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Jezero Champlain

Jezero Champlain


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Jezero Champlain je naravno vodno telo v New Yorku in Vermontu, skupaj z delom v provinci Quebec v Kanadi. Kanali so povezani z reko Hudson.

Jezero, ki ga je leta 1609 odkril Samuel Champlain, je bil naravni vod vojaških sil, ki so vodile sever in jug. Med francosko in indijsko vojno so francoske in kanadske sile prvič zmagale pri Fort Ticonderogi leta 1758, vendar so jih naslednje leto Britanci premagali.

Med ameriško revolucijo so jezero uporabljale celinske sile pod vodstvom Benedikta Arnolda, ki je leta 1776 na otoku Valcour dobil veliko zmago. Leta 1777 so ga zavzeli Britanci in do konca konflikta ostali pod britanskim nadzorom.

Zadnja vojaška dejavnost na jezeru je bila med vojno 1812, ko je bil komodor Thomas Macdonough, ki je leta 1814 popolnoma uničil britansko floto v zalivu Plattsburgh, odločilna bitka druge vojne z Anglijo.


Naravna zgodovina

Jezero Champlain je osmo največje naravno sladkovodno telo v celinski ZDA. Champlain pokriva 435 kvadratnih kilometrov površinske vode in vsebuje več kot 70 otokov. Jezero je dolgo 120 milj s skoraj 600 miljami obale in leži v dolini, ki jo ob vzhodnem delu obkrožajo Vermontove zelene gore in zahodno newyorški Adirondacks. Jezero Champlain vsebuje 6,8 bilijonov litrov vode in je vir pitne vode za skoraj 200.000 ljudi.

Jezero ima pet glavnih segmentov: Južno jezero, dolgo suho in ob reki Glavno jezero, najgloblji in najširši del zaliva Malletts, ki ga obdajajo zgodovinske železniške in cestne ceste celinsko morje, ki leži vzhodno od Herojskih otokov in zaliva Missisquoi , velik in ločen zaliv, bogat z divjimi živalmi.

Enaintrideset večjih pritokov odteče 8.234 kvadratnih kilometrov jezera Champlain kotlina, kar prinaša več kot 91 odstotkov vode, ki vstopa v jezero. Deltasta ustja in z njimi povezana mokrišča teh pritokov ponujajo nekaj najbolj zanimivih možnosti za veslanje na jezeru.

Geološka zgodovina

Fotografiral Vincent Rossano.

Kamnine in podobe doline jezera Champlain so sanje geologa. Najstarejši fosilni koralni greben na svetu, mlade gore iz starodavnih kamnin in izkopavanje 10.000 let starega kita beluga so le trije primeri številnih geoloških užitkov jezera.

Newyorška obala iz okolice južnega Port Kenta je "kletna" skala, del starodavnega območja gora, ki je bilo pred Adirondacki. Mislili so, da so gore Adirondack nastale šele pred 20 milijoni let, da so te kamnine stare več kot milijardo let!

Newyorška obala na severnem koncu jezera in skoraj vsa obala Vermonta je sestavljena iz sedimentnih kamnin (apnenci, dolostoni, kremenci), ki so bili odloženi v plitkem tropskem morju pred približno 500 milijoni let. Fosilizirani koralni grebeni na otoku La Motte so nastali v tem obdobju, prav tako fosili v zalivu Button.

Predhodnik jezera Champlain je nastal pred približno 200 milijoni let. V tistem času je raztezanje celin povzročilo, da je med dvema vzporednima prelomoma padel ogromen del podlage, ki je tvoril globok kanjon, znan kot grabenska dolina.

V zadnjem času so pleistocenski ledeniki preplavili območje tako daleč južno kot Long Island, da so območje prekrili v miljo debeli ledeni plošči. Ledeniki so se, ko so se debeli, premikali stransko po pokrajini in sledili potim najmanjšega upora skozi doline. Med potjo so skale in balvani, ki so se vlekli pod ledeno ploščo, delovali kot brusni papir, podrgnjen ob zemljo. Ledenik se je začel pred približno tremi milijoni let in se nadaljeval pred približno 12.000 leti.

Ko se je led začel topiti, so počasi umikajoči se ledeniki proti severu omejili tok taline, ki je prisilila odtok na jug skozi današnjo reko Hudson. Jezovi so nasipili vodo v ogromnem jezeru - Vermontskem jezeru. Jezero Vermont je bilo na svoji višini nadmorske višine približno 500 čevljev višje od sedanje ravni jezera Champlain!

Ko se je ledenik umaknil severno od doline sv. Lovrenca, je bila kopna, ki jo je pokrila, zaradi velike teže ledu pod morsko gladino. Oceanske vode so pritekale iz Atlantika in tvorile Champlainsko morje. Morske živali, kot je na primer slavni kit Charlotte, so se v tem času poigravale v regiji. Kasnejše odbijanje zemlje je dvignilo nadmorsko višino jezera. Postopoma se je izpirala slana voda, nadomestila pa jo je sladka voda iz pritokov.

Vodne cone

Jezero Champlain lahko razdelimo na štiri različne cone. V bližini obale je primorsko območje. To je območje, kjer sončna svetloba prodira na dno jezera in lahko raste potopljena vegetacija. Z invazijo školjk zebre je primorsko območje na nekaterih območjih naraslo, ker školjke zebre filtrirajo krmo in lahko povečajo bistrost vode. Globlje vode lahko razdelimo na a limnetično območje in a globinsko območje. Limnetično območje je območje odprte vode, kjer lahko prodre sončna svetloba, vendar ne do dna. Tu alge prevladujejo nad osnovo prehranjevalne verige. Neprestano temna globinska cona sedi pod limnetičnim pasom, izven dosega sončne svetlobe. Pod vsem je bentoska cona, sedimentna plast, ki zagotavlja dom številnim organizmom. Preživetje najdejo iz detritusa, ki skozi vse leto tone na dno.

Mokrišča

Fotografija Jessica Rossi.

Mokrišča, prehodno območje med kopnim in vodo, so opredeljena glede na vrsto tal, količino stoječe vode v enem letu in njihovo vegetacijo. Mokriščne skupnosti jezera Champlain vključujejo močvirja, travnate površine ob jezeru, poplavne gozdove ob jezeru in poplavne gozdove. Mnoga mokrišča ob obali jezera so nastajala več tisoč let zaradi nihanja ravni jezera. Študija programa programa Lake Champlain Basin iz leta 1994 je odkrila 166 večjih mokrišč, najmanj 50 hektarjev ali več, z neposredno hidrološko povezavo z jezerom Champlain.

Mokrišča izboljšujejo kakovost vode s filtriranjem usedlin, onesnaževal in hranil. Ščitijo zaloge podzemne in pitne vode, nadzorujejo poplave, stabilizirajo obale in preprečujejo erozijo. Zagotavljajo zatočišče številnim ribam in prosto živečim živalim: ščuke, ki se drstijo na poplavljenih poljih, dvoživke se razmnožujejo v začasnih tolmunih, številne vrste ptic pa so odvisne od pokrova, ki ga ponujajo mačji repki.

Veliko mokrišč je bilo v zadnjih desetletjih izgubljenih zaradi razvojnega pritiska. Močni predpisi in strogo izvrševanje so potrebni za zaščito tistih, ki ostajajo.

Obalne skupnosti

Okoli Champlain jezera je mogoče najti nekaj značilnih obalnih vegetacijskih skupnosti. Tlakovane plaže se pojavljajo redno, kjer stalne motnje zaradi valov drobijo skale in preprečujejo trajno vzpostavitev vegetacije. Naravne peščene plaže in sipine najdemo le na nekaj lokacijah, kjer reke odlagajo svoje usedline ali kjer tokovi izpirajo erodirano pesek v dno nekaterih zalivov. Sipine nastanejo ob kopnem nekaterih večjih plaž, ko pihajoči vetrovi nabijajo pesek v pečine in hribe. Skupine bele cedre sedijo na vrhu številnih apnenčastih in dolomitnih pečin vzdolž jezera.

