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Richmond II - Zgodovina

Richmond II - Zgodovina


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Richmond II

(StSlp: dp. 2604; 1. 225 '; b. 42'6 "; dr. 17'436" (povprečje), epl. 259
a. 1 80-pdr. D.sb., 20 9 "D.sb., 30-pdr. 1'.r.)

Drugi Richmond, lesena vojna parna vojna, je 26. januarja 1860 sprožilo mornariško dvorišče Norfolk, ki ga je sponzorirala gospodična Robb. Richmond, ki mu je poveljeval kapitan D. N. Ingraham, se je 13. oktobra 1860 odpravil iz Norfolka v Sredozemlje. Po vrnitvi v New York 3. julija 1861

narod je bil že potopljen v državljansko vojno, zato so jo takoj pripravili na morje. Njena prva vojna služba se je začela 31. julija 1861, ko je odplula proti Kingstonu na Jamajki, da bi poiskala izmuzljivega konfederacijskega napadalca Sumterja, ki mu je poveljeval Raphael Semmes. Ko je 5. septembra zapustil Trinidad, je Richmond potoval vzdolž južne obale Kube in okoli rta San Antonio. Semmes pa je dosegel T ew Orleans in do 22. avgusta je bil Richmond v Kingstonu spet na premog. Odhod 25. avgusta je Richmond prispel v Key West 2. septembra na poti proti severu, da bi se pridružil eskadrilu za blokado zaliva.

Po križarjenju pred Fort Piekensom je bila Richmondova naročena vodji prelazov ob izlivu reke Mississippi, kjer je patruljirala ob ustju reke, da bi ohranila blokado. Richmondov kapitan je postal poveljnik majhne flotile, ki je vključevala vojno plovilo, Preble in odpremno plovilo Water Witch. Ladje so v prvem tednu oktobra prepeljali čez palico na čelu prelazov.

V zgodnji jutranji temi 12., konfederacijski ovan Manassas in trije oboroženi parniki so napadli Rich mond in njene družine, da bi prebili blokado in preprečili nadzor Unije nad kopenskimi pristopi na območju Poglavja prelazov. Konfederacijske ladje so pod okriljem mraka presenetile eskadrilo Unije. Richmond je črnil premog od škune, Joseph N. Y'oone, ko so Manassas zabili Richmonda, ki je raztrgal luknjo na strani žleba. Mimogrede je ovan poskušal, a mu ni uspel znova udariti v Richmond, preden je izginil na krmi. Richmondovi strelci so iz pristaniške baterije uspeli umakniti celotno stran, nekoliko bolj zvečer.

Medtem ko sta se Vineennes in Preble upokojila po jugozahodnem prelazu, se je Richmond umaknil. Nato so po reki plavali trije konfederacijski požarni splavi, nekaj velikih parnikov pa je bilo videti krmno od njih. Pri poskusu prečkanja prečke sta se Vineennes in Richmond prizemljila, strelci Konfederacije pa so jih odstrelili na plažo in na kopno. Na srečo je vojaški transport, McClellan, prispel z dolgoročnimi puškami na posojilo iz Fort Pickensa in ustavil drugi napad Konfederacije.

Richmond je nato odletel ob izlivu reke, blokiral sile Konfederacije in pomagal vojaškim inženirjem pri postavljanju baterij na prečkah južnega in jugozahodnega prehoda Sredi novembra 1861 se je vrnila v Pensseola Boy na začasno popravilo. 22. novembra se je Richmond pridružil parnemu pasu vojne Niagare in orožju Fort Pickens, da bi bombardiral mornariško dvorišče Pensseola, obrambo Konfederacije v Fort McRaeju in mesto Warrington. Drugi dan streljanja je imel Richmond ob dvakratnem udarcu ob obali enega človeka umorjenega in sedem ranjenih. Ena lupina je udarila naprej in uničila mreže railinza in visečih mrež, ena na krmi na desni strani pa je "plesala pod njenim pultom, eksplodirala je 4 metre pod vodo, poškodovala njeno dno in povzročila resno puščanje. Riehmond se je umaknil v Key West in izstopil iz tega pristanišča 27. novembra 1861 za popravila na newyorški mornarici.

Richmond je odšel iz New Yorka 13. februarja 1862. Richmond se je 5. marca pridružil eskadrini Bloekading v Zalivskem zalivu pri otoku ladje, ko se je Flag Offieer Farragut pripravljal na prevzem New Orleansa. Richmond je 24. marca prestopil floto s floto in se začel pripravljati na bitko.

16. aprila se je Farragutova flota premaknila na položaj pod Forts Jackson in St. Philip. Z več kot 100 puškami so bile te utrdbe glavna obrambna zaščita New Orleansa. Konfederati so zbrali tudi flotilo rekviriranih topniških čolnov in poskušali dokončati tudi močnega enostavnega ovna v Louisiani. Nadalje so računali na uporabo gasilskih ladij za motenje velike eskadrilje Unije.

Skrita z vmesnimi gozdovi je flota Union malte pod Comdr. David D. Porter je 18. aprila 1862. začel šestdnevno bombardiranje utrdb Konfederacije. Konfederati so začeli pošiljati gasilske splave po toku navzdol, Richmond pa je poročal, da se je enemu zgodaj zjutraj 21. aprila izognil, kar je "minilo med nami in velikim Hartfordom. plameni streljajo tako visoko kot jambori. " 24. aprila je Farragutova flota tekla mimo utrdb in premagala flotilo Konfederacije ter nadaljevala navzgor približno 12 milj. Čeprav je bil Richmond 17 -krat zadet nad vodno črto, je njen verižni oklep preprečil številne naboje in omejil njene žrtve na dva ubita in tri ranjene. Richmond je svoj odred marincev izkrcala v New Orleansu, da bi pomagala pri ohranjanju reda, dokler niso prispele čete vojske generala Butlerja.

Richmond je 10. maja 18fi2 pomagal pri prevzemu vojaških objektov v Baton Rougeu. Štiri dni kasneje je križarila navzgor, najprej do točke 12 milj pod stičiščem Rdeče reke, nato od Natcheza in nazadnje do položaja pod trdnjavo Konfederacije v Vicksburgu 18. junija 1862.

Farragutova eskadrila z Richmondom v družbi je 28. junija 1862 uspešno prehodila Vieksburg in izmenjala hud ogenj ter bila prisotna, ko se je Farragutova flota 1. julija 186 pridružila Zahodni floti komodorja Davisa nad Vicksburgom. med kampanjo v New Orleansu. 15. julija 1862 je konfederacijski kazamat, ovan Arkansas, izstopil iz reke Yazoo in stekel mimo flote Unije nad Vicksburgom. Čeprav so ga Richmond in druge ladje močno preganjali, je ovan pobegnil v zavetišče pod baterijami Konfederacije v Vieksburgu. Farragutova flota je spet dirkala mimo Vicksburga, Richmond pa je še naprej zagotavljal spremstvo za oskrbovalne parnike in podporo obalnega bombardiranja.

V enem najhujših spopadov vojne je Farragutova eskadrila poskušala 14. marca 1863. mimo konfederacijskih utrdb v Port Hudsonu, približno 15 milj navzgor od Baton Rougea, zahtevati le Hartford in Albatross, preostanek flote pa je moral obrni nazaj. Richmond, ki je skupaj z Geneseejem ugotovil, da ne more narediti nobenega napredka proti močnemu toku, saj je bil pod strelom iz obrežnih baterij. Njen izvršni častnik, Comdr. Andrew B. Cummings je bil smrtno ranjen. Richmonda je kmalu zatem udarila 42-kilometrska lupina, ki je pretrgala njene parne cevi in ​​napolnila strojnico in pristanišče s živo paro. Ker Genessee ni mogel vleči Richmonda proti toku, sta ladje obrnili smer in ponovno prešli skozi močan obalni ogenj. Poskusi vojakov sindikata vojske General Banks, da 27. maja zavzamejo Port Hudson, niso bili uspešnejši in zvezne sile so se na kopnem in na kopnem ustalile za dolgo obleganje. Richmond je še naprej opravljal zahtevne naloge in občasno dobavljal orožje in njihove posadke za uporabo na kopnem.

