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Bronasti kotel starodavne Armenije

Bronasti kotel starodavne Armenije


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Ding (plovilo)

Ding (鼎) so prazgodovinski in starodavni kitajski kotli, ki stojijo na nogah s pokrovom in dvema obrnjenima ročajema. So ena najpomembnejših oblik, ki se uporabljajo v kitajskih obrednih bronah. Izdelane so bile v dveh oblikah: okrogle posode s tremi nogami in pravokotne s štirimi, slednje pogosto imenujemo fangding. Uporabljali so jih za kuhanje, shranjevanje in obredne daritve bogovom ali prednikom. Najstarejši najdeni primeri so keramični ding pred Shangom na najdišču Erlitou [1], vendar so bolj znani iz bronaste dobe, zlasti potem, ko je Zhou poudaril ritualno uporabo vina, ki so ga izvajali kralji Shang. [2] Pod Zhouom sta ding in privilegij izvajanja z njimi povezanih ritualov postala simbol oblasti. [3] Število dovoljenih dingov se je spreminjalo glede na pripadnost kitajskemu plemstvu: devet Dingov kraljev Zhou je bilo simbol njihove vladavine nad vso Kitajsko, izgubil pa jih je prvi cesar Shi Huangdi v poznem 3. stoletju pr. . [4] Nato je cesarsko oblast predstavljal dediščinski pečat kraljestva, izrezan iz svetega Heshibija, ki je bil v nekem trenutku izgubljen v petih dinastijah po propadu Tanga.


Ostanki Armenije in poganska preteklost#8217

Armenija, ki velja za eno najstarejših civilizacij na svetu, je majhna, gorska dežela, ki nima izhoda v morje, ki se nahaja med Črnim in Kaspijskim morjem na južnem Kavkazu v Evraziji. Na severu meji na Gruzijo, na zahodu in jugozahodu s Turčijo, na jugu z Iranom in na vzhodu z Azerbajdžanom. Armenski jezik je indoevropski in ima v abecedi 38 črk. Izumil ga je arhimandrit Mesrop Mashdots v 5. stoletju po Kr. Obstajata dva glavna narečja, vzhodno in zahodno armensko. Leta 301 n.št. je Armenija postala prvi krščanski narod, čeprav je bilo pred tem vernikov v krščanstvo. V svoji dolgi zgodovini so državo napadali Arabci, Bizantinci, Mongoli, Perzijci, Rimljani in Turki, vladala pa so ji različna cesarstva. Po spreobrnitvi v krščanstvo se država v dolgih obdobjih muslimanske prevlade ni nikoli spreobrnila v islam. Skozi stoletja so ljudje kljub nenehnemu boju z vdori in prevlado ostali trdni v svojem verskem prepričanju, ustvarjalni, delavni in zvesti svoji dediščini. Družina in izobraževanje sta bili in sta še vedno najpomembnejša.

Armenci so bili sprva častilci narave. Častili so orle, leve, sonce in nebesa. Poklicali so se sami Arevortik (Otroci sonca). Bog sonca se je imenoval Ar ( Arev , kar pomeni armensko sonce). Kasneje so čaščenje narave nadomestili nacionalni bogovi, med njimi Vanatur, vrhovni bog armenskega panteona Nar, boginja plodnosti Nane, boginja materinstva, modrosti in zaščite družine (vpliv Nane je še vedno del armenskih tradicij, saj ljudje običajno imenujejo svoje babice Nane, Nani ali Nan) Tir, bog pisanja in znanosti, kar kaže, da je imela Armenija pisni jezik, preden je bila njihova krščanska abeceda izumljena v 5. stoletju ("vrsta hieroglifov, imenovana Mehenagir [Skript poganskega templja] ") Tsovinar, boginja morja, ki mu sledijo zoroastrizem in mitraizem, in nazadnje krščanstvo, ki je navdihnilo poplavo literarnih del, umetnosti, arhitekture (čeprav je mogoče najti nekatere značilnosti predkrščanske arhitekture, npr. starodavni samostan Geghard) in vrsto drugih del na različnih področjih. "Umetnostni zgodovinarji so armensko arhitekturo vedno izpostavljali zaradi njene edinstvenosti." Pred izumom abecede so se ljudske pravljice, pesmi in epiki ustno prenašale iz roda v rod. Minstreli, ki so potovali od vasi do vasi, so bili na nek način učitelji, saj so peli in recitirali svojemu občinstvu tako mladi kot stari. Občinstvo si je zapomnilo besede, ki so jih ministranti peli ali recitirali. Armenski nacionalni ep, zgodba, ustvarjena v poganskih časih, je preživela generacije. Se imenuje Sassna Tsrer (Daredevils of Sassoun). To je zgodba o pogumnem Mherju (Mithra), ki so ga imenovali "Lion Mher", in njegovem bratu "Little Mher".

Zoroastrizem v Armeniji sega v 5. stoletje pr. v času ahemenskega in partskega obdobja in je bil razdeljen med Perzijo in rimskim cesarstvom. Do sprejetja Armenije v krščanstvo je bila pretežno zoroastrijska. Armenska poganska triada je bila Aramazd, (Ahura Mazda [mazdaizem-čaščenje sonca-stoletja je obstajal v Armeniji, glavni božji tempelj pa je bil v severni Armeniji, drugi pa na ravnici Ararat]), Anahit (Anahita) in Vahagn ( kosac zmajev, bog sonca, bog poguma in bog vojne).

Nekateri bogovi, v katere so verjeli Armenci v času zoroastrijske Armenije, so bili mešanica lokalnih bogov in boginj, drugi pa so bili posvojeni iz bližnjih območij. To so bili: Mher (Mithra), Aramazd, Anahit (kip, ki so ga rimski vojaki uničili, tempelj pa je ohranil in je zdaj v Britanskem muzeju), Astghik, Nane, Tsovinar, Tir, Vahagn, Vanatur, ki je bil na koncu zamenjal z Aramazdom.

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Tempelj Garni je bil zgrajen leta 77 po Kr. In posvečen Mitri. Ima »devet stopnic, ki vodijo do glavnega vhoda, ki je prikazoval kip Mitre, a so ga napadalci uničili. Ima 24 stolpcev, ki predstavljajo dnevne ure, šest spredaj in zadaj ter osem na straneh, kar je "simbol življenja." "Mitraizem je imel pomembno vlogo v armenski veri. Imenoval se je Mitrin tempelj Mrhakan Mehean , armenska beseda za tempelj je mehean , duhovniki pa so bili znani kot mitereank . Na območju Van v zahodni Armeniji, danes Turčiji, sta dva templja, posvečena Mitri. Templji so izrezljani iz jam in se nahajajo blizu drug drugega.