Knjiga Wetland, Woodland, Wildland ponuja podrobnejše informacije o naravnih skupnostih jezera in okoliških višav.

Živali

Jezero Champlain ponuja bogato okolje za številne živalske vrste.

Najbolj vidne so ptice, ki letijo in lovijo nad vodo. V danem letu v jezeru Champlain najdemo več kot 250 vrst. Na jezeru redno vidimo štiri vrste galebov. Najpogostejši in najbolj znani so vseprisotni galebi s prstani in večji galebi sleda. Nekaj ​​ogromnih velikih galebov s črnim hrbtom je mogoče videti skozi vse leto, majhne slastne galebe, podobne čigram, pa najpogosteje spomladi in jeseni. Dvojno grebenasti kormorani poleti po celem jezeru lovijo, ta zdaj pogosta vrsta je bila prvič prijavljena, da gnezdi na jezeru v zgodnjih osemdesetih letih. Plešasti orli in skopica se dvigajo naokoli. Na otoku gnezdijo navadne in kaspijske čigre. Med ptice močvirje, ki zalezujejo obale in zaplašena območja, spadajo velike modre čaplje, zelene čaplje, ameriške grenčice, nočne čaplje s črnimi kronami in v zadnjem času velike čaplje. Najpogosteje opažene vrste rac so navadni morski raki, potapljaška raca ter mlakarice in lesne race, obe raci. V zimskem času na mirni vodi plavajo veliki splavi navadnega zlatooka.

Ribe privabljajo ribiče iz vse države. Jezero Champlain gosti približno sedemdeset vrst rib, še okoli dvajset vrst pa naseljuje pritoke med jezerom in jesensko črto. Priljubljene vrste divjadi vključujejo obilo različnih morskih rib, majhnih in velikih ustnic, severne ščuke, jezerske postrvi in ​​atlantskega lososa.

Večina bitij, ki živijo v jezeru, so nevretenčarji - žuželke, polži, školjke, črvi, različni zooplankton in drugo. Na skupnosti nevretenčarjev se malo razmišlja in jih ne razumejo dobro, vendar so sestavni del ekosistema jezera Champlain.

Nauči se

Lake Look

Lake Look je mesečni esej, ki ga pripravi odbor Lake Champlain. Članki zajemajo naravno zgodovino jezera in aktualna vprašanja o upravljanju jezera. Lake Look je razdeljen v časopise po celem bazenu in je na voljo članom po elektronski pošti. Kliknite tukaj, če se želite prijaviti na spletu, da jih prejmete.

Številni stolpci Lake Look so združeni v nagrajeni knjigi LCC JEZERSKI PRVAK: NARAVNA ZGODOVINA.


LCC 's nagrajena knjiga

Jezero Champlain: naravna zgodovina 160 str. mehka vezava 18,95 USD

Zakaj oblaki jeseni zjutraj visijo nizko nad jezerom? Od kod prihajajo invazivne vrste in kako prihajajo? Kako bi lahko globalno segrevanje vplivalo na prihodnost jezera Champlain? Kako je jezero prišlo sem?

Odgovore najdete v nagrajeni knjigi LCC Jezero Champlain: Naravna zgodovina soobjavili Odbor Lake Champlain (LCC) in Slike iz preteklosti (IfP). Kratki eseji v šestih zanimivih poglavjih zajemajo izvor jezera in današnje dogajanje, sile, ki opredeljujejo regijo, pojave, ki dodajajo skrivnost, "živo jezero" rastlin in živali ter prihodnost jezera.

Knjiga, ki jo je v lahkem, privlačnem slogu napisal znanstvenik LCC Mike Winslow s črno -belimi fotografijami in podrobnimi ilustracijami peresa in črnila Libby Davidson, bo ljudem pomagala odkriti in razumeti bogate in raznolike vire jezera. Knjiga temelji na seriji mesečnih kolumn z naslovom »Lake Look«, ki jih LCC od leta 2002 distribuira svojim članom ter lokalnim in regionalnim časopisom. Jezero Champlain: Naravna zgodovina je eden izmed uradno določenih štiriletnih projektov LCC. Publikacija je za regionalno publikacijo osvojila srebrno medaljo IPPY.

"Ta knjiga je daleč v smeri izobraževanja vseh, ki imajo radi pogled na jezero Champlain," ugotavlja avtor in okoljevarstvenik Bill McKibben. »Mike Winslow in Libby Davidson z jasno in lucidno prozo ter natančno in očarljivo ilustracijo odgovarjata na več deset vprašanj, ki so se mi pojavila v preteklih letih, še bolje pa odgovarjajo na vprašanja, ki mi jih sploh ni uspelo postaviti. To je manj podobno terenskemu vodniku in bolj kot, če bi imeli na izletu modrega naravoslovca. "

"(R) bralci bodo bolje razumeli in cenili to veliko jezero," je dejal Rutland Herald (28.10.2008).

Publikacija z mehkimi platnicami velikosti 7 ”x 10” na 160 straneh, ki je na voljo za prodajo po ceni 18,95 USD, je dostopna tako po vsebini kot po ceni.

Trenutno ni na zalogi in čakamo na ponovne natise. Če naročite zdaj, lahko dostava zamuja več mesecev.


Benedict Arnold se hrabro bori na otoku Valcour

11. oktobra 1776 je britanska flota pod vodstvom Sir Guya Carletona premagala 15 ameriških topniških čolnov pod poveljstvom brigadnega generala Benedikta Arnolda v bitki pri otoku Valcour na jezeru Champlain v današnjem okrožju Clinton v New Yorku.

Čeprav so bile skoraj vse ladje Arnolda uničene, so Britanci potrebovali več kot dva dni, da so pokorili pomorske sile Patriot, kar je zavleklo kampanjo Carleton in dalo kopenskim silam Patriot dovolj časa za pripravo ključne obrambe New Yorka.

Leto prej, med neuspešno kampanjo Patriotsov za prevzem Kanade, je Carletonu, generalnemu guvernerju Kanade, uspelo pobegniti iz zgodnjih uspešnih napadov generala Patriota Richarda Montgomeryja poleti in jeseni. Prikradel se je v mesto Quebec, organiziral 1800 mož za obrambo mesta in se pripravil čakati na obleganje Patriota. Patrioti, ki se jim je rok iztekel, ker jim je konec leta potekel vpis v vojsko, so 7. decembra izstrelili puščice nad mestno obzidje. Puščice so nosile pisma, ki so zahtevala predajo Carletona. Ko Carleton ni privolil, so Američani 8. decembra začeli bombardiranje mesta s topovi Montgomery ’s. Nato so 31. decembra poskusili s katastrofalnim neuspelim napadom, v katerem je bil Montgomery ubit, Arnold pa hudo ranjen. Akcija okoli otoka Valcour je bila zadnja faza Carletonovih prizadevanj, da bi enkrat za vselej odgnali Arnolda iz Kanade.

Arnold je veljal za junaka Patriota zaradi poguma pri obleganju Quebeca, prej pa med patriotskim zavzetjem Fort Ticonderoga v New Yorku 10. maja 1775. Arnold pa se mu ni zdelo, da je prejel dovolj priznanj za svoja prizadevanja. in se je kot poveljnik West Pointa leta 1780 strinjal, da bo pomembno trdnjavo reke Hudson predal Britancem za podkupnino v višini ꌠ.000. Zaplet je bil odkrit, potem ko je bil britanski vohun John Andre ujet, ko je nosil obremenilne dokumente, zaradi česar je Arnold pobegnil na britansko zaščito. Nato se je pridružil Britancem v njihovem boju proti državi, ki ji je nekoč tako hrabro služil.