Medtem so naporni napori, da bi zavzeli Vicksburg, to mesto končno prisilili, da se je 4. julija 1863. predalo generalu Grantu. Pet dni pozneje so Richmond in druge ladje pod Port Hudsonom pomagale kopenskim silam Unije, da so zavzele zadnji bastion Konfederacije na Mississippiju.

Richmond je 30. julija 1863 odpotoval iz New Orleansa na prepotrebno prenovo na newyorškem mornariškem dvorišču.

12. oktobra 1863 je odplula proti jugu v Port Royal S.C. in Key West, Fla., Preden se je 1. novembra pridružila eskadrilu admirala Farraguta v New Orleansu; Štirinajst dni kasneje je začela blokado pri Mobileu, Ala.

Richmond je bil prisoten s Farragutovo floto, ko je bil 5. avgusta 1864 izveden epski pomorski napad na Mobile Bay. Za ta napad je bil Richmond privezan na desni bok Port Royal in nadaljeval s floto čez prečko. Fort Morgan je odprl ogenj in akcija je bila kmalu splošna. Petnajst minut kasneje, ko so se opazovalci pripravljali na srečanje z branilcem konfederacijskega kazamata iz Tennesseeja, je Tecumseh udaril v privezano "torpedo" ali moje in v nekaj sekundah potonil. Nato je Brooklyn, tik pred Richmondom, podprl lok Richmonda, da bi očistil "vrsto sumljivo videti boje". Richmond in Port Royal sta šla močno proti vzhodu, zaradi česar je celotna vrsta lesenih ladij +o padla v nered. Admiral Farragut v Hartfordu se je odločil, da je najbolj drzen pohod skozi torpedna polja in dal svoj znameniti ukaz "Prekleti torpedi. S polno hitrostjo naprej!" Ko se je preselil v zaliv, je Richmond odprl ogenj na parnikih Konfederacije Selma, Morgan, Gaines in Tennessee. Hkrati je topniška ladja Metacomet, ki je bila vržena s Hartforda, zajela Selmo. Kmalu zatem je bil Port Royal poslan po invalidnem Gainesu.

Tennessee je zaman poskušal zabiti Brooklyn. Zmožen le zelo majhne hitrosti je bil južni ovan podvržen hudemu ognju iz Hartforda in Richmonda. Tennessee je šel proti vzhodu proti Fort Morganu, ko je Farragutova flota odšla v zaliv stran od ognja utrdbe. Poveljnik Tennesseeja Franklin Buchanan se je odločil slediti in angažirati celotno eskadriljjo Union.

Farragut jo je napadel s svojimi najmočnejšimi ladjami. Richmond je sledil Hartfordu in Brooklynu. Več kot eno uro je ladjo Konfederacije udaril in celo zabil Hartford. Do sredine jutra je Buchanan lahko videl, da je njegova ladja plavajoča trup in da jo obdajajo veliko močnejše sile. Skladno s tem je bila dvignjena bela zastava in zraven je šel monitor z dvema kupolama Chickasaw. Richmond v akciji ni utrpel nobenih žrtev in je povzročil le manjšo škodo.

Fort Morgan je še vedno vztrajal odločno, vendar se je Richmond pridružil eskadrilji v stalnem dnevnem in nočnem bombardiranju. Utrdba, ki so jo vojaki Unije vložili na kopno, je 23. avgusta nazadnje kapitulirala.

Richmond je še nekaj časa deloval v zalivu Mobile Bay in tudi v zalivu Pensacola, preden je 23. aprila 1865 prispel na jugovzhodni prelaz reke Mississippi. Istega večera je konfederacijski ovan Webb pobegnil navzdol iz reke Rel v poskusu priti na odprto morje. Uspešno je šel mimo ladij Union na ustju Rdeče reke in v New Orleansu. Webb, ki ga je za njo tesno zasledoval čoln Unije, je našel Richmonda, ki je varoval ustje, ki vodi v Mehiški zaliv. Webb je ujeta na kopno, požgala in razstrelila njena posadka.

Richmond je 27. junija odpotoval iz New Orleansa, 10. julija je prispel na bostonsko mornariško dvorišče, tam pa so ga 14. oktobra razgradili. Leta 1866 so ji opremili nov sklop motorjev.

Ponovno zagnan v Bostonu 11. januarja 1869, je Richmond 22. dne odšel v evropske vode. Ko je 10. februarja prispela v Lizbono, se je preostanek leta srečevala v različnih sredozemskih pristaniščih, med letom 1870 pa je bila nameščena v Villefraneheju in Marseillu, da bi zaščitila ameriške državljane, ki jih potencialno ogroža francosko-pruska vojna. Po sklenitvi miru v Versaillesu je Richmond spet potoval po Sredozemlju. V Philadelphijo se je vrnila 1. novembra 1871 in tam 8. avgusta razgradila.

Richmond, ki je bil izbran za službo v Zahodnoindijski eskadrilu, je bil 18. novembra 1872 ponovno zaposlen in je 31. januarja 1873. izstopil iz Hampton Roads. Ko je 11. februarja prispela na Key West, je pregledala jate v bližini Jupitrovega vhoda, nato pa križarila po Zahodni Indiji. 7. aprila je bila na Santiagu de Cuba, da bi pomagala pri izpustitvi španskih mornarjev v ZDA. Nato se je srečala v Havani in Matanzasu, preden se je konec meseca vrnila v Key West.

Maja je bil naročen v Pacifik, Richmond je zaokrožil Cape Horn in 28. novembra prispel v San Francisco. Po popravilu je 14. januarja 1874 odpotovala iz Kalifornije kot vodilna na postaji South Pacific. V letih 1874 in 1875 je potovala po zahodni obali Latinske Amerike. Septembra 1876 je znova podvojila Cape Horn in po križarjenju po Urugvaju in Braziliji 22. avgusta 1877 prispela na Hampton Roads. 18. septembra so jo razgradili za popravila na mornarišču Boston.

19. novembra 1878 je bila naslednja dolžnost Richmonda naslednja kot vodilna v azijski floti. 11. januarja 1879 je iz Norfolka odšel Richmond v Sredozemlje in skozi Sueški prekop ter 4. julija 1879 v Yokohami dvignil zastavo zadnjega admirala Thomasa H. Pattersona. 4 leta je Rich mond križal med glavnimi kitajskimi pristanišči JaDan in na Filipinih, ki je služil kot vodilni do 19. decembra 1883, ko jo je Trenton razbremenil. Ko je septembra 1880 sprejel novo posadko v Panami, je Richmond ostal na postaji, dokler 9. aprila 1884 ni odšel iz Hongkonga v Združene države. Richmomd je ponovno prečkal Sueški prekop, 22. avgusta pa je prišel v New York in bil razgrajen za popravila.

Popolnoma prenovljen je bil 20. januarja 1887 v New Yorku ponovno zaposlen za dolžnost na severnoatlantski postaji. Leta 1888 je odplula iz Halifaxa na Trinidad. 27. junija 1888 je bila ločena za službo v tujini.

Odhod iz Norfolka 2. januarja 1889 je bil Richmond dodeljen južnoatlantski postaji. Spet kot vodilna eskadrila je več kot eno leto križarila iz Urugvaja in Brazilije ter se 28. junija 1890 vrnila na Hampton Roads. 7. oktobra je prispela v Newport, RI, kjer je do leta 1893 služila kot učna ladja. parjeno v Philadelphijo; tam je služila kot sprejemna ladja do leta 1900, nato je ostala privezana na League Islandu, dokler ni bila naročena Norfolku leta 1903. V Norfolku je služila kot pomožna ladja sprejemne ladje Franklin do konca prve svetovne vojne.

Richmond je bil 31. junija 1919 izbrisan s seznama mornarice in 23. julija prodan Joseph Hyman & Sons, Philadelphia, PA. V to podjetje je bila dostavljena 6. avgusta zaradi razpada.