Tempelj Garni je "preživel uničenje številnih poganskih templjev po neštetih vpadih, spreobrnjenju Armencev v krščanstvo in potresih, vse dokler ni propadel v katastrofalnem potresu leta 1679 po Kristusu. Tempelj je bil več sto let v ruševinah" Konec 19. stoletja so arheologi začeli raziskovati najdišče. Padli kamni so bili med letoma 1909 in 1911 zaščiteni v upanju, da bodo nekega dne tempelj obnovili. Tempelj je bil obnovljen med letoma 1969 in 1975. Danes je tempelj Garni edina stoječa grško-rimska zgradba v Armeniji in velja za "simbol klasične preteklosti Armenije ter njenih globokih zgodovinskih vezi s civilizacijami Grčije in Rima". V starih in srednjeveških časih so bila območja okoli templja uporabljena kot kraljeva posadka in vojaška trdnjava. "V mestu Artashat, jugovzhodno od prestolnice, Erevana, so odkrili ruševine mitrajskega templja, zgrajene iz črnega marmorja."

Čeprav je armenski narod krščanski, vplivi zoroastrijskega in mitrajskega prepričanja še vedno obstajajo. Na primer, za Armence je 14. februar povezan s soncem in ognjem, ki sta ga častila v poganskih časih. Po spreobrnitvi države v krščanstvo je postal verski praznik, znan kot Diarentarach ("Predstavitev našega Gospoda [Jezusa Kristusa] templju", po 40 dneh po njegovem rojstvu na armenski božič, 6. januarja). Po cerkveni službi gre občina na dvorišče k kresu, ki so ga prižgali s svečo iz cerkve. Po petju hvalnic mladoporočenci, mladi pari, ki jim sledijo vsi, ki to želijo, skočijo čez plamen, potem ko se je ogenj umiril. Ta starodavna tradicija simbolizira očiščenje, srečo, za mlade pare pa tudi plodnost. Drugi poganski praznik, ki ga praznujemo julija, je Vardavar ali "Praznik vode" (Preobrazba), kjer ljudje ves dan brizgajo ali brizgajo vodo drug na drugega. Na ta dan je veliko smeha in veselja, še posebej za otroke. Armenska apostolska cerkev je zaradi svoje priljubljenosti ohranila in vključila takšne tradicije in obrede v Cerkev.

Dve drugi poganski tradiciji, ki sta prav tako še vedno zelo priljubljeni, sta vezava trakov tkanine na grm ali drevo, zlasti v bližini cerkve, v upanju, da bo Bog videl ali slišal njihove želje. Druga je zoh ali matagh (žrtvovanje) živali, zlasti ovac ali piščanca. To je daritev Bogu za uslišanje molitev, pa naj bo to zdravilo za bolezen, prihod domov že dolgo izgubljenega sorodnika, poseben dogodek, na primer obisk spoštovane ali častne osebe ali spominska slovesnost pokojnik. V armenski cerkvi je po smrti ljubljene osebe, zlasti po 40 dneh, a matagh ali žrtvujejo občino in vse druge, ki želijo uživati ​​v cerkvenem obroku, ki je okusna kaša, pripravljena z bulgur (krekirana pšenica), pomešana z mesom ali piščancem. Tudi v armenski cerkvi je Badarak (Sveta maša) se govori le v Grabar (Klasični armenski) - starodavne besede, ki so ostale nespremenjene, prav tako kot so ostala trdna verska prepričanja ljudi, ker armenska cerkev ni le bogoslužni prostor, ampak tudi mesto, prežeto z zgodovino.

Sledi nekaj primerov, kako so se imena mesecev imenovala, ko je bil v uporabi stari armenski koledar: prvi mesec, Navasard, novo leto (11. avgust), častila ljubljeno boginjo, Anahit sedmi mesec, Mehakan, festival Mitre osmi mesec, Areg, Sončni mesec deveti mesec, Ahekan, Festival ognja. V 18. stoletju, ko je bil armenski koledar prenovljen, je bil 1. januar priznan za novo leto. Tudi v starem armenskem koledarju so dneve v mesecu dajali imena starih bogov, junakov ali naravnih predmetov. Nekateri primeri so: 1. dan, Areg, Sončni dan 2., Hrand, Zemlja pomešana z ognjenim dnevom 8., Mher, (Mitra) 15. dan, Aramazd, (Ahura Mazda) 19. dan, Ahahit, (Anahita) 24. dan, Lusnak, pol Luna 27. dan, Vahagn, (Zoroastrian Vahram) 30. dan, Gisherarev, Večerna zvezda.

Mekhitar Heratsi in Catholicos Nerses Shnorhali

Patriarh Nerses Shnorhali (Nerses Milostivi), ki je bil katoliški armenski katolik v 12. stoletju, se je zelo zavedal nenehnih poganskih prepričanj in obredov ljudi. Navdihnjen, "potem ko je slišal stražarje, ki so prepevali poganske pesmi vzhajajočemu soncu v katoliškem osatu", kjer je bival, je sestavil najbolj strašljivo "lepo himno za armensko cerkev z naslovom Luys, Ararich Lusoh (Luč, Stvarnik svetlobe). "

V času zoroastrijske/poganske Armenije sta bila svetloba in ogenj sveti, v templjih pa so oltar imenovali » bagin ali božji kraj, "požarni oltar so imenovali" atrusan ", Duhovniki so bili imenovani" K’urms , "In njihova oblačila" patmujan . " Častilci so po bogoslužju na čelo položili pik pepela iz oltarja. Ostanki ognjenega oltarja ležijo pod glavnim oltarjem svetega Etchmiadzina, sedeža matere armenske apostolske cerkve. Po spreobrnitvi države v krščanstvo so sinovi K’urms bili vzeti in usposobljeni za duhovnike.

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Do leta 1920 je bilo v Armeniji še vernikov v zoroastrizem. Danes v državi živi majhna skupina neopaganskih Armencev, ki častijo v templju Garni in tam opravljajo poganske poročne slovesnosti. 22. decembra se zberejo v templju, da bi praznovali Mherin (Mitrin) rojstni dan.

Na poroki mladega para v templju Garni poganski duhovnik v obleki začne slovesnost z besedami: "O, mati Anahit, mati vseh mater ..." Nato paru reče: "Naj ti diha tvoj predniki naj bodo v vas ... in vaše noge trdno na teh tleh ... «, ko na kratko drži kratek nož (podobe Mitre so bile pogosto upodobljene s takšnim nožem) v plamenih kotla, ki stoji pred njim in zakoncema. Poganski duhovnik nato počasi odstrani nož in se nežno dotakne vrha nevestine glave, nato ženinove, ko jih blagoslovi z besedami: »Anahit, z ljubeznijo tvoje matere blagoslovim te prstane ... Naj obroči vedno svetijo njihovi prsti ... Slava tebi, mati Anahit! " Potem, ko se vino iz rdečega glinenega vrča vlije v skodelice iz rdeče gline in ponudi paru, duhovniku in svatom, duhovnik nato naroči paru, naj vsak seže v košaro, napolnjeno s kosi lesa, in položi izbrani kos les v ognjeni kotel. Nato jim čestitamo in želimo srečno in bogato življenje.