Jezero Champlain danes

Danes je Transportno podjetje Lake Champlain še naprej prevaža avtomobile in potnike čez jezero na treh ločenih prehodih, zaradi česar je to najstarejše parno ladjo, ki deluje v ZDA.

Burlington je postal središče severne trgovine, saj je večina gora Vermonta odvzela gozdove. Žagan les so pripeljali v Burlington za rezkanje in odpremo po vsej Severni Ameriki. Do leta 1850 in 39 se je število prebivalstva povečalo. Ko so železnice končno prišle skozi gore, se je živahna trgovina s parnimi čolni upočasnila in promet se je preusmeril na potovanje po kopnem.

Zgodnji del 20. stoletja je prinesel težave in blaginjo. Mnogi mladi so zapustili državo, da bi našli delo drugje. Na območju Burlingtona je kljub temu premiku prebivalstva gospodarstvo počasi, a zanesljivo raslo. Velika depresija je povzročila težke čase, vendar je druga svetovna vojna ustvarila delovna mesta v proizvodnji in blaginja je rasla. Delovna mesta v proizvodnji so nato v 1950 -ih letih izginila in zatirala lokalno gospodarstvo.

Trženje Vermonta

V šestdesetih in šestih letih prejšnjega stoletja se je Vermont s prizadevanji številnih državnih in lokalnih organizacij začel agresivno promovirati in industrijo pripeljati do Zelena gora. Mednarodni poslovni stroji in splošna dinamika so prišli v stanje, drugi pa so sledili.

Danes se državljanska razprava osredotoča na to, kako ohraniti kakovost podeželja v Vermontu in vrhunsko kakovost življenja, zaradi katere so ljudje sploh prišli v Burlington. Z leti se je Burlington uveljavil kot skupnost z vizijo in zmožnostjo slediti spreminjanju vizije v resničnost, pa naj bo to obračanje Cerkvena ulica v uspešen nakupovalni center na prostem ali iskanje inovativnih načinov za ohranjanje čistega in zdravega jezera Champlain. Glavna skrb prebivalcev Burlingtona je, da bodo še naprej zagotavljali edinstven značaj in lepoto Vermonta.

Nekaj ​​uporabnih zgodovinskih spletnih mest Vermonta:

Obiščite več na stran z lokalnimi informacijami. Če imate druga vprašanja ali bi radi pomagali pri iskanju doma na območju Greater Burlington VT, obrnite se na skupino Brian Boardman. Morda vam bo tudi všeč poglejte naše oglase ali začnite lastno iskanje doma.


Domača zgodovina doline Champlain

Sabael, Abenaki mož, ki je postal prvi stalni naseljenec današnjega Indijskega jezera, NY. Vir: http://www.nedoba.org/bio_benedict01.html.

Pred evropsko kolonizacijo Severne Amerike so Algonquian in Iroquoian prebivalci naseljevali območje okoli jezera Champlain. Domača naselja v regiji so bila osredotočena okoli doline Champlain ter bližnjih dolin Mohawk in St. Lawrence, gore Adirondack pa so služile predvsem kot lovišča za prebivalce bližnjih dolin. 1 Približno v času, ko so Evropejci prvič prišli v to regijo, so Abenaki - algonkijsko pleme - zasedli območje približno od jezera Champlain proti vzhodu skozi New Hampshire, medtem ko je Mohawk - eden od šestih članov Konfederacije Irokezov - zasedel območje od jezera Champlain proti zahodu vzdolž reke Mohawk in proti severu v dolino sv. Lovrenca. 2 Vendar ozemeljske meje med sosednjimi staroselci zgodovinsko niso bile stroge, prekrivajoča se lovska ozemlja pa so bila pogosta, tako kot pri Abenakih in Mohawku. 3

Zahodni Abenaki so imeli naselja do osemnajstega stoletja ob izlivih Otter Creeka in rek Winooski, Lamoille in Missisquoi ter tudi na Velikem otoku, vendar so se te skupnosti sčasoma skoncentrirale v naselju Missisquoi. Zgodovinsko gledano so družine Abenaki veliko potovale po regiji jezera Champlain poleti v kanujih iz brezove breze, pozimi pa na krpljah, ki so se generacije preživljale z lovom na vrste losov, jelenov, medvedov, vodnih ptic in potniških golobov, zlasti za nabiranje divjih jegulj živila, kot so oreh, jagodičje, javorjev sladkor in zelenjava ter sajenje koruze, fižola in bučk. Ljudje Abenaki so večinoma živeli in potovali v družinskih skupinah, v času spora pa so si skupnosti izbrale voditelje za vojne stranke. Abenaki so se združili z drugimi sosednjimi algonkijskimi ljudstvi, ki živijo predvsem na vzhodu in severu, medtem ko so se pogosto borili z narodi Irokezov na zahodu. 4

Mohawk, ki se kličejo sami Kanienkehake (»Ljudje iz Flinta«), so se do osemnajstega stoletja naselili predvsem v dolini Mohawk v New Yorku, vendar trdijo, da je prvotna domovina, ki sega tudi v južno Kanado in Vermont. 5 Mohawk je sklenil miroljubno zavezništvo s štirimi drugimi irokezističnimi plemeni, ki so zasedla večino severnega in zahodnega New Yorka, vendar so "naokoli hodili po vzhodni Severni Ameriki", da bi ustvarili Irokeze - oz. Haudenosaunee - Konfederacija približno stoletje pred evropsko kolonizacijo. Zavezništvo je ostalo močna politična entiteta, s katero so se morale vse kolonialne sile spopadati do konca revolucionarne vojne. 6 Mohawki so se prvi pridružili tej Konfederaciji in so znani kot "starejši bratje" Irokezov in "čuvaji vzhodnih vrat". Mohawk je tradicionalno živel v značilnih večdružinskih domovih Iroquois, znanih kot dolge hiše, in obdeloval velika polja s koruzo, fižolom in bučkami, ki so to prehrano dopolnjevali z lovom, ribolovom in pasti. 7

Mitchell Sabattis, slavni vodnik po Adirondacku. 1886. Vir: Adirondackov muzej [ŠE VEDNO POTREBUJE DOVOLJENJE].

S prihodom Evropejcev v sedemnajstem stoletju je dolina Champlain postala »kulturno stičišče, kjer sta se sporekala in sodelovala Algonquian in Anglež, Irokezi in Francozi«. 8 V naslednjih stoletjih je zagotovitev evropskega nadzora nad regijo »pomenila več kot le naselitev ozemlja, ki je zahtevalo razpršitev, odvzem in izgon avtohtonih prebivalcev«, evropski naseljenci in trgovci pa so domorodnim skupnostim prinesli tudi razširjene epidemije. 9 Ko so se britanski naseljenci širili proti severu v Novi Angliji in New Yorku, so Abenaki - povezani z britanskimi francoskimi sovražniki - pogosto vdrli v obmejna naselja. Na koncu pa je veliko Abenakovcev v dolini Champlain pobegnilo proti severu v druge domorodne skupnosti blizu kanadske meje ali izven njih zaradi poseganja naseljencev v njihova tradicionalna dežela, drugi pa so ostali na njihovem ozemlju. 10 Za Mohawke je širjenje naseljenskega kolonializma v New Yorku prisililo skupnosti, da so se v osemnajstem stoletju preselile proti severu v dolino St. Lawrence, kjer so se povezale s Francozi. 11 Nekateri Abenakisi so se zatekli k tem francoskim zaveznikom Mohawks, s katerimi so bili del sedmih narodov Kanade, 12 in peščica se je nastanila tudi v gorah Adirondack. Nekateri od teh beguncev iz Adirondacka Abenakija so postali legendarni vodniki po divjini, med njimi tudi Sabael - Abenaki mož iz Maine, ki je bil prvi naseljenec na Indijskem jezeru in je vodil Ebenezer Emmons na vzponu na goro Marcy - in Mitchell Sabattis - slavni vodnik po dolgem jezeru, ki je delal z geodetsko ekipo Verplancka Colvina. 13