Industrializacija v Virginiji

Popis leta 1920 je pokazal, da je prvič več Američanov živelo v urbanih območjih kot na podeželju. V Virginiji pa se je ta zgodovinski prehod zgodil šele trideset let, šele leta 1950 je popis zabeležil, da večina Virginijcev živi v mestih. Toda proces urbanizacije je potekal že stoletja.

Angleži so spodbujali urbanizacijo v kolonialni Virginiji, vendar so rastlinjarsko gospodarstvo Virginije in dobro razvit sistem rek nasprotovali rasti mest. Mesta v Virginiji so počasi rasla, vendar so rasla. Do leta 1860 so imeli Richmond, Petersburg, Norfolk, Aleksandrija in Wheeling več kot 30.000 prebivalcev. Mesta v državi so bila tesno povezana s podeželjem okoli njih. Tako pred državljansko vojno kot po njej so mesta služila kot trgi za lokalne kmetijske pridelke in v zameno zagotavljala industrijsko blago.

Po državljanski vojni se je število mest začelo povečevati. Osvoboditelji so se preselili v urbana območja in iskali večje možnosti. Širitev železnic, ki jo je poganjal severni kapital, je spodbudila tudi rast mest. Najpomembnejše mestne dejavnosti so ostale tobačna proizvodnja, mletje moke in tekstila ter predelava kmetijskih proizvodov. Richmond je postal nacionalni vodja v proizvodnji cigaret. Danville in Martinsville, z enostavnim dostopom do južnega bombaža in volne, sta postala razcvetna tekstilna središča. Martinsville je postal tudi center za proizvodnjo pohištva.

Industrijska revolucija je vplivala tudi na rast mest v Virginiji. Železnice so prevozile premog po vsej državi do Norfolka in Newport News, ki so postala cvetoča pristanišča. Hampton Roads je postala pomorska baza, ladjedelništvo pa pomembna industrija. Do leta 1920 je bilo podjetje Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company največji delodajalec v državi.

Izboljšave v prometu so omogočile fizično rast mest. Po državljanski vojni so živali še vedno vlekle vozičke. Dostop do osrednjih mest je bil otežen. Na splošno so bogatejši ljudje živeli v središču mesta, delavski razredi pa na obrobju. Električni vozički so to spremenili. Električni tramvaji so bili uvedeni v Richmondu leta 1888 in so jih hitro prevzela tudi druga mesta: Danville pozneje leta 1888 in Norfolk leta 1894. Tramvaji so zemljišče, ki obdaja mesto, dali na voljo za primestni razvoj, kar je dodatno ločilo delovna mesta od bivališč. Ta širitev in ločitev sta prispevala k pojavu drugega devetnajstega stoletja-rasni segregaciji. Medtem ko je središče mesta služilo kot središče dejavnosti in je vsem zagotavljalo zaposlitev, so stanovanjske soseske postale značilne za raso.

Z rastjo mest se je povečevalo tudi povpraševanje po storitvah - voda, plin, elektrika, policijska in požarna zaščita ter kanalizacija. V Norfolku so leta 1879 uvedli telefonsko storitev, dve leti kasneje pa električne luči. Do leta 1900 je bila večina domov v Richmondu priključena na elektriko. Nasprotno pa je 90 odstotkov kmetij v Virginiji ostalo do druge svetovne vojne brez električne energije.

Mesta so rasla tudi drugače. Sosednja območja so pogosto želeli priključiti, da bi dobili boljše storitve. Razširitev mesta Norfolk s priključitvijo - Brambleton leta 1887 in Atlantic City leta 1890 - je bila značilna za obdobje na prelomu stoletja. Mesta so bila maloprodajna središča, trgovine v središču mesta pa so dobavljale blago tako prebivalcem mesta kot tudi tistim iz okolice. Sobote so bile naporne, saj so vlaki in avtomobili pripeljali kupce, od katerih so mnogi prepotovali petdeset kilometrov ali več, da bi dan preživeli v mestu.

Prebivalstvo mestnih območij Virginije se je med obema svetovnima vojnama povečalo z migranti s podeželja. Razširile so se vojaške naprave, streliva, kemične tovarne in tovarne pohištva. Vas Hopewell je iz zaselka 400 leta 1916 v nekaj kratkih mesecih prerasla v mesto z več kot 20.000 prebivalci. Ko se je leta 1943 odprl v Arlingtonu, je Pentagon zaposloval več ljudi, kot jih je dve leti prej živelo v okrožju. Po drugi svetovni vojni je hladna vojna s svojim vse večjim vojaško-industrijskim kompleksom zagotovila nadaljevanje zvezne porabe in vojaške industrije v Virginiji.

Povojna doba je prinesla tudi povečano suburbanizacijo in začela dve desetletji obdobje naraščajoče blaginje. Gradnja novih domov je zaživela in mlade družine so se preselile iz prenatrpanih osrednjih mest. Suburbanizacija se je še bolj povečala z desegregacijo javnih šol, zlasti po razširjenem izvajanju avtobusov v sedemdesetih letih. Belemu letu je sledil odhod številnih prebivalcev srednjega razreda Afroameričanov iz osrednjih mest. Trgovine na drobno so se preselile tudi v predmestja, pogosto v trgovskih centrih, pozneje imenovanih nakupovalna središča.

Do leta 1990 je več kot 80 odstotkov vseh Virgincev prebivalo v enainštiridesetih mestih države in 188 vključenih mestih. Polovica prebivalstva države zdaj živi v Severni Virginiji in na območju Hampton Roads. Od približno milijona Virginijcev, ki živijo na podeželju, je le okoli 60.000 kmetov ali kmetijskih delavcev. To predstavlja manj kot 1 odstotek prebivalstva.

Učitelji: Obiščite Poučevanje s fotografijami, če želite vprašati svoje študente o industrializaciji v Virginiji.


Kviz o zgodovini avtocest Richmond II: Nazaj v šolo

Osnovna šola Woodlawn je bila odprta na sedanji lokaciji leta 1938 v tej stavbi.

Počitniški dopust je le spomin in šolsko leto je spet v polnem teku (če vreme dopušča). Kaj je torej boljši čas, da preizkusite svoje znanje o zgodovini šol na območju Richmond Highway in šol št. 8217?

Kviz o zgodovini avtocest Richmond II

Ko ste opravili kviz, je tukaj kratek povzetek zgodovine šol na območju avtoceste Richmond (brez kvizov kvizov).

Nekatere najstarejše šole v okrožju Fairfax so na tem območju, nekatere pa imajo svoje korenine v 19. stoletju. Tako kot večina okraja je bilo tudi to območje v prvi polovici 20. stoletja večinoma podeželsko, večina šol pa je bila zelo majhna. Ena od enosobnih šolskih hiš, šola Groveton, še danes stoji na Popkins Laneu in je zdaj v lasti katoliške cerkve St.

Groveton School je bila zgrajena v poznih 1800 -ih in prodana katoliški škofiji Richmond v 1920 -ih letih, potem ko je postala premajhna.

Leta 1939 je odprla svoja vrata ena najbolj prepoznavnih zgradb na avtocesti, prvotna srednja šola Mount Vernon. To je bila takrat šele tretja gimnazija v celotni občini. Minilo bi 17 let, preden bi se na območju Route 1 odprla še ena srednja šola.

Iz letnika Groveton High School za leto 1959. Kliknite za povečavo.

Velika večina šol na območju Route 1 je bila odprta med razmahom prebivalstva v petdesetih in šestdesetih letih. V manj kot 20 letih je bilo zgrajenih več kot ducat novih osnovnih šol in pet novih nižjih in višjih srednjih šol.

V tem obdobju je prišlo tudi do vključevanja šol, s čimer se je končala doba, ko so imeli Afroameričani, ki živijo na območju Route 1, le malo možnosti za javno izobraževanje, zlasti na srednji in srednji šoli. Čeprav je Brown proti Oddelku za izobraževanje leta 1954 uničil ločene, a enake šole, bi bilo že v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, preden bodo vse šole v okrožju integrirane.