Namigi poganske ali predkrščanske Armenije so očitni še danes, zlasti v obliki posebne in starodavne figure, imenovane simbol večnosti, znane tudi kot Arevakhach (Sončni križ). Lahko ga vidimo na stavbah, zlasti cerkvah, na zelo starih nagrobnikih, spominskih obeležjih, različnih grbih, logotipih, oblačilih, nakitu, medaljah, preprogah, umetniških delih in v tisku. Tako kot so nekateri poganski prazniki in tradicija še vedno del državnih verskih in posvetnih praznikov, je Arevakhach je še vedno pomemben simbol, ki je pogosto vklesan z Khachkar (Prečni kamen, "najstarejši khachkar je bil izrezljan leta 879, čeprav prej, bolj grobi, obstajajo primeri"), ki počiva na njem. Morda se je zlitje starodavnega z novim, preteklost s sedanjostjo, pa naj gre za verska prepričanja in prakse ali besede modrosti, ki so preživele skozi veke, prilagajanje spreminjajočim se situacijam in časom, vendar nikoli ne pozabi, kdo so, so bili ključni za preživetje Armenije skozi stoletja, zaradi česar so postali "eno najstarejših ognjišč človeške kulture".

Opomba urednika: Prvotno objavljena različica tega članka je opisovala Mesroba Mashdotsa kot patriarha, namesto arhimandrita. V članku je bila omenjena tudi armenska abeceda, ki vsebuje 39 črk, namesto 38.


Kako so Kanaanci, svetopisemski sovražniki Izraelcev, ohranili genetsko celovitost

Amanda Borschel-Dan je urednica časopisa The Times of Israel’s Jewish World and Archaeology.

Nova mednarodna, interdisciplinarna študija ponuja zanimive odgovore na izvor in zgodovino kanaanskega ljudstva. V članku, objavljenem 28. maja v ugledni recenzirani reviji Cell, znanstveniki poročajo, da so se tisočletja široko razpršeni kanaanski prebivalci ohranili kot demografsko skladna skupina.

Študija je bila izvedena s pomočjo genomske analize starodavnih vzorcev DNK iz ostankov 93 posameznikov na devetih bronasto dobi kanaanskih najdišč po Levantu.

“Kanaanci, čeprav živijo v različnih mestih-državah, so si bili kulturno in genetsko podobni, "je dejal specialist za starodavno DNK Hebrejske univerze Liran Carmel.

Že stoletja so znanstveniki razpravljali o tem, kdo so bili Kanaanci in od kod izvirajo. Kanaanci so bili v starih časih med osvajalskimi Izraelci in v zgodovinskih dokumentih, starih do 3.500 let, zapisani v Bibliji in v zgodovinskih dokumentih kot skupina ljudstev, ki so jim vladali njihovi lastni kraji v mestu/državi.

Študija je tudi odkrila, da imajo genetsko razmerje z drugo skupino ljudi, ki se je počasi in nenehno selila iz oddaljenega območja Kavkaza in/ali gora Zagros. To posebno genetsko mešanico kanaanskega in gorskega ljudstva je še vedno mogoče videti v neki obliki s sodobnim arabsko govorečim in judovskim prebivalstvom, so zapisali avtorji.

“Naši rezultati v tej novi študiji kažejo, da je izraz "#kanaanit", ki je znan iz arheološke in zgodovinske literature, v resnici ustrezal genetsko večinoma homogeni skupini ljudi - ni bil le skupen nabor idej, ampak ljudje podobnega porekla, "je za The Times of Israel v četrtek povedal profesor David Reich z univerze Harvard Univerza za starodavno genetiko.

Podatki iz vzorcev DNK, ki so prišli od 73 novih posameznikov s petih arheoloških najdišč po celotnem južnem Levantu iz srednje do pozne bronaste dobe, so bili dodani predhodno prijavljenim podatkom 20 posameznikov s štirih najdišč. Študijo je zaključila velika interdisciplinarna ekipa, med drugim biološki antropolog Univerze na Dunaju Ron Pinhasi, genetik na hebrejski univerzi Shai Carmi, arheolog Univerze v Tel Avivu Israel Finkelstein, hebrejska univerza & Carmel in Revard Harvard.

Toda medtem ko arheološke najdbe na kanaansko najdiščih, ki jih je mogoče prepoznati, kažejo na to, da imajo daljnosedeni ljudje svojo posebno materialno kulturo, do zdaj ni bilo znano, ali imajo tudi zaznavno genetsko skupino.

Rezultati kanaanskih vzorcev so bili navzkrižno preverjeni z drugimi starodavnimi ljudstvi, vključno s filistejsko DNK iz nedavnih akademskih študij. Carmel, ki raziskuje starodavno DNK in evolucijo človeka, je za The Times of Israel povedal: "Vidimo, da so si Kanaanci po genetski poti bolj podobni kot druge skupine v regiji. ”

Neprekinjeno kapljanje migracij?

V prispevku “ The Genomic History of the Bronze Age Southern Levant iz bronaste dobe ” avtorji pišejo, da so imeli v mislih tri raziskovalne cilje: “ Poskušali smo ugotoviti obseg genetske homogenosti med najdišči, povezanimi s kanaansko materialno kulturo . Drugič, podatke smo analizirali, da bi dobili vpogled v čas, obseg in izvor genskega toka, ki je prinesel prednike, povezane z Zagrosom in Kavkazom, na južni Levant iz bronaste dobe. Tretjič, ocenili smo, v kolikšni meri so dodatni dogodki pretoka genov vplivali na regijo od takrat. ”

Carmel je dejal, da prebivalci bronaste dobe (okoli 3500–1150 pr. “ Namesto tega opažamo dokaze o gibanju ljudi v daljšem časovnem obdobju s severovzhodnega antičnega Bližnjega vzhoda, vključno s sodobno Gruzijo, Armenijo in Azerbajdžanom, v južno levantno regijo, "#je dejal v tisku hebrejske univerze objava nove študije.

V vzorcih Kanaanitov je profesor hebrejske univerze za genetiko Shai Carmi povedal The Times of Israel: “ Ugotovili smo, da so poreklo približno enaka mešanica ljudi s Kavkaza/Zagrosa, skupaj z lokalnimi prebivalci iz Levanta. &# 8221

Carmi je dejal, da je po podatkih “ prišlo do selitve s Kavkaza/Zagrosa v Levant, ki je pred 8000 in 3500 leti nadomestila nek delež prebivalstva (in se morda nadaljevalo) … Pokazali smo, da so se ljudje preselili iz Kavkaz/Zagros in asimiliran (genetsko) na Levantu. Se pravi, niso ostali kot samostojna in ločena skupina, ampak so se združili z lokalnim prebivalstvom. ”

Carmi je dejal, da znanstveniki še vedno ne vedo, kako in zakaj migracija temelji na genetskih podatkih. “ Proces mešanja populacij je bil in je še vedno zelo pogost med človeškimi populacijami, "#je dejal Carmi.

Hurske vezi in vijolična barva

Možno razlago, zakaj so se ljudje morda nenehno selili na Levant, lahko najdemo v teoriji o hurijskem izvoru samega imena Kanaanit. Hurrian je bil jezik, ki ga govorijo na severovzhodu starodavnega Bližnjega vzhoda, morda tudi na Kavkazu, v skladu s člankom Cell.