Pomembno si je zapomniti tudi, da se zgodovina domorodnega zatiranja po Severni Ameriki ni končala s prihodom naseljencev, ki so izselili in izbrisali domorodne skupnosti. Ljudje Abenaki so bili preganjani na primer z evgenično raziskavo v Vermontu vse do dvajsetega stoletja. V okviru programa evgenike je bilo približno 200 ljudi Abenaki steriliziranih brez popolnega informiranega soglasja od približno 1925–1936, prisilna sterilizacija ljudi Abenaki pa se je nadaljevala vsaj do poznih petdesetih let. Program je označil avtohtone prebivalce, ki živijo na robu družbe v Vermontu, za "#8220-pomanjkljivo" ”, “ Cigane ” in “Pirate ”, da bi upravičili prakso sterilizacije in odpravljanja revnih in marginaliziranih skupnosti, ki jo sponzorira vlada. 14 Abenaki in druge avtohtone skupine po vsej Severni Ameriki so se skozi programe in stališča, kakršna je pokazala v programu evgenike, v stoletjih od začetka evropske kolonizacije še naprej soočali s strukturnim nasiljem, travmami kolonializma in socialno izključenostjo.


Bitka pri jezeru Champlain

Britanska perspektiva: Leta 1775 so Britanci izgubili nadzor nad svojimi postojankami vzdolž doline reke Hudson pri Fort Ticonderoga, Crown Point in Fort St. John. Uporniški napadalci so zasegli ali uničili tudi britanske ladje, ki delujejo na jezeru Champlain, kar je znatno oslabilo nadzor Crown & rsquos v regiji.

Potem ko so uspešno preprečili ameriško -kanadsko ofenzivo, so Britanci sledili poraženemu sovražniku proti jugu v ameriške kolonije. Nadzor jezera Champlain je bil bistvenega pomena za obe strani in da bi ogrozili Američane s severa, so Britanci vedeli, da morajo nadzorovati to pomembno vodno pot.

Ker je bilo dolgo in ozko jezero zaprto za globokomorski promet na obeh koncih, je bil general Sir Guy Carleton prisiljen organizirati veliko flotilo ladij, ki so jih pripeljali na dolžnost v celinsko jezero. Večina ladij je bila majhnih plovil z vrstami in jadri, zato neprimernih za gibanje proti vetru.

Ladje so razstavili pri Chamblyju in jih po kopnem prepeljali čez ožje reke do sv.Janeza, kjer so jih ponovno sestavili & mdasha ogromen podvig, dosežen v samo 28 dneh. Po večjih ladjah je bilo 400 manjših plovil, naloženih s 7.000 britanskimi vojaki in Indijanci, ki so se pripravljali na invazijo na New York.

Pomorski poveljnik general Carleton & rsquos, kapitan Thomas Pringle, se je 4. oktobra končno odpravil iz svetega Janeza in se počasi pomikal proti jugu po reki Richelieu v iskanju ladij Patriot, za katere je vedel, da so delovale na jezeru. Teden dni kasneje je britanska flota plula mimo Cumberland Head in pod otokom Valcour, preden je ugotovila, da je ameriška flotila razporejena med otokom in zahodno obalo jezera & rsquos.

Ko je kapitan Pringle manevriral s svojo floto, da bi blokiral južni dostop do Arnolda, je tekla bitka za jezero Champlain.

Ameriška perspektiva: 14. maja 1775 je v mestu Skenesboro (zdaj Whitehall) v New Yorku 50 domoljubov pod vodstvom polkovnika Benedikta Arnolda ujelo britansko škuno. Arnold je s plovilom priplul v St. John na reki Richelieu, kjer je 18. maja odkril še 10 britanskih ladij različnih velikosti.

Njegovi možje so uničili pet in ujeli preostalih pet, med njimi 70-tonski žleb. Arnold & rsquos neverjeten podvig je izbrisal pomorsko prevlado Crown & rsquos na jezeru Champlain, hkrati pa vzpostavil ameriško ad-hock pomorsko prisotnost na ključnem jezeru. Čeprav je sreča igrala vlogo pri njegovem uspehu, je bil Arnold pred vojno izkušen pomorski kapitan in je bil spreten na vodi.

Poleti in jeseni 1775 so Američani izvedli neuspešno kampanjo, da bi Kanado izločili iz britanske okupacije. Patrioti so se spomladi 1776 umaknili, majhna ameriška flota pa je sledila, ko je plula proti jugu po jezeru Champlain proti New Yorku.

Da bi zadrževal jezero in zadrževal Britance, se je Arnold lotil izgradnje večje flote skoraj iz nič. Čeprav so bile možnosti velike, je združil orodje in obrtnika ter z razpoložljivim lesom zgradil svoje majhne ladje v južnih delih plovne poti v Crown Pointu in Skenesboro.

Hrbtenico njegove & ldquofleet & rdquo so sestavljale štiri močne galije z ravnim dnom, v vsaki je bilo 80 ljudi. Te galije so bile dolge približno 70 čevljev in široke 20 čevljev, s kratkim jamborjem in poznim jadrom. Njihova oborožitev je odprta za nekaj sporov, vendar je verjetno vsak imel eno ali več naslednjih stvari: 18-funtne, 12-funtne, 9-funtne in 4-funtne skupaj z vrtljivimi pištolami na četrtletju. Osem manjših & ldquogondolas & rdquo je bilo tudi zloženih skupaj.

Ta plovila z ravnim dnom so bila dolga 53 čevljev z gredjo 15,5 čevljev in ugrezom štirih čevljev. Vsak je imel majhen en sam jambor z dvema majhnima jadroma in posadko 45, ki je delala s tremi puškami: 12-palčni v premcu in dve 9-kilogramski srednji ladji. Tako kot večje kuhinje so bile tudi gondole opremljene z vesli.

Ko je flota končana in se Britanci približujejo, je Arnold spretno preselil svojo pestro flotilo v ozko ožino med jugozahodnim delom otoka Valcour in obalo New Yorka. Vedel je, da se njegova flota ne ujema enako s floto sovražnika, in se je namesto tega odločil, da se zanese na pomanjkanje topništva in številk.

S taborniško ladjo je gledal glavni kanal in čakal, da se pojavi močnejša britanska flota. Arnold je za vodilnega jemal kongres kuhinje, njegov drugi poveljnik, general David Waterbury, pa je zasedel mesto na kuhinji Washington.

Boj: Nerazumljivo, da kapitan Pringle in general Carleton nista izvedla ustreznega izvidništva in 11. oktobra zjutraj premagala svojega sovražnika. Posledica tega je bila, da ameriške flote niso opazili, dokler britanske ladje niso priplule mimo južne konice otoka Valcour. Ta napaka je dala majhni floti Arnold & rsquos veter in vsaj nekaj prednosti, ki je sicer ne bi užival.

V strahu, da bi se Carleton premaknil proti severu in uporabil veter, da bi obšel otok Valcour in navzdol po prehodu za njim, je Arnold ukazal več ladjam, da se odpravijo in angažirajo Britance, v upanju, da jih bo zvabil v južni kanal ob otoku in jugozahodni vrh rsquos. Ko je videl, kako velika je sovražnikova flotila, se je Arnold umaknil in se pripravil na boj s svojimi ladjami, postavljenimi v vrsto čez ozki kanal.