Iz letopisnika Mount Vernon iz leta 1977. Kliknite za povečavo.

Od sedemdesetih let prejšnjega stoletja se je šolsko starostno prebivalstvo na območju Route 1 izravnalo in začelo upadati. Ta upad se je nadaljeval od poznih sedemdesetih do osemdesetih let. To je povzročilo nenadne zaprtje in združitve med šolami, tudi na nekaterih šolah, ki so bile odprte le kratek čas. Izbrane odločitve so bile kontroverzne, nič več kot združitev dveh srednjih šol, ki sta še vedno boleče mesto za mnoge, ki so to preživeli.


Richmondova tiha preobrazba

V večini 20. stoletja so soseske, kjer so ljudje živeli in delali v Richmondu —, celo meje mesta — oblikovale rase. Desetletja po drugi svetovni vojni so mestni voditelji vodili dobro objavljeno bitko za ohranitev tega sistema in preprečili, da bi mestno prebivalstvo postalo večinsko črno. V zadnjih letih je Richmond doživel svojo najpomembnejšo demografsko preobrazbo od povojne dobe, vendar je tokrat do spremembe prišlo precej bolj tiho. Zakaj?

Zemljevid Richmonda javnih del 1923, ki prikazuje črne soseske

Zgodovina je nočna mora
Čeprav je imel Richmond večino svoje zgodovine veliko temnopoltih prebivalcev, so do konca druge svetovne vojne črnci običajno predstavljali približno tretjino mestnega prebivalstva, večina temnopoltih prebivalcev pa se je ločila v bloke tik severno od Broad Street. V začetku 20. stoletja so se številni črnci v Virginiji začeli seliti na sever iz podeželskih okrožij, da bi se izognili hudi revščini in množici zakonov Jima Crowa, ki so jih diskriminirali. Sprva se je veliko črncev preselilo v severna mesta, kjer so bila na voljo boljša delovna mesta, in upali so, da bo diskriminacija manj obstojna. Toda Richmond je postajal vse bolj privlačen po drugi svetovni vojni, ko je imel dolga leta najhitreje rastoče gospodarstvo v državi.

Odstotek črne glede na lokacijo

Ker se je v Richmond iz okrožij Virginije preselilo več črncev, se je iz mesta preselilo več belih prebivalcev. Gradnja avtocest skozi pretežno črne soseske je le spodbudila ta trend, saj je več belim prebivalcem omogočilo, da so se odselili iz mesta in se z lahkoto vrnili na delo, medtem ko so se razseljeni temnopolti prebivalci pogosto selili v nekdanje bele soseske. Nekatere soseske, na primer okoli cerkvenega hriba, so se med letoma 1950 in 1960 spremenile iz 75 odstotkov belih v 95 odstotkov črnih.

Čiščenje pretežno črnih sosesk v Shockoe Bottom in Valley za gradnjo Interstate 95 leta 1957

Do leta 1960 se je število prebivalcev Richmonda začelo zmanjševati, ko so belci množično zapustili mesto v predmestju, vendar se je črno prebivalstvo mesta še naprej povečevalo in se povečalo na 42 odstotkov prebivalstva. V obdobju, ko je ostala v veljavi večina zakonov Jima Crowa, je bila možnost za kmalu večinsko črno mesto zaskrbljujoča za voditelje Richmonda. Da bi zmanjšali volilno moč temnopoltih, je Richmond vložil zahtevo, da se priključijo pretežno bela predmestja v sosednjih okrožjih in spremeni mestni svet v sistem na splošno.

Čeprav so bile aneksije Richmonda močno izpodbijane, je vrhovno sodišče na koncu odločilo, da so bile aneksije bolj motivirane s potrebo po ustavitvi upadanja števila prebivalcev mesta, kot pa z zmanjšanjem glasov temnopoltega prebivalstva v Richmondu. Kljub priključitvi je bilo prebivalstvo Richmonda do leta 1977 večinoma črno, mesto pa je izvolilo svojega prvega temnopoltega župana.

V osemdesetih letih so se številni črni prebivalci Richmonda začeli seliti iz mesta v sosednje okrožja, kjer so iskali novejša stanovanja, varnejše soseske in boljše šole. Ker so njegovi beli in črni prebivalci zapustili mesto, se je prebivalstvo Richmonda zmanjšalo za več kot 20 odstotkov, s približno 250.000 leta 1970 na 194.000 sredi 2000-ih.

Konec zgodovine
Odkar se je sredi leta 2000 število prebivalcev zmanjšalo, se je Richmond hitro okrepil, lani pa se je število prebivalcev povečalo na več kot 213.000. Nova gradnja v Richmondu se je v zgodnjih 2000 -ih potrojila. V zadnjih nekaj letih je bilo v Richmondu zgrajenih toliko novih hiš kot v sosednjih okrožjih.

Zgodovinsko prebivalstvo Richmonda po rasi

Kot je bilo pri zadnji pomembni spremembi prebivalstva Richmonda, je bela migracija spodbudila velik del trenda. Vendar je tokrat selitev v mesto, pri čemer se je belo prebivalstvo Richmonda od leta 2005 povečalo za 30 odstotkov. Tudi črno prebivalstvo Richmonda se je od sredine 2000-ih spet začelo povečevati, vendar veliko počasneje. Posledica te spremembe trendov je bila, da kmalu po popisu leta 2010 črnci v Richmondu niso bili večinska večina prebivalstva, čeprav so temnopolti pred letom 2000 predstavljali več kot 57 odstotkov prebivalstva mesta.

Prebivalstvo Richmond ’s, razporejeno po rasi

Številna druga mesta v ZDA so v zadnjih letih opazila, da je črni del njihovega prebivalstva zdrsnil pod 50 odstotkov. Črno prebivalstvo St.Louisa se je v poznih 2000 -ih zmanjšalo pod 50 odstotkov, saj se je veliko njegovih temnopoltih prebivalcev preselilo v predmestja, kot je Ferguson. Ko je popis leta 2010 pokazal, da temnopolti ne predstavljajo večine prebivalstva Washington DC, je bila sprememba v medijih deležna velike pozornosti.

Čeprav je bilo nedavno preobrazbo Richmonda težko spregledati, iz več razlogov ni dobil skoraj toliko publicitete. Črni delež prebivalstva Washingtona se je deloma zmanjšal, ker so se v mesto preselile druge skupine, pa tudi zato, ker se je iz mesta odselilo 40.000 temnopoltih prebivalcev, od katerih so mnogi menili, da si ne morejo več privoščiti bivanja v njem. Nasprotno pa je črno prebivalstvo Richmonda dejansko raslo, vendar se je njegov delež v celotnem prebivalstvu zmanjšal zaradi drugih skupin, ki so rasle veliko hitreje.

Črno prebivalstvo Richmonda ne raste tako hitro kot celotno prebivalstvo v veliki meri, ker črnci na območju metroja Richmond ostajajo nesorazmerno skoncentrirani v mestu kot dediščina segregacije. Zdaj se je koncentracija temnopoltih začela zmanjševati leta 2000, 13 popisnih območij v Richmondu je bilo več kot 95 odstotkov črnih, do leta 2013 pa so bili le 4 od teh popisnih območij še vedno več kot 95 odstotkov črnih. V tem istem časovnem obdobju se je črna populacija v predmestnih okrožjih Richmonda hitro povečala, saj se je veliko črnih prebivalcev mesta preselilo vanje.

Odstotek črnine po popisu

Dolgoročno je malo verjetno, da se bo mesto vrnilo s črno ali belo večino. Čeprav se je črno prebivalstvo Richmonda v zadnjih letih počasi povečevalo, se je število ljudi, ki živijo v Richmondu in se opisujejo kot več kot ena rasa, od leta 2000 potrojilo na nekaj manj kot 9.000. To je verjetno deloma posledica tega, da ima Virginia najvišjo poroko med črnci in belci v državi, pa tudi zato, ker rasna identiteta danes pomeni vedno manj, se mnogi identificirajo z več kot eno raso, nekateri celo pišejo v svoji rasi . Glede na to, koliko publicitete je bila deležna zadnja večja demografska sprememba v Richmondu, pomanjkanje pozornosti, ki je namenjeno sedanji, razkriva, koliko se je spremenil sam Richmond.