Vnos za “Canaan/Canaanite ” v obsežni Enciklopediji Biblica inštituta Bialik navaja, da je ime morda povezano z vijoličnim barvilom. Piše, da je v tablicah Nuzi približno 5.000 tablic, najdenih v sodobnem Iraku, večinoma iz obdobja Hurrijev (15. stoletje pr. N. Št.), Hurijska beseda “kinakhkhu” je bil uporabljen za svetopisemsko vijolično barvo argaman, ki je narejena iz polžev murex.

V precej zapleteni razlagi so te hurijske besede za “purpurne ” povezane s starogrško besedo za Levant, “Fenikija, ”, kar pomeni “Zemlja vijolične. ” Omenja tudi staroegipčansko dopisovanje, ki govori o ujetju trgovcev z vijoličnimi barvili — “kina ’nu” —, medtem ko je bil faraon na potovanju po Siriji leta 1428 pr.

Glede na spletno starodavno zgodovinsko enciklopedijo, “ …Theories navajajo ‘canaan ’, ki izvirajo iz huritskega jezika za ‘purple ’ in, ker so Grki poznali Kanaance kot ‘Penici ’ (grško za &# 8216purple ’) in ker so Feničani delali v vijolični barvi in ​​so jih tako imenovali Grki ‘purpurci, ’ je ta razlaga najverjetnejša. ”

Ob predpostavki, da so bili Kanaanci "vijolični ljudje" ali vsaj trgovci za zelo dragoceno vijolično barvilo, bi to lahko pomagalo razložiti širjenje hurijskih imen vladarjev v kanaanskih naseljih, ki so dokumentirana v 2. tisočletju pr.

V vzorcih 35 posameznikov iz Tel Megida (severni Izrael) je bilo odkrito, da se je priliv migracij z morebiti hurijsko govorečih območij gorovja Zagros/Kavkaz nadaljeval z naraščanjem odstotka te tuje DNK v nekaj & #8220outliers ” najdenih na spletnem mestu.

“Kanaanska družba iz Megida je bila vsekakor strpna do tujcev in priseljencev, kar dokazujejo številni posamezniki, ki jih tu zaznamo, "je dejal genetik Carmi.

Arheolog Finkelstein je za The Times of Israel povedal, da so bili ti posamezniki pokopani blizu palače v grobu, povezanem s fantastično ohranjenim kanaanskim kraljevskim grobom, ki so ga nedavno odkrili.

Na vprašanje o razlogih za selitev je Finkelstein v elektronskem sporočilu zapisal “ Zakaj je dobro vprašanje, na katerega zaenkrat nimamo odgovora. ”

“ Mislimo, da je izvor teh ljudi Kavkaz. Samo hoja od tam do Megidda bi trajala dolgo, morda mesec ali več, vendar se mi ne zdi, da je tako delovalo. Verjetno govorimo o postopnem premiku proti jugu, ki se je nadaljeval ‘betiftufim [v kapljanju in kapljanju] že več stoletij, «je rekel Finkelstein.

Finkelstein se je skliceval na arheološke dokaze iz bronaste dobe, najdene na Levantu, ki materialno kulturo kavkaških gorskih ljudi povezujejo z Levantom iz zgodnje bronaste dobe, vključno s posodami Khirbet Kerak (Bet-yerah). “Za pozneje, v drugem tisočletju, hurijska imena lokalnih vladarjev v [14. stoletju pr. N. Št.] Plošče Amarna, vključno z imenom vladarja (kralja) mesta-države Megiddo-Biridiya. ”

Po Carmijevih besedah ​​“ Moč selitve s severovzhoda starodavnega Bližnjega vzhoda in dejstvo, da se je ta selitev nadaljevala več stoletij, lahko pomagata razložiti, zakaj vladarji mestnih držav v Kanaanu v pozni bronasti dobi ne nosijo -Semitska, hurijska imena … Med temi regijami so obstajale močne in aktivne povezave s premiki ljudi, ki pomagajo razumeti skupne elemente kulture. ”

Hurijska/kanaanska diaspora?

V članku avtorji navajajo “ Ugotovili smo, da je arabsko govoreče in judovsko prebivalstvo združljivo z več kot 50% prednikov, povezanih z Bližnjim vzhodom. ” Hkrati je neposreden prispevek Kanaancev k sodobnemu prebivalstva ni mogoče natančno količinsko opredeliti, pišejo.

Torej obstaja neka genetska vez med Kanaanci in sodobnim arabsko govorečim in judovskim prebivalstvom? Hebrejska univerza Carmel se je zasmejal, ko so ga vprašali, ali bodo metode njegove raziskovalne skupine na voljo tistim, ki na primer želijo preveriti, ali imajo judovske prednike.

“To bi bilo vsaj malo pretirano, ” se je zasmejal in radovedneže pokazal na številna spletna mesta za genetsko testiranje, ki so na voljo na trgu.

Harvard ’s Reich je dejal, da obstajajo drugi primeri v starodavnem svetu razpršenih, a kulturno in genetsko blizu ljudi.

“ Analogija, ki mi je všeč, je z dvema drugima znamenitima starodavnima kulturama, ki sta v vzhodnem Sredozemlju naseljevali približno v istem času kot Kanaanci: (1) ljudje, povezani s ‘Minojsko ’ kulturo stare Krete, in (2) ljudi, povezanih s ‘mikensko ’ kulturo stare Grčije, ” je rekel Reich. “Arheologi, ki preučujejo materialne ostanke, ki so jih ti ljudje pustili za seboj, in pisni zapisi, ki so jih pustili Mikeni, so dali imena tem starodavnim kulturam, vendar se je vedno pojavljalo vprašanje, ali so materialni artefakti, povezani s temi kulturami, povezani s homogenimi genetskimi populacijami.

“V letu 2017 smo objavili članek, ki dokazuje, da v resnici ‘Minojci ’ in ‘Mikejci ’ ustrezajo skladni in relativno homogeni genetski skupini (ki sta si med seboj različni in se tudi razlikujeta od ljudi do obeh vzhod in zahod v Sredozemlju), ” je Reich zapisal v elektronskem sporočilu.

Govor o razpršenih, a povezanih narodih spominja na idejo judovske diaspore. Na vprašanje, ali nova študija kaže, da so bili Kanaanci del neke podobne vrste diaspore, ki se razteza iz gora Kavkaza, je Heiver University ’s Shai Carmi zanikal. “I ’m nisem prepričan, da je to res diaspora. Morda je bolj podobno, kot so se Španci pred nekaj stotinami let preselili v Ameriko in se združili z lokalnim prebivalstvom, "je dejala Carmi.

Obstajajo tudi sodobni primeri podobnih odnosov, je dejala Carmi. “ Na primer, Aškenazi Judje z vsega sveta so si genetsko zelo podobni. Druzi živijo v več državah na Bližnjem vzhodu, vendar so genetsko podobni in#8230 Afroameričani so v ZDA že več sto let, vendar je velika večina njihovega genetskega porekla v skupni rabi z Zahodnoafričani, "je dejala Carmi.

Na splošno so ljudje, ki so živeli pred tisoč leti, izjemno podobni današnjim ljudem

Ker znanstveniki vse bolj polnijo niz podatkov o DNK starodavnih ljudi, se lahko le vprašamo, ali so razlike med sodobnim in starodavnim človekom na kakršen koli način izjemne. Očitno je to stvar perspektive.