Okoli 11. ure so Britanci pritisnili na napad. Ameriška škuna Royal Savage je bila prva žrtev zaroke. Sovražni ogenj je ladjo zgodaj poškodoval, ko se je odtrgala od vrvice škune in razbila jambor. Med poskusom pobega je Royal Savage nasedel ob jugozahodnem kotu otoka. (Kapitan Hawley je morda svojo pohabljeno ladjo namerno potisnil na morje, da bi rešil življenja svojih mož, ki so se držali za svoje puške, dokler jih na koncu niso odgnali.) Izguba škune, še posebej tako zgodaj v boju, je bil udarec, ki bi ga Američani lahko zboleli privoščiti.

Mornarica Arnold & rsquos je hitro stala in več ur izmenjavala topniški ogenj z večjo sovražnikovo floto, pri čemer se je večina akcije odvijala na razdalji približno 350 do 400 jardov. Ladje so bile majhne, ​​s katerimi je bilo težko upravljati v dnevnih vremenskih razmerah, bojni dim pa je zakril velik del bojev v ozkem toku. Ti dejavniki so prispevali k slabemu streljanju, zato je boj trajal veliko dlje, kot bi sicer.

Arnold naj bi zaradi pomanjkanja usposobljenih strelcev osebno ciljal številne puške na kongresu. Obe strani sta utrpeli neposredne zadetke in izgube, pri čemer so Američani prevzeli levji del železa. Ena ključnih točk bitke Patriota je bila škoda, povzročena britanski škuni Carleton, ki je ubila in ranila veliko njene posadke. Le pogumna dejanja 19-letnega vezista, ki se je znašel pod poveljstvom, so rešili plovilo.

Mrak je padel na jezero Champlain okoli 17:00. in britanske vojne ladje so umaknile še 300 ali 400 jardov. V tem času se je Pringle & rsquos močna vodilna ladja Nefleksibilna sprostila s petimi srednje širokimi stranicami, ki so ohromile številne ameriške ladje in večino pušk Arnold & rsquos onemogočile. Darkness je dejanje končal.

Arnold je bil upravičeno ponosen na boj, ki ga je vodila njegova flotila, vendar so bile njegove izgube znatne. Prizemljeni Royal Savage so požgali Britanci. Sovražni strel je raztrgal jambore in namestitev na galerijah v kongresu in Washingtonu. Vsak je bil tudi večkrat oluščen. Niti eden ne bi bil primeren za ukrepanje v kratkem, če še kdaj. Slabo sta se odrezali tudi gondoli New York in Philadelphia.

Prva je izgubila vsakega častnika razen svojega kapitana, medtem ko je bila posadka slednje zdesetkana z letečimi železnimi kroglami in lesenimi drobci, ladja sama je pohabljena potonila eno uro po tem, ko je topništvo utihnilo. Tema je prikrila tudi manj vidno ameriško slabost. Boji niso le razsekali številnih ladij Patriot, ampak so skoraj izčrpali zalogo streliva Arnold & rsquos. Še en krog spopadov bi se lahko končal le s porazom za Američane, kar je Arnolda spodbudilo k pripravi pobega.

Pod oblačnim nočnim nebom so Američani utišali vesla in svoje ladje postavili v eno datoteko. Ob 19.00 uri Trumbull je ameriško kolono vodil neposredno proti jugu vzdolž zahodne obale skozi močno meglo. Ko je 12. oktobra vzšlo sonce, je zdrobljena ameriška flota varno zdrsnila, a je bila od otoka Valcour oddaljena le osem kilometrov. Arnold & rsquos težave so se šele začele. Gondole Providence in New York sta bila tako močno poškodovana, da ju je bilo treba pobiti. Jersey je udaril v skalo in ga skupaj s prejšnjo bojno škodo moral opustiti.

The daring escape angered the British commanders, who had gone to sleep that night believing Arnold was trapped and ripe for destruction. An immediate pursuit was launched. All that day the British rowed after Arnold, both sides fighting the wind now blowing up from the south. Early on the morning of October 13, the wind changed back to the north, and Pringle&rsquos warships overtook the crippled American fleet near Split Rock Point. The fighting began anew with a focused attack by Inflexible and Maria against Arnold&rsquos larger ships.

General Waterbury&rsquos Washington and more than 100 men surrendered when the pair of British ships bracketed the crippled galley. The galley Lee ran up against rocks near the shore and was left to her fate. Inflexible, Maria and the badly damaged but still dangerous Carleton moved alongside Arnold&rsquos flagship Congress, spraying her decks with grapeshot that ripped apart rigging and bodies while cannonballs smashed their way through the flagship&rsquos already porous hull. Woefully outgunned, Arnold knew if he did not get away his entire fleet and every crewman would be killed or captured.

In a stunning display of seamanship and leadership, Arnold ordered his remaining ships to turn into the wind and make a run past the British for Buttonmould Bay on the Vermont shore. His enemy could not sail into the wind, and some reports claim the bay was too shallow for the larger British vessels to safely enter.

Once inside this sanctuary, the Americans stripped the ships of everything of value and scuttled them. Their mission at an end, Arnold and his men marched overland to Crown Point. He could not hold that position and so continued his journey to Fort Ticonderoga, which he and his 200 survivors reached at 4:00 a.m. on the morning of October 14.

For more in-depth research about the Battle of Lake Champlain read the book Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution written by Theodore Savas and J. David Dameron.


Steamboats on Lake Champlain, a brief history

Circa 1910, the Ticonderoga approaching the dock at Thompson’s Point, with the Point’s motor launch Elsa tied to a small dock. Used with permission of the Charlotte Historical Society.

Dan Cole, Contributor

The first steamboat on the lake was the wood hulled Vermont I, built in 1808 in Burlington by John and James Winan, who had worked with Robert Fulton on America’s first steamboat in 1807, the Clermont. Lake Champlain was used extensively for early travel and trade, as the roads were poor and rail was non-existent, and most of the trade was with Canada. But the vagaries of the wind on the lake made sailing difficult. The problem with early steam vessels, as noted with the Redbud in our editorial in this edition, was their slow speed. The Vermont I could make about 5 knots on a good day—if it didn’t break down, which it did regularly. The quality of their construction improved and owners added cozy and well-appointed cabins to attract travelers.

This was taken at the end of Thompson’s Point during a busy summer. Photo courtesy of Ross Andrews.


Samuel de Champlain

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Samuel de Champlain, (born 1567?, Brouage, France—died December 25, 1635, Quebec, New France [now in Canada]), French explorer, acknowledged founder of the city of Quebec (1608), and consolidator of the French colonies in the New World. He was the first known European to sight the lake that bears his name (1609) and made other explorations of what are now northern New York, the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes.

Why is Samuel de Champlain significant?

He was key to French expansion in the New World. Known as the “Father of New France,” Champlain founded Quebec (1608), one of the oldest cities in what is now Canada, and consolidated French colonies. He also made important explorations of what is now northern New York, the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes.

What was Samuel de Champlain’s early life like?

He was born about 1567 in Brouage, France, a seaport on the Atlantic coast. While little is known of his childhood, he stated that at a young age he developed an interest in navigation and “a love of the high seas.” Some sources claim that he made his first ocean voyage as a teenager.

How did Samuel de Champlain die?

He died of a stroke on December 25, 1635, in Quebec, New France.

Champlain was probably born a commoner, but, after acquiring a reputation as a navigator (having taken part in an expedition to the West Indies and Central America), he received an honorary if unofficial title at the court of Henry IV. In 1603 he accepted an invitation to visit what he called the River of Canada ( St. Lawrence River). He sailed, as an observer in a longboat, upstream from the mother ship’s anchorage at Tadoussac, a summer trading post, to the site of Montreal and its rapids. His report on the expedition was soon published in France, and in 1604 he accompanied a group of ill-fated settlers to Acadia, a region surrounding the Bay of Fundy.