Richmond II - Zgodovina


ANKETA O
KONFEDERATIVNA CENTRALNA VLADA
JAKNE ZA IZDELAVO ČETVRETNIKA
2. del


RICHMOND DEPOT JAKNE

SLIKA 1
Tri vrste jakne Richmond Depot

Precej težko je določiti prvi vzorec jakne, ki ga je izdalo skladišče Richmond. Očitno nihče ni preživel, vendar na podlagi fotografskih dokazov in poznejše prakse v Richmondu velja, da je bila prva vzorčna jakna, označena kot Richmond Depot Type I, jakna s šestodelnim telesom in dvodelnimi rokavi z devetim gumbom spredaj, naramnice in verjetno zanke za pas. Na manšetah na splošno ni bilo gumbov. Podloga je bila verjetno bombažna osnaburg. Posebnost prvega vzorca jakne in značilnost, po kateri se je razlikoval od tipa II, je bila ta, da je bila na ovratniku, naramnicah in manšetah obrezana s trakom ali cevjo. Ker pa je treba vse te podrobnosti pridobiti iz fotografij ali izpeljati iz kasnejše prakse, je še veliko odprtega za razpravo. Poleg tega, ker so bili ti jopiči izdelani v času uradnega prevoza, so lahko zelo verjetno imeli individualne razlike, ki so nastale zaradi zahtev poveljnikov enot. Notranja opomba, napisana poveljniku urada za oblačila leta 1862, je dober pokazatelj tega:

& quotCol. Starke želi za svojo Regt črtico na hlačah. drog na rami, ki ga je seveda treba prišteti k stroškom. Pooblaščeni ste, da izpolnite njegovo željo. & quot 49

Še pomembneje je, da obstajajo prepričljivi dokazi, da so ta osnovni vzorec kopirali nevladni proizvajalci, zato so iz istega obdobja obstajali jopiči zelo podobnega vzorca, ki očitno niso bili izdelki Quartermasterja. 50


SLIKA 2
Glavni trobentač Charles H. Powell,
Co.F, 4. konjenica Virginije
oblečen v jakno Richmond Depot tipa I.

Fotografija Charlesa H. Powella, 4. konjenice Virginije, posneta 22. februarja 1862 (zgoraj), je eden prvih dokazov, ki kažejo ta vzorec. Tako kot poznejši jopiči znamke Richmond je material precej debel in robovi se zdijo vrhunsko šivani. Zdi se, da je narejen iz precej svetle sive volne. Obloga na Powellovih ramenskih trakovih je na površini pasu, tako kot ovratnik, nameščena na traku, vendar so lahko manšete cevovodne.


SLIKA 3
Neidentificirana topniška zasebna
v jakni Richmond Depot Type I

SLIKA 4
Narednik Austin S. Morris (levo)
in prijatelj. Morris nosi a
Richmond Depot jakna tipa I
(fotografija Charles Rees v Richmondu)

SLIKA 5
Narednik Thomas Crowder Owens,
9. pehota Virginia

Obstajajo številne fotografije vojakov, večinoma iz Virginije, posnetih v Richmondu v istem suknjiču s cevjo ali trakom ali kombinacijo obojega. Neidentificirani topniški top, ki ga je fotografiral Charles Rees iz Richmonda, prikazuje to jakno (slika 3), kot tudi druga Reesova fotografija para vodnikov iz Lynchburga v Virginiji, Austina S. Morrisa in Richarda A. Williamsa. Z izjemo velikosti gumba je videti, da je jakna, ki jo nosi Morris, enaka vzorcu, o katerem se razpravlja (slika 4). A photograph of Sergeant Thomas Crowder Owens of the 9th Virginia Infantry, who was killed at Gettysburg, also shows this pattern uniform (FIG 5).


FIG 6
Private William Moore and friend,
Parker's Virginia Battery, Spring 1862 in Richmond Depot Type I jackets

FIG 7
Corporal Theodore C. "Doc" Howard,
Parker's battery


A photograph of Private William Moore and a friend of Parker's Battery, probably taken in the Spring of 1862, shows the Type I in a rougher, darker material with tape trim (FIG 5), as does a photograph of Corporal T.C. Howard, also of Parker's Battery (FIG 6). Other photographs are known from other units showing this same pattern. All of these photographs are a strong indication that the Type I Jacket, with variations, was being produced by the Richmond Depot at least as early as February, 1862.

Although no example of the depot product of the Type I appears to have survived, an extremely intriguing jacket does exist that is probably a tailor's copy of it. Its construction details are not typical of those later produced by the depot and appear to be more typical of a civilian tailor than those resulting from the putting-out system used by the depot. It would be logical and tempting to attribute this uniform tc either a regimental issue or North Carolina state issue, and it may be. If so, however, this jacket is so strikingly similar to those in the photographs cited above, particularly those of Owens and Morris, that there must be a relationship.


FIG 8
Jacket of Sergeant E.C.N. Zelena
of the 47th North Carolina State Troops

The jacket in question was worn by Sergeant E.C.N. Green of the 47th North Carolina State Troops, who was killed 1 July 1863 at Gettysburg (FIG 7). Sergeant Green's jacket is made of a very fine quality cadet gray cloth, and is lined in light brown silesia in the body and light blue cotton in the sleeves. It is trimmed around the collar, on the edges of the shoulder straps and at the cuffs with 1/4" dark blue cotton tape. It has eight large script "I" buttons down the front manufactured by S. Isaacs and Campbell, two small buttons of the same type at the shoulder straps, and two at each non functioning cuff. There are no belt loops. Sergeant Green's chevrons have been separately applied, each stripe being made of 1/2" wide black velvet. The ends of the chevrons extend into the sleeve seam, indicating they were put on before the sleeves were closed. 51 These chevrons are virtually identical to those of Sergeant Morris.

The Richmond Depot Type II jacket is characterized by a nine-button front, no buttons on the cuffs, top-stitched edges, shoulder straps, belt loops on each hip, an unbleached cotton osnaburg lining and interior pockets. It has a six piece body and two piece sleeves. Generally, it has no trim, although examples with partial trim do exist. In the early stages of production, it was probably made concurrently with the Type I, since, after all, it is only a Type I without the trim. Gradually, however, it superceded the Type I to become the only pattern produced, until it was itself replaced by the Type III. It appears to have been produced by Captain Weisiger's operation from at least the Spring of 1862 until at least mid 1864.

Seven of these jackets have survived, and there are a num ber of identified and datable photographs that show them in use. Because these jackets were produced over a considerable period of time, and because they were made from materials available at different times, variations in the coat material and the number of buttons have been noted.


FIG 9
Type II Richmond jacket of Private John Blair Royal, 1st Co., Richmond howitzers.
Note the piped shoulder straps.