“Na splošno so ljudje, ki so živeli pred več tisoč leti, izjemno podobni današnjim ljudem, "#je dejal Carmel. “ Če se dovolj vrnete v preteklost, na primer pri sprejetju kmetijstva v Evropi, lahko sledite spremembam prilagodljivih alelov, kot je toleranca na laktozo. To pa res ne velja za populacije, na primer tiste iz bronaste dobe, ki so časovno zelo blizu današnjemu prebivalstvu. ”

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Houmuwu kvadratni kotel (ding)

Ta ding je zelo debel, s pokončnimi ročaji, listnatim robom, pravokotnim trebuhom in štirimi cilindričnimi nogami. Štirje vogali trebuha, sredina zgornjega in spodnjega roba ter zgornji del stopal so okrašeni s štrlečimi robovi. Ob upoštevanju vzorca oblaka in groma kot tal, ta ding krasi vrsta vtisnjenih ribjih vzorcev na ročajih, vtisnjenih vzorcev človeka, ki jedo dva tigra na zunanji strani ročajev, vzorcev Taotie na obrobju trebuh, reliefni vzorci Taotie na zgornjem delu cilindričnih stopal, in vzorci nizov na spodnjem delu za dva kroga.

Bronasti kvadratni ding Hou Mu Wu (prej znan kot Si Mu Wu ding) je ogromen, veličasten in tehta 832,84 kg. Trenutno je znana kot najtežja bronasta posoda v starodavni Kitajski. Na notranji površini trebuha naprave je napis "Hou Mu Wu", ki je tempeljski naslov kraljeve matere Shang.

Telo in štiri noge bronastega kvadratnega dinga Hou Mu Wu so uliti kot celota, ročaji pa pozneje uliti s kalupi. Za vlivanje tega dinga je potrebnih več kot 1.000 kg kovinskih surovin. Pri izdelavi tako velikih artefaktov pri modeliranju glinenih kalupov, predelavi lončenih kalupov in litju s sestavljenimi kalupi obstaja vrsta zapletenih tehničnih težav. Odlivanje bronastega dinga Hou Mu Wu v celoti pokaže, da bronasta ulitka v pozni dinastiji Shang ni bila le velikega obsega, ampak tudi tesno organizirana in dobro razdeljena, kar je zadostovalo za predstavitev zelo razvite bronaste kulture dinastije Shang .

Poleg tega sta kvalitativna spektrokemična analiza in kvantitativna analiza s precipitacijsko metodo kemijske analize pokazali, da bronasti ding Hou Mu Wu vsebuje 84,77% bakra, 11,64% kositra in 2,79% svinca. Delež bakra in kositra je v bistvu enak, kot je zapisan v “Kao Gong Ji: Zhu Shi” (Knjiga različnih obrti: litje), ki prikazuje notranjo dediščino starodavne bronaste civilizacije na Kitajskem. (Pisatelj: Yu Chenglong)


6 Teotihuacan Nutrient Boost

Arheologi so našli dokaze o mlečni alkoholni pijači na starodavnih lončkih v Teotihuacanu. Raziskovalci menijo, da je pijača prebivalcem enega največjih naselij v prazgodovini zagotovila bistvene vitamine in minerale. V starodavnem mehiškem mestu je pogosto prihajalo do pomanjkanja osnovnih živil. Freske v Teotihuacanu razkrivajo prebivalce, ki pijejo pulque, mlečni alkohol, pridobljen iz soka agave. Tequila je narejena tudi iz agave, vendar je za razliko od pulque narejena iz pečenega središča rastline in rsquosa.

Teotihuacan, ki je obsegal osem kvadratnih milj in 100.000 prebivalcev, je bil največje mesto v predkolumbijski Ameriki. Koruza je bila najpomembnejši pridelek njenih prebivalcev. Vendar pa sta zaradi omejene podtalnice in nizkih padavin gojenje pridelka tvegano. Še več, koruza ima malo vitalnih hranil. Agava bistveno bolje prenaša sušo in mraz kot koruza. Pulque bi prav tako lahko zagotovil vitalno prehrano prebivalcem Teotihuacana & rsquos & mdash podobnega železa, kalcija, vitaminov B in probiotičnih bakterij.


Armenski muzej Amerike uporablja starodavne zaklade za vzbujanje novega zanimanja

WATERTOWN - Armenski ameriški muzej (ALMA) je bil od začetka nove pandemije koronavirusa lani zaprt za obiskovalce, vendar je bilo v znameniti stavbi v Watertownu osebje zaposleno kot kdaj koli prej, raziskuje svoje zbirke, pripravlja nove eksponate in iskanje načinov za povezovanje prek medijev in interneta z javnostjo. Alisa Dumikyan (fotografija Aram Arkun)

Za učinkovito delovanje muzeja ni dovolj le obsežna in zanimiva zbirka. Za identifikacijo predmetov in njihovo pravilno predstavitev v eksponatih so potrebne dobro financirane raziskave. Na srečo je muzeju uspelo pripeljati znanstvenico dr. Aliso Dumikyan iz Armenije, ki je pomagala pri tem delu. Delala je v Franciji s podoktorsko štipendijo, povezano z Berjem Chekijianom, direktorjem muzeja za finance in gradbeništvo, ko je Michele Kolligian, predsednica upravnega odbora, vzpostavila povezavo z njo.

Dumikyan se je rodil v vasi Metsavan v severnoarmenski provinci Lori. Preden je odšla v Erevan na visokošolsko izobraževanje, se je šolala v bližnjem mestu Tashir. Od leta 1995 do 2000 je študirala na Državni univerzi za jezike in družbene vede Valeryja Bryusova, po diplomi pa je bila vabljena, da tam poučuje približno desetletje. Poučevala je tudi na rusko-armenski (slovanski) univerzi in francoski univerzi, hkrati pa nadaljevala izobraževanje.

After a master’s degree from the National Academy of Sciences in 2008, Dumikyan worked as a senior researcher in the Academy’s Institute of History while completing her doctorate, which concerns 19 th century issues in French Armenology, and afterwards led to the Armenian-language book Issues in the History of Ancient and Early Medieval Armenia in French Armenology of the 19 th Century” (Yerevan, 2014).

At the museum, Dumikyan explained that it was necessary to first reexamine the collections to see what they encompass. Initial categorizations by donors were not always correct. She presented a number of items that she had been researching and observed, “Most manuscripts here are damaged and don’t have colophons. So if nothing exists on the work, you have to study the period, the writer and the illustrator. This takes much time.” Triptych, 1743 Gift of Paul and Vicki Bedoukian. This at one time may have held a relic of the cross, Dumikyan surmises, and was from Charek Monastery in Utik Province. (photo courtesy Armenian Museum of America)

There was a manuscript listed as from the 16 th century, for example, which she realized might not be from that period. It was not a hymnal as described, but actually a “manr usumn” liturgical musical codice, with melodies indicated by the khaz type of Armenian musical notation. Dumikyan began contacting experts in the Republic of Armenia to confirm her suspicions.

