherans (led by Hermann Fast) and the more radical Anabaptists (led by Melchior Hoffman). Johannes Bugenhagen, a close associate of Martin Luther, presides. The Disputation marks the rejection of radical ideas by the Danish Reformation. [36] – The Westrogothian rebellion breaks out in Sweden. – Diet of Speyer: A group of rulers (Nemščina:Fürst) and independent cities (Nemščina:Reichsstadt) protest the reinstatement of the Edict of Worms, beginning the Protestant movement. – The Treaty of Zaragoza divides the eastern hemisphere between the Spanish and Portuguese empires, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297.5 leagues or 17° east of the Moluccas. [37] –July – Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, presides over a legatine court at Blackfriars, London, to rule on the legality of King Henry VIII of England's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. [12] – The Ottoman army under Suleiman I leaves Constantinople, to invade Hungary once again. – War of the League of Cognac – Battle of Landriano: French forces in northern Italy are decisively defeated by Spain.

        July–December Edit

          – The only continental outbreak of English sweating sickness reaches Lübeck, spreading from there into Schleswig-Holstein in the next few months. [38] – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Francis I of France sign the Treaty of Cambrai, or Ladies' Peace in the War of the League of Cognac: Francis abandons his claims in Italy, but is allowed to retain the Duchy of Burgundy. Henry VIII of England accedes on August 27. [13] – Sancti Spiritu, the first European settlement in Argentina, is destroyed by local natives.
            is recaptured by the invading forces of the Ottoman Empire.
          • The city of Maracaibo, Venezuela is founded by Ambrosius Ehinger.