The example shown above was worn by Private John Blair Royal of the 1st Company, Richmond Howitzers. He had it on when he was wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May, 1863. The left sleeve shows the mark of the incoming Union shell that hit Royal and killed another man on his gun crew. Royal apparently preserved the jacket as a souvenir of his close escape, and did not use it subsequently, for the hole shows neither a repair nor an indication of further wear. Therefore, this jacket is a rare survival from the mid part of the war, and helps to establish the dating for this pattern. Made of a rough wool/cotton combination material, it has red piping on the shoulder straps, and displays the six piece body, two piece sleeves, nine button front, plain cuffs, osnaburg lining and belt loops that characterize the pattern. 52


FIG 10
Sergeant John French White
Co . K, 32nd Virginia Infantry
15 May 1863

FIG 11
Ernest Hudgins,
Mathews County, Virginia

A photograph of Sergeant John French White, Company K, 32d Virginia Infantry, taken 15 May 1863, shows this same pattern, and again aids in dating. (FIG 10) White had evidently drawn this jacket in February upon returning from furlough, although his regiment drew 75 jackets on 4 April and another 60 on 26 May. Whether the one in the photo was drawn in February or April, it came through the Army of Northern Virginia's main supply source, the Richmond Depot. Like the Royal jacket, it had a nine button front and shoulder straps 53


FIG 12
E.A. Timberlake,
Laurel Brigade

FIG 13
Pvt Alexander Harris,
Parker's Virginia Battery.
He was discharged 1 Nov. 1862

FIG 14
Private C.J. Rush,
Co. E, 21st Georgia Infantry
Photo taken after 17May 1865
at Lincoln General Hospital

Other photographs of Army of Northern Virginia soldiers wearing these jackets include those of Ernest Hudgins, of Mathews County, Virginia (FIG 11), E.A. Timberlake of the Laurel Brigade (FIG 12), Alexander Hams of Parker's Battery (FIG 13) and Private C.J. Rush of the 21st Georgia (FIG 14). In addition, there are a number of photographs of unidentified soldiers, some demonstrably taken in Richmond, that show the same jacket. 54

The photographs of Harris and Rush are of particular importance. Harris was discharged from the army 1 November 1862, 55 and it is likely that his photograph had been taken the previous spring when his battery was mustered in. The photograph of Rush, who was captured at Fort Stedman on 25 March 1865, was taken sometime after 17 May 1865 when he was admitted to Lincoln General Hospital in Washington, D.C. In Rush's case, the jacket may have been one which was already at the hospital when he arrived, for two photographs of Private Rush exist, and he wears a different jacket in each. As a possible indication that the jacket was not originally his, it should be noted that the buttons on the Type II Richmond jacket worn by Rush are Mississippi infantry pattern. Rush, of course, served in a Georgia regiment. 56


FIG 15
Confederate prisoners at White House, Virginia in June, 1864

Thus, the Type II Richmond Depot jacket may have been in production as early as the Spring of 1862, judging from Harris' picture, with the transition between the trimmed Type I and the untrimmed Type II being somewhat gradual and overlapping. The Type II was certainly in use in 1863 and 1864, based on the White photograph and also on the well known view of Confederate prisoners captured at Cold Harbor in June, 1864, in which the majority wear jackets with shoulder straps and belt loops (FIG 15). At least three of the dead Confederates photographed at Fort Mahone in April, 1865 have shoulder straps on their jackets, although the majority do not 57 Therefore, at least some of these jackets were still in service at the end of the war.

A Type II jacket worn by Private George N. Bernard of the 12th Virginia was made of a rough, dark greenish gray woolen material. The lining, however, was the cotton osnaburg to be expected in this pattern. It had a nine button front and belt loops, and once had shoulder straps. These straps had been deliberately cut off, probably during service, but the ends were still in the shoulder seam. 58


FIG 16
Richmond type II jacket

Another jacket of this same pattern, but in heavy wool cadet gray kersey surfaced in early 1988. Unfortunately without a solid history, it is believed to be a part of this group based upon the overall pattern, the button count, the shoulder straps, belt loops and lining and the fact that this kersey material saw extensive use in the Army of Northern Virginia late in the war (FIG 16).


FIG 17
Richmond Type II Jacket
worn by William Ramsey, 17th Va. Infantry

Finally, a jacket of the same pattern, but without the belt loops is in the Smithsonian collection. Itwas worn by Private G. William Ramsey, 17th Virginia Infantry (FIG 17). Ramsey joined the 17th Virginia in November, 1863 and served until the end of the war. Clothing rolls which might date the issue of this particular jacket to Ramsey do not exist, but because he surrendered at Appomattox and apparently wore the jacket home, it probably dates to the last six months of the war. This particular jacket may be a transition piece both because it lacks belt loops and because it is made of heavy cadet gray kersey. 59 As will be seen, this kersey material was used almost exclusively in the Type III Richmond Depot jacket, which dates to the last part of the war. This, plus the fact that the same material is found in a group of Irish-made jackets described below, argues strongly that this gray kersey is English-made cloth run through the blockade.

Another jacket of the same type, also without the belt loops, was used by J. Rhodes Duval of the 62d Georgia Partisan Rangers, which served in Lee's army from May until July, 1864, when it was disbanded. Duval's coat is identical to the others except that it has been trimmed with yellow wool challee. The shoulder straps have been cut off. 60

Captain George Pettigrew Bryan of the 2d North Carolina Cavalry wore a Richmond Type II jacket similar to Duval's except that it was made of a rough gray tabby weave wool. Like Duval's, it has been piped, this time in a yellow worsted cord. Bryan used this jacket sometime between his promotion to captain in 1863 and his death on 16 August 1864. 61

The last jacket in this group has the most radical departure from the pattern, in that it has only six buttons down the front. Made of a thin cadet gray wool with an unusual weave, it is lined with the expected osnaburg, has the belt loops and once had shoulder straps, again cut off. This jacket was worn by George H.T. Greer, Military Secretary to General Jubal A. Early. He had it on when he was wounded at Summerville Ford, Virginia on 17 September 1863. 62

The troops' practice of removing shoulder straps and belt loops, seen in the Bernard, Duval and Greer jackets, may have been the impetus behind the production of the Type III. This pattern is identical to the Type II except that it lacks shoulder straps and belt loops. All of those found thus far are made of heavy cadet grey kersey. Otherwise, the pattern, lining, button count and other characteristics are identical to the Type II.

At least fourteen of these jackets survive, indicating widespread issue. This high survival rate, plus the "last uniform" rule, indicates that this must be the last pattern issued to Lee's army from the depot.


FIG 18
Richmond Depot type III jacket
worn by E.F. Barnes, 1st Co., Richmond Howitzers

The jacket worn by E.F. Barnes, 1st Company Richmond Howitzers, is a good example of the type (FIGs 19, 20). Made of cadet gray wool kersey, it is lined in the standard cotton osnaburg used by the depot. The nine buttons on the front, seven of which are Virginia state seals and two New York, are probably period replacements. The jacket shares the six piece body and two piece sleeves common to the depot. 63 Barnes was paroled 17 April 1865 at Richmond. 64

A circular from the Adjutant & Inspector General's Office dated 3 June 1862 allowed officers to wear a fatigue uniform in the field consisting of a plain frock coat or a gray jacket, without embroidery "on the collar only." The convoluted language of this order probably meant, or at least seems to have been interpreted to mean, that only collar insignia and not sleeve braid must be worn. 65 An 1864 General Order allowed officers to draw enlisted clothing once all the men had been supplied. 66 Two examples of Type III jackets acquired in this manner by officers have survived, one with an interesting modification that allows close dating.


FIG 19
Richmond type III jacket
worn by Brigadier General William Fitzhugh Payne

A jacket worn by Brigadier General William Fitzhugh Payne is a standard Type III with the addition of colonel's stars on the collar (FIG 21). The original infantry buttons still remain on the jacket, despite the fact that Payne was a cavalry officer. 67


FIG 20
Richmond type III jacket
of Lt ThomasTolson,
2nd Maryland Infantry

2d Lt Thomas Tolson of the 2d Maryland Infantry wore a Type III jacket adorned only with his rank insignia on the collar. The lining in Tolson's uniform is most unusual, consisting of heavy gray blanket material. A clue to this feature was Tolson's diary entry for 10 February 1865: "Pay $100 to have my jacket and pants fixed in Petersburg. The weather wet and very cold." 68 Otherwise Tolson's jacket is identical to the others [see Ross Kimmel's article in this issue, FIG 9 for a photograph of this jacket].

Other known Type III jackets are listed in the footnotes. All of them date from 1864 or 1865 and all are attributable to elements of the Army of Northern Virginia. 69

This article was originally published in the Fall and Winter 1989 issues of The Military Collector & Historian.