This type of work was important in the Cilician Armenian kingdom, and indeed, it was confirmed by Arusyak Tamrazyan in Yerevan that it dated from the 14 th century, making this a particularly valuable item of the museum. Examining the museum’s Manrusumn, 14th c. (Surkhat, Crimea, the Armenian medieval liturgical-musical codex) (photo Aram Arkun)

Dumikyan showed a set of four letters from the 17 th century from Armenian merchants of Julfa, who had a great trading network. The letters are difficult to read because of the handwriting and the dialect, which borrows words from various non-Armenian languages. Dumikyan did a partial interpretation and sent copies to various experts in Armenia and the US for their help, which she is awaiting at present.

The museum had a small 15 th -century Gospel manuscript section of six pages with illuminations, about which it was only known that the illustrator’s name was Bishop Stepannos. It was a gift from Adele and Haig Der Manuelian to the museum. Lusine Sargsyan at the Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts, or Matenadaran for short, in Yerevan, confirmed that the illustrator appeared to be the 15 th century Stepannos of Arinch.

Dumikyan said that it is a beautiful work and amazingly, she found the remaining sections, which were in Haroutiun Kurdian’s collection, which he in turn had donated to the Mkhitarians of Venice. She is awaiting a confirmation letter from the latter, which will allow bringing back together these manuscript pieces, at least in a virtual fashion. Polished black pot, 14th-12th Century B.C., Gift of Hakop Alimian (photo courtesy Armenian Museum of America)

She then pointed out a pot or jug which was ascribed to Van’s kingdom of Urartu, and initially was thought to have been used to hold food. She suspected this was not correct, as its ornamentation or design was not characteristic of the works from the kingdom. She sent its image and accompanying information to the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography in Yerevan, which determined that it was much older, dating from the 14 th to 12 th centuries. This is another major discovery which is a coup for the Armenian Museum. Now there are other pots in the collection which must be similarly reevaluated.

Of course, she pointed out that the museum also has many items which are truly from Van’s kingdom of Urartu. Many are gifts from Paul and Vicki Bedoukian, which have been exhibited in the past.

Cilicia2.0 Wants Diaspora to Be Protector of Armenia

Dumikyan’s work extends to a great variety of items and artifacts. She had found a rare lunar calendar/map, the origin of which was unknown. One copy exists with the Mkhitarians in Venice, who assumed it might be a part of the Haigazian dictionary. As it is not actually from this work, the search continues as to its origins. Dumikyan even contacted the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory in Armenia in case they might have any knowledge of it.

Dumikyan highly commended the preservation efforts of the Armenian Museum, exclaiming that manuscripts are kept very well with climate control and great care. However, she hoped that the museum would be able to have the means one day to renovate or repair manuscripts that have suffered damages or the ravages of time. She pointe dout, “How we maintain museum items shows our attitude towards our cultural heritage.”

She called for increasing cooperation with Armenia and hoped that in the future more researchers will come to work at the museum. Collaboration between Armenia and diaspora would be fruitful, she felt, on many scholarly and cultural topics, including the very timely one of Artsakh’s cultural heritage, especially when efforts are being made to distort Armenian history. Dumikyan in particular stressed that dialogue and vision are important in strengthening the state of current Armenology and helping new generations of scholars advance. Leg of a cauldron stand, Gift of Karl Sogoian Bottom: Cheek piece of horse bit, Gift of Paul and Vicki Bedoukian (photo courtesy Armenian Museum of America)

Virtual Activities

Manager of Collections and Museum Operations Zoë Quinn and Executive Director Jason Sohigian listed the four primary types of virtual or online activities of the museum. There are virtual concerts on a bimonthly basis, a monthly virtual exhibition, a live webinar which is also on the museum website concerning the digitized 78 rpm Armenian record collection, and a show-and-tell of various objects conducted by Collections Curator Gary Lind-Sinanian.

The first virtual exhibition was on Artsakh rugs, followed by ones on ancient coins curated by collector Levon Saryan, the Norton Dodge collection of Armenian dissident art, the Azgapetian family and Near East Relief, and the forthcoming exhibition of numismatic and philatelic materials on the first Republic of Armenia. These are often topical, with the Near East Relief exhibit in April coinciding with the commemoration of the Armenian Genocide or the first Republic of Armenia exhibit this month coinciding with the May 28 anniversary of Armenian independence. The Artsakh rug exhibition, Dumikyan’s idea, was inspired by the Artsakh war.

The concerts are curated by composer and conductor Konstantin Petrossian and supported by a grant from the Dadourian Foundation. Their virtual nature of the concerts allowed musicians from Armenia such as the members of the Nairyan Vocal Ensemble or the Yerevan State Choir to participate.

Quinn said that during this period of Covid restrictions, the museum increased its online presence on Facebook and Instagram, and did more emails, while for the first time it started a YouTube account. Book cover and Gospel printed in Venice, 19th century, Collection of the Armenian Museum of America (photo courtesy the museum)]

When asked how he chose the wide range of artifacts he presented, Lind-Sinanian responded: “Basically it is a random choice. I don’t want to do too many objects out of one category. I do a little of this and a little of that so that people will get brief introductions to a lot of areas about which that they would not necessarily be aware.”

Sohigian said: The exciting thing about this was that we have so many things in the collection in storage that don’t get to be displayed. Gary brings them out, shows them to people and tells the story behind them. People seem to be enjoying it. We distribute it across all our social media platforms, via email, website, and YouTube.”

The videos were initially an idea by Kolligian, who made a donation at the end of last year to sponsor the series.

Looking towards Physically Reopening, Increasing Membership

Dumikyan is updating the galleries of the museum through her research and new labels are being prepared based on her discoveries. Sohigian said, “There are some new objects and there will be reconfigurations. Alissa is finding out information that we did not have before, which is amazing. Our collection is significant and we are one of the few museums of this caliber in the diaspora.” Beyond that, he confirmed that the first-floor galleries will have a more chronological approach and that there will be an attempt to have more interactive experiences, perhaps with cellphone apps that can provide audio accompaniment while visitors move through the museum.

Sohigian pointed out that many visitors to the museum are not Armenian and are interested in learning more about modern Armenian, culture and customs, according to visitor surveys. Consequently, more current materials will be added to displays gradually as the second and third floors are reconfigured over time. The third floor is reserved for contemporary art and rotating exhibits, and Sohigian said that new artists will be brought in to make the third-floor gallery more vibrant.

One major new project is the updating of the second floor Armenian Genocide exhibit with the aid of an outside scholar. The Cummings Foundation, a non-Armenian company from the Boston area provided the museum a grant a few years ago for this purpose as part of a multi-year project. Sohigian said, “We are going to expand the range of objects displayed and have a focus on regions and family stories of the survivors. We want to have it end on a more uplifting note, since the Genocide has turned into the diaspora and the story of survival and experience.” The survivor oral histories held by the museum will be integrated into new interactive multimedia displays.

Sohigian said that the museum was working towards a soft reopening this summer, possibly even as early as next month. With many visitors and museum members not being local, he continued, the virtual programs will also be retained to at least some extent in order to allow people around the world to enjoy the collections and feel part of the museum. This is something new and positive, evidently, that came out of the Covid restrictions.