          Date unknown Edit

            is granted the county town of Buckinghamshire, England by KingHenry VIII. becomes governor of Transylvania. succeeds Ramathibodi II as king of Ayutthaya. is first described, by Georg Agricola. visits Rome. becomes historiographer of Venice. becomes pastor of Bremgarten, Switzerland. uses that name for the first time and visits Nuremberg.
          • Occultist Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa publishes Declamatio de nobilitate et praecellentia foeminei sexus ("Declamation on the Nobility and Preeminence of the Female Sex"), a book pronouncing the theological and moral superiority of women.
          • A summit level canal between Alster and the Trave in Germany opens to navigation. [40]
            – Peder Oxe, Danish finance minister (d. 1575) – William More, English courtier (d. 1600) – Frederick III of Legnica, Duke of Legnica (d. 1570) – Matthias Flacius, Croatian Protestant reformer (d. 1575) – Nicolás Factor, Spanish artist (d. 1583) – Gonzalo II Fernández de Córdoba, Governor of the Duchy of Milan (d. 1578) – King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland (d. 1572) – Madeleine of Valois, queen of James V of Scotland (d. 1537) – Bartholomäus Sastrow, German official (d. 1603) – Heinrich Sudermann, German politician (d. 1591) – William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, English statesman, chief advisor to Queen Elizabeth I (d. 1598) [41] – Alessandro Farnese, Italian cardinal (d. 1589) – Dorothea of Denmark, Electress Palatine, Princess of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (d. 1580) – Barbara Radziwiłł, queen of Poland (d. 1551) – Martha Leijonhufvud, politically active Swedish noble (d. 1584)
          • datum neznan
            • Patriarch Metrophanes III of Constantinople (d. 1580) , Korean monk , French navigator (d. 1565) , Italian music theorist, lutenist, and composer (d. 1591) , last independent king of Granada (d. 1568) , Japanese nobleman (d. 1561) , German physician (d. 1581) , Swedish abbess (d. 1593) , French legal expert (d. 1590) , German doctor and mathematician (d. 1564)
              , Flemish portrait painter (d. 1574) , German printer (d. 1592) , Spanish novelist and poet (d. 1561) , Italian mannerist painter (d. 1578)
            • , Fifth Queen of Henry VIII of England, (born in between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
              – Maurice, Elector of Saxony (d. 1553) – Francesco Laparelli, Italian architect (d. 1570) – Johann Marbach, German theologian (d. 1581) – François de Coligny d'Andelot, French general (d. 1569) – Petrus Canisius, Dutch Jesuit (d. 1597) – John Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg, (d. 1553) – Maria of Portugal, Duchess of Viseu, daughter of King Manuel I (d. 1577) – John II, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev (d. 1580) – Pope Urban VII (d. 1590) [42] – Lodovico Guicciardini, Italian historian (d. 1589) – Frederick Magnus I, Count of Solms-Laubach, (d. 1561) – Edmund Sheffield, 1st Baron Sheffield, English baron (d. 1549) – Marcantonio Maffei, Italian Catholic archbishop and cardinal (d. 1583) – Takeda Shingen, Japanese warlord (d. 1573) – Pope Sixtus V (d. 1590) [43] datum neznan
                , English Protestant martyr (d. 1546) , English divine (d. 1594) , Japanese retainer and later daimyō under Ouchi Yoshitaka (d. 1555) , English statesman and poet (d. 1565) , Flemish composer (d. 1603) , Japanese daimyō (d. 1598) , English rebel (d. 1554)
                , Fifth Queen of Henry VIII of England, (b. between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
                – Charles II de Valois, Duke of Orléans, (d. 1545)
                  , Italian mathematician (d. 1565) , Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1580)
                  , Ottoman princess (d. 1578) , Spanish Jewish rabbi and kabbalist (d. 1570) , Greek saint (d. 1589)
                • Emperor Gelawdewos of Ethiopia (d. 1559)
                  , fifth queen of Henry VIII of England, (b. between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
                  – Enea Vico, Italian engraver (d. 1567) – Francesco Abbondio Castiglioni, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1568) – Valentin Naboth, German astronomer and mathematician (d. 1593) – Jan Blahoslav, Czech writer (d. 1571) – Giovanni Francesco Commendone, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1584) – Kaspar Eberhard, German theologian (d. 1575) – Blaise de Vigenère, French diplomat and cryptographer (d. 1596) – Marco Antonio Bragadin, Venetian lawyer and military officer (d. 1571) – Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry (d. 1574) – Pier Francesco Orsini, Italian condottiero and art patron (d. 1583) – Duke George II of Brieg (1547–1586) (d. 1586) – Sancho d'Avila, Spanish general (d. 1583) – Charles, Cardinal de Bourbon, French church leader and pretender to the throne (d. 1590) – Ludwig Rabus, German martyrologist (d. 1592) – Eleonore of Fürstenberg, wife of Philip IV, Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (d. 1544) – Anna Jagiellon, daughter of Sigismund I of Poland (d. 1596) datum neznan
                    , Italian anatomist and physician (d. 1562) , Spanish conquistador (d. 1589) , Portuguese Dominican theologian and biblist (d. 1581) , Italian poet (d. 1554)
                    – Albrecht Giese, German politician and diplomat (d. 1580) – Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, French cardinal (d. 1574) – Selim II, Ottoman Sultan (d. 1574) – Achilles Statius, Portuguese humanist (d. 1581) – Johann Stössel, German theologian (d. 1576) – Elizabeth of Denmark, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Danish princess (d. 1586) – François Hotman, French Protestant lawyer and writer (d. 1590) [44] – Thomas Erastus, Swiss theologian (d. 1583) – Pierre de Ronsard, French poet (d. 1585) – Francisco Vallés, Spanish physician (d. 1592) – Rani Durgavati, Queen of Gond (d. 1564) – Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma (d. 1586) – Nicolas, Duke of Mercœur, French Catholic bishop (d. 1577) – Diego de Landa, Bishop of the Yucatán (d. 1579) datum neznan
                      , royal secretary of Poland (d. 1584) , French soldier (d. 1592) , French lawyer and author (d. 1602) and his twin brother, Nicolas Pithou, French lawyer and author (d. 1598) , Portuguese Sephardi diplomat and administrator (d. 1579) , English poet and farmer (d. 1580) , Portuguese poet (d. 1580) [45] , Italian painter (d. 1588) (d. 1579) , cousin of Elizabeth I of England (d. 1569) , French Huguenot magnate (d. 1567)
                      , fifth queen of Henry VIII of England, (b. between 1518 and 1524 d. 1542)
                      – Caspar Peucer, German reformer (d. 1602) [46] – Lelio Sozzini, Italian Renaissance humanist and anti-Trinitarian reformer (d. 1562) – Juraj Drašković, Croatian Catholic cardinal (d. 1587) – Caspar Cruciger the Younger, German theologian (d. 1597) – Richard Edwardes, English choral musician, playwright and poet (d. 1566) – Katharina of Hanau, Countess of Wied, German noblewoman (d. 1581) – Peter Agricola, German Renaissance humanist, educator, classical scholar, theologian, diplomat and statesman (d. 1585) – Christoffer Valkendorff, Danish politician (d. 1601) – John George, Elector of Brandenburg (d. 1598) – Steven Borough, English explorer (d. 1584) – Georg Cracow, German lawyer and politician (d. 1575) – Tadeáš Hájek, Czech astronomer (d. 1600) – John Albert I, Duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1576) datum neznan