Queen's Richmond brooch worn to husband's funeral is 'nostalgic' and has 'long history'

Povezava je kopirana

Prince Philip funeral: Expert praises 'formidable' Queen

Ko se naročite, bomo vaše podatke uporabili za pošiljanje teh novic. Včasih bodo vključevali priporočila za druge povezane novice ali storitve, ki jih ponujamo. Naše obvestilo o zasebnosti pojasnjuje več o tem, kako uporabljamo vaše podatke in vaše pravice. Odjavite se lahko kadar koli.

The Queen is rarely seen without a brooch on her lapel, usually worn to complement her strikingly bright outfits. But Her Majesty&rsquos brooches are more than just pieces of beautiful jewellery: they symbolise deeper meanings and reveal significant aspects of the Queen&rsquos life.

Povezani članki

READ MORE

Her Majesty not only has a vast brooch collection, but it is also one of the most impressive selections in the world.

It is thought that the monarch has up to around 100 brooches, with special ones on regular rotation.

Charlotte White, Head of Design at 77 Diamonds, Europe&rsquos largest online jeweller, commented on the Queen&rsquos much-loved jewels.

She said: &ldquoThe Queen&rsquos spectacular and extensive collection of brooches spans world-record breaking, historical and sentimental pieces.&rdquo

The brooch has a pearl-drop attachment that can be removed (Image: GETTY )

One of Queen Elizabeth&rsquos most valuable jewels is the Queen Mary Richmond brooch.

This brooch is thought to be the largest of Her Majesty&rsquos collection.

Whenever the Queen wears the special brooch, it is immediately noticeable, not only because of its large size, but also because of its sparkling diamonds.

The brooch features a large pearl at its centre surrounded by diamonds.

V trendu

There is also a detachable pear-shaped pearl drop.

However, the Queen does not always wear the brooch with the pearl drop attached, and she chose not to for her husband&rsquos funeral on April 17.

According to Charlotte White, this may be because Her Majesty wanted to seem &ldquoless extravagant&rdquo.

Charlotte said: &ldquoThe brooch consists of dazzling diamonds set with two pearls &ndash one large round central one, and a detachable pear-shaped drop &ndash which the Queen chose to forgo for Prince Philip&rsquos funeral, perhaps to seem less extravagant.

Queen Elizabeth wore the Richmond brooch to Prince Philip's funeral in April (Image: GETTY )

READ MORE

&ldquoThe long history of the piece, signifying family events, formal engagements and weddings, as well as memories of the Queen&rsquos early reign with Prince Phillip, made it a symbolic and sentimental choice for the funeral of her husband and royal partner of 73 years,&rdquo the jewellery expert added.

The Richmond brooch belonged to Her Majesty&rsquos grandmother, Queen Mary.

Made by Hunt and Roskell, it was given to Mary as a wedding present in 1893 by the town of Richmond, in the suburbs of London.

Mary&rsquos family, the Tecks, had lived at White Lodge in Richmond Park for more than two decades.

Povezani članki

Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in 1953 (Image: EXPRESS)

Queen Mary first wore the brooch during her honeymoon at Osborne House.

It was later given to Elizabeth in 1953, when she was crowned as the Queen.

Although the monarch wore it sparingly in the first years of her reign, it has become a more staple piece in her brooch collection in recent years.

Most notably, Her Majesty wore the jewel to the wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex in May 2018.


In 1942, the Army Built a Decoy Airfield in Virginia to Fool the Luftwaffe

In late 1942, a wooded tract of land in Henrico County, Virginia, five miles southeast of Richmond’s airport, Byrd Field, was invaded by the U.S. Army’s 936th Camouflage Battalion. Using bulldozers, the troops cut and graded dummy runways to create a near-exact imitation of Byrd’s triangular layout and maze of taxiways.

The field, recorded in land registries as the Elko Tract, soon appeared to be populated by aircraft, hangars, and vehicles—all fakes, assembled using techniques dreamed up by Hollywood set directors at the start of the war. The buildings were canvas backdrops. The trucks were cloth and wire, so light you could pick them up and carry them. The airplanes were plywood, propped on “landing gear” made from two-by-fours. Servicemen trimmed the surrounding brush to leave P-47–shaped silhouettes.

Constructed in response to fear of attack by German aircraft, which were being manufactured with ever-increasing range, Virginia’s decoy airfield was little more than a stage set, but its planners hoped it was convincing when viewed from on high by an anxious Luftwaffe bombardier. In the event of a night raid, Richmond’s city lights would be darkened. Then the dummy field, lit and apparently vulnerable, could mislead the crew of approaching aircraft into releasing their bombs, sparing the city of Richmond, its crucial ports, and its real airfield, which had recently been converted to a U.S. Army flight training base. And should the ploy prove so convincing, some of the field’s fake structures concealed real anti-aircraft guns.

Camp life at the installation, however, was not staged. Soldiers from the Army’s 1896th Engineering Aviation Battalion were stationed there among their missions was routinely trundling things about to feign the activity of a real air base. They later recalled cold winters in flimsy Quonset huts.

Both Allied and Axis forces made considerable use of similar decoys, often successfully diverting attacks, though one (possibly apocryphal) tale recounts a Nazi site where fake wooden airplanes were assaulted by equally fake wooden Allied bombs, a wry way of telling the enemy the ruse wasn’t working. In Burbank, California, a Lockheed aircraft assembly plant was camouflaged to resemble suburbs from above Boeing disguised a Seattle plant the same way. But such efforts were curtailed later in the war, when it became clear they were unneeded. Hermann Goering’s “America Bomber” project never materialized the Nazis couldn’t carry blitzkrieg that far.

In March 1944, the 1896th was sent to the Pacific, where the troops built real air fields (wearing insignias emblazoned “L-K-O,” to honor their deceptive origins).

In the cold war years, the Virginia site was used as a bombing target. Markings on sectional charts warned pilots of the “Dummy airfield—for bombing practice only.” Dubbed The Lost City by residents around Henrico (who circulate various conspiracy theories about its origins), the base’s most visible remains, including roads leading nowhere and an ominous water tower, were built after the war, detritus from a failed attempt to build—of all things—a psychiatric facility.

The adjoining grounds are now a modern industrial park, producing semiconductors and other modern sundries. Yet when viewed from the air, stretches of the decoy field’s triangular runways still peek through the trees, and a marker along a nearby highway reveals this once-secret tale of war and deception.

Long ago returned to the city, the airfield that Elko’s fake defenses once protected is today Richmond International Airport the military, in the form of a Virginia National Guard unit equipped with F-16s, departed in 2007. Now overseas travelers arrive in Richmond daily—and only on the friendliest of terms.

Aerospace engineer Nick D’Alto reveals his current position as the south shore of Long Island, New York (but that might be a decoy).


First Baptist Church, Richmond, Virginia (1780- )

The First Baptist Church, founded in 1780 by Joshua Morris, emerged in the aftermath of the Great Awakening religious revival movement (1730s-1770s) that spread across the South. In contrast to the other churches in Richmond organized during the same time, the First Baptist attracted both black and white congregants in the hundreds, while neighboring houses of worship could only count a handful of followers.

First Baptist greatly appealed to slave and free-born blacks because of its liturgical message of egalitarianism by stressing the individual’s efforts for rebirth and conversion, rather than infant baptism. Furthermore, the sermons and messages were accessible to even those who could not read. Baptist ministers expressed sin and salvation in physical terms: the weight of sin, the burning fires of hell, and the cleanliness and purity of conversion.

More importantly, however, were the unusual leadership and educational opportunities the church offered to black members during the antebellum era. African American members who had notable preaching skills were allowed to perform funeral sermons and to give opening prayers at Sunday services regularly. Distinguished nineteenth-century Reverends Lott Cary and John Jasper, for example, gained experience and honed their skills through the First Baptist Church. Black members were also selected to serve as deacons to minister to the African American congregation. Further surprising was the school within the church to teach reading, writing, arithmetic, and the Bible to anyone including slave and free-born black residents unfortunately these activities were banned following Nat Turner’s rebellion. Finally, under the auspices of the First Baptist, the Richmond African Missionary Society was created (in 1815) and the first representative of this organization to go to Africa was none other than Reverend Lott Cary.