Champlain spent three winters in Acadia—the first on an island in the St. Croix River, where scurvy killed nearly half the party, and the second and third, which claimed the lives of fewer men, at Annapolis Basin. During the summers he searched for an ideal site for colonization. His explorations led him down the Atlantic coast southward to Massachusetts Bay and beyond, mapping in detail the harbours that his English rivals had only touched. In 1607 the English came to Kennebec (now in Maine) in southern Acadia. They spent only one winter there, but the threat of conflict increased French interest in colonization.

Heading an expedition that left France in 1608, Champlain undertook his most ambitious project—the founding of Quebec. On earlier expeditions he had been a subordinate, but this time he was the leader of 32 colonists.

Champlain and eight others survived the first winter at Quebec and greeted more colonists in June. Allied by an earlier French treaty with the northern Indian tribes, he joined them in defeating Iroquois marauders in a skirmish on Lake Champlain. That and a similar victory in 1610 enhanced French prestige among the allied tribes, and fur trade between France and the Indians increased. In 1610 he left for France, where he married Hélène Boullé, the daughter of the secretary to the king’s chamber.

The fur trade had heavy financial losses in 1611, which prompted Quebec’s sponsors to abandon the colony, but Champlain persuaded Louis XIII to intervene. Eventually the king appointed a viceroy, who made Champlain commandant of New France. In 1613 he reestablished his authority at Quebec and immediately embarked for the Ottawa River on a mission to restore the ruined fur trade. The following year he organized a company of French merchants to finance trade, religious missions, and his own exploration.

Champlain next went to Lake Huron, where native chiefs persuaded him to lead a war party against a fortified village south of Lake Ontario. The Iroquois defenders wounded him and repulsed his Huron- Algonquin warriors, a somewhat disorganized but loyal force, who carried him to safety. After spending a winter in their territory, he returned to France, where political maneuvers were endangering the colony’s future. In 1620 the king reaffirmed Champlain’s authority over Quebec but forbade his personal exploration, directing him instead to employ his talents in administrative tasks.

The colony, still dependent on the fur trade and only experimenting in agriculture, hardly prospered under his care or under the patronage of a new and strong company. English privateers, however, considered Quebec worth besieging in 1628, when England and France were at war. Champlain manned the walls until the following summer, when his distressed garrison exhausted its food and gunpowder. Although he surrendered the fort, he did not abandon his colony. Taken to England as a prisoner, he argued that the surrender had occurred after the end of French and English hostilities. In 1632 the colony was restored to France, and in 1633, a year after publishing his seventh book, he made his last voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to Quebec.

Only a few more settlers were aboard when his ships dropped anchor at Quebec, but others continued to arrive each year. Before he died of a stroke in 1635, his colony extended along both shores of the St. Lawrence River.


A lake in crisis

An algal bloom near St. Albans Bay, Vermont. Pollution has repeatedly closed nearby beaches in recent years. Photo by Armand Messier/northernvermontaerial.com

Battling ‘putrid’ outbreaks on the Adirondack Park’s eastern flank, New York and Vermont advocates struggle to reduce phosphorus pollution in Lake Champlain

By RY RIVARD

A few billion years ago, cyanobacteria were creators. The colorful bacteria produced much of the planet’s early oxygen.

Now, they are increasingly known as something else—destroyers.

In lakes around the world and close to home, the tiny floating cells threaten public health and property values. That’s because toxic outbreaks or “blooms” of cyanobacteria, often mistaken for and even called algae, are getting worse.

In Ohio, residents of Toledo couldn’t drink their water for several days in 2014, because it was drawn from a bacteria-filled Lake Erie. In New Jersey, bacteria blooms closed beaches around the state’s largest lake last summer.

New York has put a dozen lakes on a cyanobacteria watch list, including several of the Finger Lakes and two Adirondack lakes.

The first local lake, Lake George—assiduously guarded for decades by strict environmental regulations—has never had a confirmed outbreak of cyanobacteria, but such a “harmful algal bloom” could be devastating to a lake prized for its clear waters.

Ironically, Lake George’s waters are painstakingly protected only to drain straight into the second local lake on the list, a lake in crisis, Lake Champlain.

Bacteria in Champlain—cupped by New York, Vermont and Quebec—are feeding on polluted runoff from around the lake, especially Vermont’s dairyland, and thriving in water that is warming along with the rest of the globe.

“They just want to eat and grow and be warm,” said Natalie Flores, a University of Vermont researcher studying the dangers of cyanobacteria.

When they do all that, their blooms close beaches and put public health officials on alert because of the tens of thousands of people who drink water from the lake.

Number of people who drink Lake Champlain water: About 150,000, according to the Lake Champlain Basin Program.

On the lake’s New York side, blooms have been spotted around the Adirondack hamlet of Port Henry every recent summer and closed beaches at least once most summers.

In reports published by Vermont, trained watchers around the lake have described Champlain in dispiriting terms during blooms that cover sections of the lake and its bays: “putrid,” “smells bad,” “unbelievable stench,” “sections look like broccoli, others like green paint spill,” “pea soup,” “9th day of green,” “awfully discouraging,” “pictures don’t do it justice.” One volunteer reported that they’d like to sample part of the lake for testing but, “I could not get a cup of water without getting in and I was not doing that.”

Various arms of the government have worried about algae in Champlain since at least the early 1900s, when the United States Geological Survey was dispatched to look into “troublesome alga” in the lake. Action took decades, though. Burlington was dumping untreated sewage into the lake until the middle of the century.

Much of the lake’s phosphorus pollution comes from Vermont farms, though several Adirondack Park rivers also contribute. Graphic courtesy of Lake Champlain Basin Program

Now, a more serious and sweeping attempt to control the largest source of pollution—runoff from nearby dairy farms—is one of the major political issues around the lake. It is especially so in Vermont where dairy is a literal and figurative sacred cow.

But other industries now hang in the balance, too. In an area dependent on tourism, the blooms aren’t just an inconvenience—they threaten a way of life.

“No one wants to move to a lake house when the lake has an algae bloom all year long,” said Anne Schechinger, an economist at the Environmental Working Group, a national nonprofit focused on clean water.

Twenty years ago, several dogs died along Champlain’s shores after swallowing cyanobacteria toxins.

The deaths woke up public health officials then but, if anything, the blooms have become more noticeable and likely worse since.

Laurel Casey lives on the Vermont side of the lake, not far from the Lake Champlain Bridge that crosses over from New York’s Crown Point peninsula.

She calls herself a failed cabaret singer. She said she depends on two things for income: her Social Security check and summer tourists who rent a cottage on lakeside property she inherited from her parents.

Casey worries about the blooms on the lake.

She wouldn’t be alone in suffering economic loss from the lake’s woes. In the northern Vermont town of Georgia, three dozen homes near a polluted bay each lost $50,000 in value because of the pollution.

“It keeps me up at night, because, should I sell before everyone figures it out?” Casey said one cold mid-November night.

Laurel Casey lives on the Vermont side of Lake Champlain, across from Crown Point, but worries cyanobacteria blooms caused by farm runoff will scare away tourists and ruin property values for everyone around the lake. Photo by Elodie Reed/Vermont Public Radio

A dairy cow produces about 120 pounds of manure a day. There are about 130,000 dairy cows in Vermont. Many of them are in Addison County, where Casey lives.

Their manure contains phosphorus, an essential chemical known by scientists as a “nutrient,” a friendly label that can be confusing as governments spend millions a year to keep “nutrients” out of the lake. Cyanobacteria love the stuff and when manure lies exposed on a farm during a rainstorm, it can wash right into the lake.