                        , Talmudic scholar, Jewish mystic and philosopher (d. 1609) , Spanish theologian (d. 1560) (d. 1586)
                        , Flemish painter (d. 1569) [47] , Italian composer and singer (d. 1603) , Italian composer (d. 1594) , German soldier and sailor (d. 1579)
                        – Louis Bertrand, Spanish missionary to Latin America, patron saint of Colombia (d. 1581) – Rafael Bombelli, Italian mathematician (d. 1572) – Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (d. 1586) – Niiro Tadamoto, Japanese samurai (d. 1611) – Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski, Polish noble (d. 1608) – Charles de L'Ecluse, Flemish botanist (d. 1609) – Gonçalo da Silveira, Portuguese Jesuit missionary (d. 1561) – Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon (d. 1596) – Heinrich Rantzau, German humanist writer, astrologer, and astrological writer (d. 1598) – Guiseppe Arcimboldo, Italian painter (d. 1566) – Elisabeth of Brunswick-Calenberg, Countess of Henneberg (d. 1566) – Muretus, French humanist (d. 1585) – Beate Clausdatter Bille, Danish noblewoman (d. 1593) – Matsudaira Hirotada, Japanese daimyō (d. 1549) – Elisabeth Parr, Marchioness of Northampton, English noble (d. 1565) – Elizabeth of Austria, Polish noble (d. 1545) – Philipe de Croÿ, Duke of Aerschot (d. 1595) – Augustus, Elector of Saxony (d. 1586) – Claude, Duke of Aumale, third son of Claude (d. 1573) – Adolph of Nassau-Saarbrücken, Count of Nassau (d. 1559) – Henry Manners, 2nd Earl of Rutland (d. 1563) – Wolfgang, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken (d. 1569) – Dorothy Stafford, English noble (d. 1604) – Hubert Goltzius, Dutch Renaissance painter-engraver (d. 1583) – Catherine Jagiellon, queen of John III of Sweden (d. 1583) – Andreas Gaill, German jurist and statesman (d. 1587) – Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz, Spanish admiral (d. 1588) – Rose Lok, English businesswoman and Protestant exile during the Tudor period (d. 1613) – Anna Maria of Brandenburg-Ansbach, German princess (d. 1589) datum neznan
                          , Dutch war heroine (d. 1588) , Japanese daimyō in the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods (d. 1603) , Japanese warlord (d. 1573)
                          , Ottoman Muslim scientist (d. 1585) , Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire (d. 1563)
                          – Ludwig Lavater, Swiss Reformed theologian (d. 1586) – Ulrich, Duke of Mecklenburg (d. 1603) – Alfonso d'Este, Lord of Montecchio, Italian nobleman (d. 1587) – Hermann Finck, German composer and music theorist (d. 1558) – Isabella Markham, English courtier (d. 1579) – Edward Fitton, the elder, Irish politician (d. 1579) – Abraham Ortelius, Flemish cartographer and geographer (d. 1598) – Johannes Stadius, German astronomer, astrologer, mathematician (d. 1579) – Philip II, King of Spain (d. 1598) [48] – Agnes of Hesse, German noble, by marriage, Princess of Saxony (d. 1555) – Anna Sophia of Prussia, Duchess of Prussia and Duchess of Mecklenburg (d. 1591) – Jean Vendeville, French law professor, Roman Catholic bishop (d. 1592) – Saitō Yoshitatsu, Japanese daimyō (d. 1561) – John Dee, English mathematician, astronomer, and geographer (d. 1608) [49] – Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1576) – Barbara of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brieg, German princess (d. 1595) – John Lesley, Scottish bishop (d. 1596) – William Drury, English politician (d. 1579) – Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal (d. 1545) – Louis I, Cardinal of Guise, French Catholic cardinal (d. 1578)
                            , Spanish hagiologist (d. 1611) , English noble and politician (d. 1597)
                            , Italian artist (d. 1593) , Spanish lyric poet and mystic (d. 1591) , Japanese retainer and samurai (d. 1581) , Italian composer and organist (d. 1575)
                            , English nobleman (d. 1554) , English clergyman and educator (d. 1590)
                              , Spanish theologian (d. 1604) (d. 1579)
                              , Dutch statesman (d. 1604) , Swiss alchemist and physician (d. 1577) , French antiquary and Latin poet (d. 1602) , Russian writer (d. 1583) , English statesman (d. 1590) , Vietnamese military strategist, politician, diplomat and poet (d. 1613) (d. 1578) , Japanese daimyō (d. 1579) , English musician and author (d. 1595)
                              , English general (d. 1590) , French diplomat (d. 1584) , stadtholder of the Dutch provinces of Friesland (d. 1568) , Italian composer (d. 1601)
                              – John Frederick II, Duke of Saxony (d. 1595) – Ebba Månsdotter, Swedish noble (d. 1609) – Markus Fugger, German businessman (d. 1597) – Onofrio Panvinio, Augustinian historian (d. 1568) – Michael Neander, German mathematician and historian (d. 1581) – Francesco Patrizi, Italian philosopher and scientist (d. 1597) – Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach, German princess (d. 1575) – Étienne Pasquier, French lawyer, poet and author (d. 1615) – Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, regent of Tyrol and Further Austria (d. 1595) – Petrus Peckius the Elder, Dutch jurist, writer on international maritime law (d. 1589) – Henry Sidney, lord deputy of Ireland (d. 1586)ref> Ann Hoffmann (1977). Lives of the Tudor Age, 1485-1603. Barnes & Noble Books. str. 397. ISBN978-0-06-494331-4 . </ref> – Charles II, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (d. 1577) – Ernst Vögelin, German publisher (d. 1589) – Taddeo Zuccari, Italian painter (d. 1566) – Günther XLI, Count of Schwarzburg-Arnstadt (d. 1583) – Anna of Hesse, Countess Palatine of Zweibrücken (d. 1591) – Fulvio Orsini, Italian humanist historian (d. 1600) – Laurent Joubert, French physician (d. 1582) datum neznan
                                , Inca ruler of Vilcabamba (d. 1571) , Italian sculptor (d. 1608) , Ruthenian prince at Wiśniowiec (d. 1584) , English critic (d. 1590)
                                – Jo Gwang-jo, Korean philosopher (b. 1482) – Sten Sture the Younger, Viceroy of Sweden (b. 1493) [51] – Alfonsina de' Medici, née Orsini, Regent of Florence (b. 1472) – Raphael, Italian painter and architect (b. 1483) [52] – Jan Lubrański, Polish bishop (b. 1456) – Hosokawa Sumimoto, Japanese samurai commander (b. 1489) – Moctezuma II, 9th Tlatoani (emperor) of the Aztecs, assassinated or possibly killed in a riot, 1502-1520 (b. 1466) [53] – Kunigunde of Austria, Archduchess of Austria (b. 1465) – Ippolito d'Este, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1479) – Selim I, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1465) [54]
                              • October – Cuitláhuac, 10th Tlatoani (emperor) of the Aztecs, 1520, brother of Moctezuma II, smallpox (b. c. 1476) [55] – Bernardo Dovizi, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1470)
                              • datum neznan
                                  , king of Texcoco (altepetl) (modern Mexico) (b. 1483) [56] , first Raja of Kantipur , king of Lan Xang (b. 1465) , Ottoman calligrapher (b. 1436) , German court singer (b. 1440)
                              • March–April: Ferdinand Magellan's voyage around the world.