In the meanwhile, Sohigian, who only came to work at the museum last November, is trying to expand the museum’s membership through its various online programs. While many people have visited and donated in the past, they did not necessarily become members. He declared, “When we came up against the situation in Artsakh last year, we realized a lot of our heritage and history is endangered, especially with the kind of cultural erasure we are seeing there. We thought this makes our mission even more important now.” Consequently, he is instituting a membership drive this summer to help support the care and maintenance of the museum’s collections.

The museum appears to be in a strong position to do so, as it has been getting a lot of attention in the media. Sohigian said, “I have been here six months as director, and have already had several interviews with non-Armenian media. I was working in the environmental area before and thought that was a popular cause in this country, but now I realize the support for the arts is even greater.” A major grant from the Massachusetts Cultural Council led to a connection with WBZ radio in Boston, which advertised the museum for free. In turn, this led to an interview on the Nairyan Ensemble, which is unique for using sign language to accompany their programs.

Even the statement on the Armenian Genocide by President Joe Biden last month led to media inquiries, this time from various countries abroad. Many organizations approached the museum for collaboration in April this year on exhibits or programs, and Sohigian said the museum was able to contribute photos of its objects to help raise awareness of the Armenian Genocide and history.

He concluded, “Even though we might be physically closed, it has been an extremely busy year.” It will be even busier as the museum reopens this summer or fall.


Ancient DNA reveals origin of first Bronze Age civilizations in Europe

The first civilisations to build monumental palaces and urban centres in Europe are more genetically homogenous than expected, according to the first study to sequence whole genomes gathered from ancient archaeological sites around the Aegean Sea. The study has been published in the journal Celica.

Despite marked differences in burial customs, architecture, and art, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Helladic civilization in mainland Greece and the Cycladic civilization in the Cycladic islands in the middle of the Aegean Sea, were genetically similar during the Early Bronze age (5000 years ago).

The findings are important because it suggests that critical innovations such as the development of urban centres, metal use and intensive trade made during the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age were not just due to mass immigration from east of the Aegean as previously thought, but also from the cultural continuity of local Neolithic groups.

The study also finds that by the Middle Bronze Age (4000-4,600 years ago), individuals from the northern Aegean were considerably different compared to those in the Early Bronze Age. These individuals shared half their ancestry with people from the Pontic-Caspian steppe, a large geographic region stretching between the Danube and the Ural rivers and north of the Black Sea, and were highly similar to present-day Greeks.

The findings suggest that migration waves from herders from the Pontic-Caspian steppe, or populations north of the Aegean that bear Pontic-Caspian Steppe like ancestry, shaped present-day Greece. These potential migration waves all predate the appearance of the earliest documented form of Greek, supporting theories explaining the emergence of Proto-Greek and the evolution of Indo-European languages in either Anatolia or the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

The team took samples from well-preserved skeletal remains at archaeological sites. They sequenced six whole genomes, four from all three cultures during the Early Bronze Age and two from a Helladic culture during the Middle Bronze Age.

The researchers also sequenced the mitochondrial genomes from eleven other individuals from the Early Bronze Age. Sequencing whole genomes provided the researchers with enough data to perform demographic and statistical analyses on population histories.

Sequencing ancient genomes is a huge challenge, particularly due to the degradation of the biological material and human contamination. A research team at the CNAG-CRG, played an important role in overcoming this challenge through using machine learning.

According to Oscar Lao, Head of the Population Genomics Group at the CNAG-CRG, "Taking an advantage that the number of samples and DNA quality we found is huge for this type of study, we have developed sophisticated machine learning tools to overcome challenges such as low depth of coverage, damage, and modern human contamination, opening the door for the application of artificial intelligence to palaeogenomics data."

"Implementation of deep learning in demographic inference based on ancient samples allowed us to reconstruct ancestral relationships between ancient populations and reliably infer the amount and timing of massive migration events that marked the cultural transition from Neolithic to Bronze Age in Aegean," says Olga Dolgova, postdoctoral researcher in the Population Genomics Group at the CNAG-CRG.

The Bronze Age in Eurasia was marked by pivotal changes on the social, political, and economic levels, visible in the appearance of the first large urban centres and monumental palaces. The increasing economic and cultural exchange that developed during this time laid the groundwork for modern economic systems -- including capitalism, long-distance political treaties, and a world trade economy.

Despite their importance for understanding the rise of European civilisations and the spread of Indo-European languages, the genetic origins of the peoples behind the Neolithic to Bronze Age transition and their contribution to the present-day Greek population remain controversial.

Future studies could investigate whole genomes between the Mesolithic and Bronze Age in the Armenian and Caucasus to help further pinpoint the origins of migration into the Aegean, and to better integrate the genomic data with the existing archaeological and linguistic evidence.


Ancient Armenia Bronze Cauldron - History

Armenia is one of the cradles of ancient science, and astronomical knowledge was developed in ancient Armenia as well. Contrary to its small territory and relatively small population, Armenia was and is rather active in astronomy. Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times: there are signs of astronomi cal observations coming from a few thousand years ago. Among the astronomical activities that have left their traces in the territory of Armenia are: the rock art (numerous petroglyphs of astronomical content), ruins of ancient observatories (two of them, Karahunge in Metzamor are especially well known Karahunge is the Armenian twin of the Stonehenge and is considered even older), the ancient Armenian calendar, astronomical terms and names used in Armenian language since II-I millennia B.C., sky maps from Middle Ages, and most important, one of the largest modern observatories in the region, the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) with its 2.6m and 1m Schmidt telescopes.

Read the most complete information about history of Armenian astronomy in the book:

Toumanian B.E. 1985, History of the Armenian Astronomy, Publishing House of the Yerevan State University, Yerevan, 286p. (in Armenian).

Constellations. It is believed that the division of the sky into constellations was made a few thousand years ago in the Armenian Highland. According to the German astronomer and historian of science Olkott, the signs of Zodiac contain such animals that lived many thousand years ago in the territory of Armenia and around. It is very probable that ancient people named the constellations after animals living in their countries rather than known from elsewhere. Moreover, many constellations have their own Armenian names which were different from the Greek ones, however, many of them correspond to each other by the meaning.

Read H.A. Harutyunian s article about the Armenian name of the Milky Way in ArASNews #6 .

Rock art. Studies of the Armenian rock art present in the territory of modern Armenia (historic Armenia was ten times larger, having 300,000 square km area) show that the Armeni ans were interested in heavenly bodies and phenomena. The Earth, the Sun, the Moon, planets, comets, Milky Way, stars, constellations are reflected in these pictures drawn on rocks in mountains around Lake Sevan and elsewhere in Armenia. These pictures and drawings are being studies by a number of historians, archaeologists, and astronomers. However, there is not enough governmental attitudes to organize large-scale studies or at least try to catalog and preserve these ancient treasures.

Find the most complete information about the Armenian rock art tukaj.