Though the First Baptist did offer many opportunities for its black brethren, tensions between black and white parishioners did exist black Baptists, for example, were required to sit apart from whites in the galleries, and because of limited seating, many black parishioners were physically unable to fit in the church. And although there were black deacons, they were scrutinized by their white counterparts and their decisions were often superseded by the latter group. In 1841, black parishioners successfully petitioned to separate from First Baptist to the First African Baptist Church.


Turning Point: World War II

P. B. Young, editor of the Norfolk Journal and Guide, a black newspaper, spoke from the heart when he told white liberals, "Help us get some of the blessings of democracy here at home before you jump on the 'free other peoples' band wagon and tell us to go forth and die in a foreign land." First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt said, "The nation cannot expect the colored people to feel that the U.S. is worth defending if they continue to be treated as they are treated now." In spite of these contradictions, black Virginians were eager to join the armed forces. At first the military proved reluctant to enlist them or else assigned them to menial roles. But in time the army and navy increased opportunities for black men and women, and Richmond's Dimmeline Booth became one of the first black marines in 1943.

In 1940, 19 percent of black men were unemployed, and most black families lived in poverty. The huge defense buildup that began with the fall of France in June 1940 ended the Great Depression and brought back prosperity. But black Americans were denied an equal share. Using the slogan "We loyal Negro-American citizens demand the right to work and fight for our country," black Americans threatened to march on Washington to demand these rights. They forced President Franklin Roosevelt to issue Executive Order #8802, which opened government jobs and defense contract work to black Americans on the basis of equal pay for equal work. It was the first presidential action against discrimination since Reconstruction.

NAACP ad (Library of Congress)

The war years were tumultuous, but black men and women sensed that out of this ferment change might come. After the bleak racism of the 1920s and the economic disaster of the 1930s, there was hope. Black newspapers conceived the "Double V" campaign—victory over both America's enemies abroad and over Jim Crow segregation at home. In this hopeful atmosphere the NAACP increased the percentage of registered black voters in the South from 2 to 12 percent. Membership in the NAACP itself increased from 18,000 before the war to nearly 500,000 at its close.

As the Cold War began, America could not claim to be the defender of freedom and democracy when it practiced segregation and discrimination at home. President Harry Truman fully desegregated the armed forces in 1948, and a government report of 1947 called To Secure These Rights called for "the elimination of segregation from . . . American life." The stage was set for the civil rights movement.

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McGuire’s Beginnings

An aerial view of the hospital complex, circa 1950 (Photo courtesy David Hodge)

Lt. Nora McCombs, from Baltimore and serving with the Army Nursing Corps, became a patient at Richmond’s new McGuire General Hospital during the summer of 1945 with what was obliquely described as a “foot ailment” by reporter Lloyd Bailey in the Richmond Times-Dispatch. McCombs developed the problem “hiking after forward-moving troops” in Europe during World War II.

She experienced several bombings during her assignment to the 45th General Hospital — a forward-lines care unit and MASH-style outfit staffed mainly by Richmonders. McCombs spent 16 months as a nurse during campaigns in North Africa and Italy before her injury. Bailey recorded 15 women then undergoing treatment at McGuire General Hospital with more than 1,000 beds. They came from the front lines with various ailments, from injuries caused by shell fragments and jeep accidents to “various tropical diseases and fever.”

Planning a Central Virginia location for a military hospital began in secret in April 1943 with meetings between the Richmond Chamber of Commerce and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

A program from the 1945 dedication of McGuire General Hospital (Image courtesy David Hodge)

On June 1, the Times-Dispatch quoted an unnamed U.S. War Department source: “A 1,750-bed hospital to take care of war casualties will be built in Virginia, and the probability is that it will be located in Richmond. … A War Department spokesman said he understood the hospital would cost about $4 million.” U.S. Rep. David E. Satterfield Jr. announced two weeks later that there had been some confusion — the War Department at first located the facility in its plans for Henrico County, but they meant Chesterfield, though an exact site wasn’t then named.

Before its purchase for $80,000, the property, now 1201 Broad Rock Blvd., was owned by Thomas Marcellus Cheatham (1870-1945), who built a home there in 1892. Before and after the Civil War, the land gained a reputation for its horse racing track.

In August, the Richmond contracting firm Doyle & Russell made a sufficient low bid for the construction of what was then a 1,785-bed hospital and 69 related structures. Five buildings were to be permanent structures for use by the Veterans Administration post-war. Another section of “standard mobilization” single-story brick buildings was likely to be dismantled afterward. Doyle & Russell’s wartime projects included Camp Lee (later Fort Lee), the Richmond Quartermaster Depot (Bellwood) and Camp Peary. The hospital’s construction required around-the-clock efforts of 4,000 workers.

The hospital’s namesake, Dr. Hunter McGuire (right), with staff at Richmond’s St. Luke’s Hospital, circa 1895 (Photo courtesy the Cook Collection, The Valentine)

McGuire’s amenities included a gymnasium, a movie theater, an auditorium, a barber shop, a beauty parlor, a fire department, a power plant and a soda fountain. A post office routed mail received at Newport News for delivery throughout the country. The hospital staff numbered close to 1,000 people.

The Times-Dispatch described how the hospital’s radio system featured direct lines from WRVA, WLEE and WRNL. “The system has six channels, and their radio programs can be piped in as desired. Also, the hospital has a large collection of phonograph records.” And organist Eddie Weaver organized a band for hospital entertainment.

McGuire General Hospital became a receiving center for wounded soldiers. Once stabilized, patients were generally transferred to another medical facility. A rail line from Newport News allowed for transportation from ships directly to the hospital. McGuire offered neurosurgery, for which it became known, brain and spine treatments, and amputations.

Naming the hospital after physician Hunter Holmes McGuire (1835-1900) seemed a natural fit. McGuire had served as medical officer for Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson’s command, but despite McGuire’s expertise, the limitations of mid-19th-century science couldn’t save Jackson after his accidental 1863 shooting. The amputation of Jackson’s left arm and the struggle to preserve his life transformed the 27-year-old McGuire, and he parlayed the experience, and his acumen, into a prosperous career.

In May 1862 in Winchester, he arranged to have captured Union physicians designated as noncombatants. The action put McGuire in good stead when he was captured and released by Union forces in 1865 — in time to surrender at Appomattox. His advocacy, and that of others in Europe, in support of granting military medical personnel special consideration during wartime influenced the original Geneva Conventions and became a founding principle of the International Red Cross.

On July 30, 1944, the first casualties from the Normandy invasion reached McGuire General Hospital. The Richmond News-Leader raised $20,154 to pay for long-distance phone calls home from the wounded men recently admitted.

The hospital also temporarily served as a treatment facility for captured and wounded German soldiers.

A hospital patient pictured on Thanksgiving, 1945 (Photo courtesy The Valentine)

At the end of the war, 21,299 Virginia veterans were discharged from military service, with around 200,000 still in uniform. Thousands of men and women affixed a bronze discharge button to their lapels, and young men supported by canes or crutches or in wheelchairs were mute evidence of victory’s price.

On March 31, 1946, the hospital joined the Veterans Administration as one of its branches, and McGuire began accepting as patients the veterans who otherwise would’ve entered private hospitals. In time, the Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center established a reputation for treating patients with spinal cord and brain injuries. The facility was the first Veterans Administration hospital to perform heart transplant surgery in the 1970s, under the leadership of thoracic surgeon Szabolcs Szentpetery.

Significant expansions and modernizations have grown McGuire in terms of size, systems and programs. More than 5,000 patients, visitors, employees and volunteers pass through its doors daily. In 2012, the 2-million-square-foot main building received a $30 million upgrade, doubling the size of its dialysis unit and adding 20,000 square feet to treat traumatic brain injuries.

McGuire’s mission remains the care and well-being of those men and women whose bodies and minds require healing after fighting the nation’s battles.


Poglej si posnetek: Richmond are Premiers. (Maj 2022).