Since the dog deaths, officials around the lake have stepped up their efforts to track and prevent blooms, in part by cutting phosphorus.

Results are mixed, at best.

“It has been extraordinarily slow going,” said Elena Mihaly, an attorney at the Conservation Law Foundation.

New York and Vermont worked together on a major phosphorus reduction plan in 2002. The plan required states upgrade wastewater treatment plants, restore natural habitat, ensure farmers do more to keep manure from being flushed into the river, and prevent urban flooding that drags pollution into the lake. But the Conservation Law Foundation challenged Vermont’s part in court for being too weak. The federal government handed the state a stronger set of rules to follow in 2016.

Now two states are trying to clean up the same lake using plans and numbers created a decade apart. The plans don’t agree on basic things, like how much pollution goes into the lake each year.

The best guess is about 2 million pounds of phosphorus, about 70 percent of it from Vermont. To do its part, Vermont needs to reduce pollution coming from its shores by a third.

The state’s preliminary estimate for how much phosphorus it has been able to keep from running into the lake in a typical year is about 35,000 pounds, thanks to new regulations and state and federal spending on water quality improvement projects. New York says it has been able to prevent slightly more runoff, about 40,000 pounds per year.

Continue reading below …

Black Creek — a wetland are near St. Albans Bay, Vermont — shows the effects of phosphorus pollution in Lake Champlain tributaries. Photo by Armand Messier/northernvermontaerial.com

Research on phosphorus levels in the lake’s tributaries in both states shows no overall trend. Worse, some tributaries around the lake seem to carry even more phosphorus now than before.

Julie Moore, the head of Vermont’s Agency of Natural Resources, said it’s too soon to tell how well the state is doing.

“We have very robust tracking of the projects and programs we’re putting on the ground, but 95 percent of phosphorus pollution is weather driven, so we have to overcome the inherent noisiness of weather,” she said.

But the weather is unlikely to cooperate. Officials are seeing more rain and storms so intense they’re called “rain bombs,” a recipe for uncontrolled flashes of water that sweep manure off fields and urban pollution into the lake. By one estimate, phosphorus levels could increase by 30 percent due to climate change in coming decades.

All this means the food for cyanobacteria keeps coming into the lake.

Angela Shambaugh, a scientist with the state of Vermont, said blooms are happening later into the year. In 2019, for instance, blooms were showing up in fall, though they used to end with the summer.

Blooms also seem to be starting earlier, though that’s harder to ascertain. Both the later and earlier blooms would likely tie into the global warming that’s giving bacteria more weeks of favorably warm water to grow, which means a better chance that bacteria will ruin someone’s trip to the lake.

Shambaugh says when she hears from people who are afraid to come to Vermont because of beach closures, she tells them to come anyway. If a beach is closed, there’s still other stuff to do, like hike. Plus, she said, there are blooms elsewhere.

“My advice is you probably have cyanobacteria blooms in your state learn what they look like,” Shambaugh said.

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In Vermont, it sometimes looks like the whole of state government is focused on the lake’s problems. Tourism, after all, helps support some 30,000 Vermont jobs and much of it happens around the lake. According to one study, Vermont risks losing hundreds of jobs and millions of dollars in tourism spending if the lake becomes even slightly dirtier-looking.

In 2019, Vermont lawmakers set aside millions more toward what is intended to become a $50 million-a-year fund to pay for water quality projects—a plan designed to help satisfy federal mandates to improve the lake. New York is also spending millions to curb blooms, but officials are generally not as focused on Champlain specifically.

Vermont’s auditor, Douglas Hoffer, criticized his state for spending more money so far on upgrading wastewater treatment plants—rather than trying to reduce runoff from dairy farms—even though farming is a far larger source of phosphorus pollution than human sewage.

“The price of milk doesn’t include the cost of cleaning up this problem, and that’s true of so many industries that got a pass for 50, 100 years,” he said.

A sign at New York’s Point Au Roche State Park warns of a Lake Champlain algal bloom in October 2019. Photo by Mike Lynch

Other Vermont officials pushed back, arguing that there are other reasons to upgrade sewage treatment plants, like meeting stringent regulations and because inadequate plants can release other pollution besides phosphorus that can also close beaches, like E coli.

Vermont is also working on new rules to make urban property owners contain runoff. When rain lands or snow melts on concrete and asphalt, it sweeps pollution into the waterways. Preventing this might cost $50,000 an acre, leaving hundreds of property owners across the state on the hook for roughly a quarter billion dollars in upgrades.

In the meantime, the blooms are still coming and public scrutiny has largely settled on farms, which are the source of about 40 percent of Vermont’s phosphorus runoff. That’s set up a showdown of sorts between water and milk.

Michael Colby, the head of Regeneration Vermont, a nonprofit that takes on big dairy companies, said the state can have large dairy farms or it can have clean water.

“That’s the choice,” he said. “You can’t have both.”

Chuck Ross, a former state agriculture official who now leads the University of Vermont’s extension, said that’s far too simple.

“Does it mean that we have to do things differently than we do today? Yes,” Ross said. “Does it mean we have to stop farming? No.”

Vermont farmers are eventually expected to reduce their phosphorus runoff by more than half while other sectors have to make relatively smaller cuts.

“So you can look at it that agriculture is subsidizing the other sectors,” Ross said.

Part of Vermont’s problem is past practices, some of which were encouraged by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, which decades ago subsidized farmers who imported phosphorus fertilizer and dumped it on their fields.

Even if officials around the lake succeed in curbing new phosphorus runoff, it could still take a long time for the lake to bounce back because of all that legacy pollution in the soil or already in the lake.

Eric Howe, the head of the Lake Champlain Basin Program, which helps monitor and improve the lake, said everyone around the lake needs to focus on restoring important natural habitat.

“If we wanted the lake to go back to pristine condition, then humans would need to pack up and move out of the watershed,” Howe said. “That is obviously not going to happen and nobody wants that to happen, so what we want to do is reforest the critical areas that have the potential to contribute more pollutants to the lake.”

Casey, the singer and lakeside cottage owner, blames a 450-cow dairy farm uphill of her house for runoff that affects her personally and the lake generally. She admits to being a bit out there (she said she once put manure on herself to show up to a public meeting on pollution).

Now, she has realized such tactics may not be the best ones.

“Crazy isn’t the way to do it,” Casey said. “Legislation is.”

Her neighbors, the Ouellette family, owners of the Iroquois Acres farm, react as anyone might when a neighbor starts accusing them. One of the Ouellettes sent Casey a message that said Casey ought to show visitors her septic system. The point was that it’s not just cow manure that runs into Lake Champlain. Leaking septics at old lake homes and overflowing sewage systems also mean there’s human sewage in the lake, though that’s a much smaller problem overall than farm runoff.

Deep Bay, on Lake Champlain, experienced algal blooms in October 2019. Photo by Mike Lynch

Another Ouellette, Stephanie Ouellette Pope, said the family has looked to buy a manure injection system, which does pretty much what it says: injects manure into the soil to help crops grow, rather than spreading it on the field where it might be washed away.

But Ouellette Pope said the system she looked at would cost nearly a quarter-million dollars, plus the tractors needed to run it.

That’s hard to stomach right now because, for several years, the cost to make a wholesale unit of milk has exceeded the price that farmers can sell the milk for. Basically, cows aren’t going anywhere and farmers are more efficient, so the milk supply is up. Yet consumers want nut milks, like almond milk, instead of the real thing, so demand is down.

“When the price of milk is $15 for a five-year average, you do the math,” Ouellette Pope said.

In Chazy, on the lake’s New York side, it was mid-November and farmer Tony LaPierre was thinking about his manure pit, which holds 3 million gallons.