                                Hans Maler zu Schwaz, Portrait of a beardless man with the inscription:
                                „ALS MAN. 1521. ZALT. WAS. ICH. 33. IAR ALT“
                                (mutatis mutandis to English: „as we had in 1521, I was 33 years old)


                                Vsebina

                                The title derived from the office of marescallus Franciae created by King Philip II Augustus of France for Albéric Clément (circa 1190).

                                The title was abolished by the National Convention in 1793. It was restored during the First French Empire by Napoleon I as Marshal of the Empire, and then the title was given to Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo and later King of Sweden. Under the Bourbon Restoration, the title reverted to Marshal of France and Napoléon III kept that designation.

                                After the fall of Napoleon III and the Second French Empire, the Third Republic did not use the title until the First World War, when it was recreated as a military distinction and not a rank.

                                Philippe Pétain, awarded the distinction of Marshal of France for his generalship in World War I, retained his title even after his trial and imprisonment and after he was stripped of other positions and titles.

                                The last living Marshal of France was Alphonse Juin, promoted in 1952, who died in 1967. Zadnja francoska maršalka je bila Marie Pierre Kœnig, ki je bila leta 1984 posmrtno razglašena za maršala.

                                Danes se lahko naziv maršala Francije podeli le generalštabu, ki se je v vojni zmagovito boril.