“You don’t want to be caught with minimal storage heading into the wintertime, because you’re creating too much of a risk,” he said.

Farmers spend a surprising amount of time thinking about this crap. Manure is already valuable, since they can spread it as fertilizer. But it can quickly become a liability if farmers don’t plan ahead. If there’s more rain than expected and their pits fill up, there’s trouble. The manure runs off into the lake.

That means the changing weather is a problem for farmers, too.

LaPierre hopes for a day when his manure could be used to generate electricity, something that some other farmers are already doing. Then it could be even more valuable and less of a liability.


Lake Champlain History

Samuel de Champlain's "discovery" in the summer of 1609 gave the French knowledge that the Native Americans had possessed for centuries. This was knowledge of a body of water that would become known as Lake Champlain.

This waterway had already had a fascinating past by the time that the Europeans arrived. It had been formed by glacier activity, had expanded and contracted, and had turned from salt water to fresh water. It had seen the creatures that lived in it die or adapt to these changes and had seen the coming of man.

Most know the history of Lake Champlain from the wars that were fought upon its waters and surrounding shores. Indeed, the Lakes history shows that it was incredibly important for those efforts. Samuel de Champlain himself brought war to the Lake on his first foray with (and for) the Native Americans at the south end. After that, the French and Indian War combatants utilized the Lake for offensive and withdrawal purposes. Then came the Revolutionary War and the notable efforts of Benedict Arnold and his fleet - a story that every student learns. The last major wartime incursion was in the War of 1812 when the English used the Lake to invade the young American land and were repulsed at the north end by Commodore Thomas MacDonough. Without question, the Lake has a storied past of wartime service.

What is not so well known is its commercial past. In the 1700s, the shores of Lake Champlain began to be settled. With this settlement came the need and desire for trade. Small vessels began to crisscross the Lake with goods, livestock and people. Many of these vessels were canoes or glorified rowboats and were organized by local farmers. One of these ferries is still functioning today, although with a considerably different vessel, in the form of the Ticonderoga Ferry, which has been operating since 1759.

As the years passed, more commerce potential was contemplated. In the 1760s and 1770s, sailing vessels began to ply the trade on the Lake. Bateaux, flat bottomed wooden boats, were particularly well used in the area due to their ability to carry a large payload. Sloops and schooners sailed north and south delivering products to the settlers of the growing towns along the shores. One of the first men to see the value of this commerce was Philip Skene who, while a Major in the English Army, served in the Champlain Valley. He settled at the south end of Lake Champlain in the area now known as Whitehall. In the summer of 1771, he had launched a sloop with works built of red cedar to sail to Canada with cargos of lumber. He also built barges to carry produce north. In 1775 he traveled to London and returned as the Lieutenant Governor of Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Sadly for him, those areas, and his home in Skenesborough, had been seized by patriot forces. At that time he also lost his new trading schooner, Liberty, when it was seized by the Green Mountain Boys and added to the American fleet. By the turn of the 19th century, many vessels were being produced for Lake service, some by imported shipwrights and some by settlers.

By 1814 more than twenty five large (over 25 ton displacement) were sailing across the Champlain waves with cargo. Trade with Canada was very important. Vessels traded raw materials from New York (such as iron and ash) and Vermont (such as maple sugar, flax, and meat) with Canadian ports. On the return trip, they were laden with finished goods from overseas such as rum, linens and woolens as well as tea, coffee and chocolate. Gideon King of Burlington, known as the "Admiral of the Lake" for his virtual monopoly of the carrier trade, increased his wealth greatly while serving as one of John Jacob Astor's agents during this time.

So important was this commerce that even the Embargo Acts of 1807 and 1808, which barred international trade, could not stop the Lake traffic. The Lake Champlain route became a smuggling route for European goods into the United States. In fact, in 1808, there are reports of a particularly difficult smuggler, Samuel J. Mott of Alburgh, and what are described as 7 desperate men as a crew. They used the large bateau Black Snake to smuggle goods. In August of that year, they had a battle with the revenue cutter Fly, under the command of Lieutenant Farrington, near Winooski on the Onion River. In that conflict, Lt. Farrington was wounded and two of his crew and one of the smugglers were killed. Earlier that year, in June, the Black Snake had been involved in another altercation near Windmill Point. According to Richard M. Strum in his book, Ticonderoga: Lake Champlain Steamboat, in 1809 goods valued at more than 75,000 English pounds passed illegally through the Lake, a sum equivalent to approximately $3.7 million in 1996 dollars. Even the War of 1812 didn't stop this illicit commercial traffic. In June of 1814, there is a report that smugglers were caught towing two spars toward Canada to be used to construct the British warship Confiance. Smuggling was a serious business on Lake Champlain.

The age of sail vessels was in full swing on the Lake when, in June of 1808, an odd, noisy vessel appeared. In 1807, Robert Fulton had put the first regularly operating steamer to work on the Hudson River. Two of the men that helped build that craft moved to Burlington and built the steamer Vermont. Just one year after Fulton, Lake Champlain became the waterway with the second regularly operating steamboat in the world. The age of steam had arrived on the Lake. The Vermont steamed a regular course from Whitehall to St. Johns with an optimistic schedule of one week. She could make 6 miles an hour when not challenged with one of her frequent mechanical break downs. The Vermont kept this schedule until October of 1815 when, while transiting the Richelieu River, she shook loose her connecting rod and threw it through her side which sank her near Ash Island.

One of the Vermont's owners (John Winan) decided to continue in Lake service and, with associates, incorporated as the Lake Champlain Steamboat Company. They began to build a new steamer at Otter Creek in Vergennes. They were interrupted by the War of 1812 when Commodore MacDonough commandeered the not quite completed hull and, not being a proponent of steam power, built her as the schooner rigged U.S.S. Ticonderoga.

After the war, the company was at it again. This time a larger boat was laid down and, with second hand engines from a Hudson River steamer, the Phoenix was put into service in 1815. The following year the engines salvaged from the Vermont were installed in a new vessel named Champlain until mechanical difficulties forced their replacement. These two vessels steamed from one end of the Lake to the other on opposite runs. Now Whitehall, NY and St Johns, Quebec were serviced by a vessel every Wednesday and Saturday and points between had the benefit of the transit between them. The cost to travel the whole way was $9 with board and lodging. The steamer Champlain burned at Whitehall in September of 1817. The Phoenix burned while underway in September of 1819 with a loss of life of 6 people. The Phoenix is now a Vermont State Underwater Historic Site lying in between 60 and 110 feet of water on the north face of the Colchester Shoal Reef. The fire in the Phoenix was rumored to have been started by a candle in the pantry but evidence exists that it may have been intentional by competing shipping companies.

The Champlain was replaced in 1818 by a craft double her size which the Lake Champlain Steamboat Company christened Congress. The Phoenix was replaced in 1820 by a vessel, Phoenix II, one third larger than Congress displacing 343 tons. By 1828, seven steamers were traveling Lake Champlain. With this many vessels, the competition for freight became fierce. It was during this period that Plattsburgh harbor became interesting to shippers. Until the 1820s vessels had stopped at Cumberland Head where the storehouses stood and a stage line ran. Operators began looking for ways to make their vessels better and faster. For instance, the Franklin was built in 1827 at St. Albans and displaced 350 tons with a speed of 10 miles per hour.

The Champlain Canal System, opened in 1823, brought more commercial opportunity to the Champlain Valley. Maritime shipping no longer needed to focus on only Canada as a route for goods. New York City became an outlet for cargo as well. In fact, the water route south reduced the travel time of cargo considerably so merchants were very pleased to use the maritime shippers. The age of steam would bring more vessels - and more competition - to 19th century Lake Champlain.


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