Armenian calendar. According to investigations by H.S. Badalian (1970), B.E. Tumanian (1985), and G.H. Broutian (1997), the Armenian calendar was one of the most ancient in the world, may be even the most ancient one. Armenians used Lunar, then Lunar-Solar calendar, and since mid the 1 st millennium B.C. they changed to Solar calendar, which contained 365 days (12 months by 30 days and an additional month of 5 days). The new year began in Navasard (corresponding to August 11), when the grape harvest was underway and the constellation Orion (Armenian Haik ) became visible in the night sky. Together with the months, all days of any month also had proper names. The year 2492 B.C. was adopted as the beginning. The Armenian Great Calendar was introduced in VI century, and the difference with the Julian one was re-calculated. It is remarkable that the Mkhi tarians from Venice are the oldest publishers of the Armenian and world calendars (since 1775).

Badalian H.S. 1970, History of Calendar, Publishing House of the Armenian Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, (in Armenian).

Broutian G.H. 1997, The Armenian Calendar, Echmiatzin Publishing House, Echmiatzin, 560p. (in Armenian).

Ancient observatories. The most fascinating historical astronomical building is Karahunge (the Armenian Stonehenge , the name derives from kar stone and may mean singing stones and the other famous name is Zorats Kar). It is a megalithic assemblage, 200 km from Yerevan, and 3 km from town Sisian at an altitude of 1,770 m. The northern latitude is 39. 34 , and eastern longitude is 46. 01 . It is an assemblage of many stones put in a circle and a few arms starting from it. As many other such buildings, Karahunge was thought to be a religious assemblage. However, only in the middle of 1980 th , Karahunge was first interpreted as an archaeoastronomical monument and was studied by Prof. E.S. Parsamian (1999) and Prof. P.M. Herouni (1998). Estimations give from 7700 to 4000 years for the age of Karahunge.

There are 222 stones with a total extent exceeding 250 metres, including 84 with holes (with 4-5 cm diameters). Dozens of astronomical stone instruments with accuracy of 30 arcsec may be found. 40 stones form the central ellipse with 45x36 m sizes, having a ruined stone-cluster in the centre. There is a 8m wide 8-stone road to N-E. Some stones were used to find the directions to definite stars. By some estimations (observations of definite stars), the observatory was used during 7700-2200 B.C., for about 5500 years. According to many authors (ex. Bochkarev & Bochkarev 2005), a comparison of the present state of the monument with its situation a hundred years ago reveals a consider able degradation. Thus, the monument needs an urgent protection. The monument is unique of its kind at least in the Trans-Caucasian region and could be even the oldest known observatory in the world. If the estimated age of Karahunge is confirmed by archaeological methods, it clearly should be included in the UNESCO World Heritage list of the most important cultural memorials of our planet.

Metzamor is the other ancient observatory in Armenia. Metzamor was an ancient town near river Metzamor, 35 km from Yerevan, in Armavir province. There was a settlement since V millennium B.C. It was first interpreted as an archaeoastronomical monument in the middle of the 1960s by Prof. E.S. Parsamian (1985a). There is an observatory out of the fortress. The most probably estimation of the age is 4600 years. As Karahunge, Met zamor also needs a better study and proper attitude both from the Armenian government and world archaeoastronomical community.

Among the other archaeoastronomical sites in Armenia, the Angelakot dolmens may be named (Parsamian 1985b). As Karahunge, this site is also in Sisian region, 13 km from the town of Sisian. The dolmens are from Neolithic and Bronze eras. There are a few other sites in Armenia that are associated with astronomical activity of our ancient habitants.

Bochkarev N.G. , Bochkarev Yu.N. 2005, Armenian Archaeoastronomical Monuments Carahunge (Zorakarer) and Metsamor: Review and Personal Impressions, Proceedings of SEAC Tenth Annual Conference: Cosmic Catastrophes, held in Tartu, Estonia, 2002, eds. Mare Koiva, Izold Pustylnik, & Liisa Vesik, Tartu, p. 27-54.

Herouni P.M. 1998, Carahunge-Carenish, a Prehistoric Stone Observatory, Proc. National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Vol. 98, 4, p. 307-328.

Parsamian E.S. 1985. On Astronomical Meaning of the Small Hill of Metsamor, Communications of BAO, Vol. 57, str. 92-100.

Parsamian E.S. 1985. On Possible Astronomical Significance of Megalithic Rings of Angelacot. Communications of BAO, Vol. 57, str. 101-103.

Parsamian E.S. 1999, On Ancient Astronomy in Armenia, Proceedings of the International Conference Oxford VI and SEAC 1999, ed. J.A. Belmonte, La Laguna, p. 77-81.

Records of astronomical events by ancient Armenians. Halley s comet. Coins of Armenian king Tigranes II the Great (95-55 BC), silver and copper-bronze tetradrachms and drachms, clearly reveal a star with a tail on the royal tiara which may be associated with the Halley's comet passage of 87 BC. If so, one has another case when astronomical events can be useful for historical chronological problems, this would be a far earlier record of Halley in Armenia than was previously known from chronicles and also one of the earliest known images of Halley's comet.

Gurzadyan V.G. , Vardanyan R., Halley's comet of 87 BC on the coins of Armenian king Tigranes? // Astronomy & Geophysics, Vol. 45, No. 4, p. 4.06, 2004.

One of the most remarkable scientists in the Middle Ages was Anania Shirakatsi (VII century), who had rather progressive astronomical ideas for those times. He was the most important scientist in Armenia, as he was a philosopher, mathematician, geogra pher, astronomer, chronologist, etc. He has left a few books and writings that survived up to nowadays. Many of them are kept in Matenadaran, the museum of ancient manu scripts. Anania Shirakatsi knew about the spherical shape of the Earth. He accepted also that the Milky Way consisted of numerous faint stars, could correctly interpret Lunar and Solar eclipses, and had a number of other progressive astronomical knowledge for that time. Anania compiled chronological tables, astronomical textbooks, etc. Anania Shirakatsi s works serve as the main source for establishing the ancient Armenian astro nomical terminology, including the names of constellations and stars.

Po navedbah Prof. Pskovskiy, the 1054 Supernova was first seen and recorded in Armenia in May 1054 (and only later in summer in China). Interestingly, its remnant, the famous Crab nebula has been studied in detail in the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory and was one of its famous objects of investigation. This nebula has been a natural laboratory for many astrophysical investigations in various multiwavelength ranges.

Ghukas (Luca) Vanandetsi (XVII-XVIII centuries) and Mkhitar Sebastatsi (1676-1749) lived and worked in Europe in 17 th -18 th centuries and are known for their detailed charts of the heavens. Lukas Vanandetsi made astronomical instruments, published the first sky chart with Armenian names of constel lations in Amsterdam at the beginning of XVIII century. Mkhitar Sebastatsi was the person who founded the Armenian Catholic Church community in St. Lazar island near Venice, a touristic site for many visitors.

Due to absence of independence for many centuries, Armenia did not have enough high level of science in the Middle Ages, however, interest in nature and admiration to heavens lived in Armenians since ancient times, and it became the basis for appraisal of the modern Armenian astronomy.


Ancient Armenia Bronze Cauldron - History


Medieval Armenia. Cilician Period, c. 1198 - 1375 AD. Fantastic and large bronze long-bow arrowhead. Two barbed blades with raised central midriff and long squared tang. 79 mm (3 1/8") long! Olive-green patina with earthen deposits. Still very sharp! Extremely rare. #WP2030: $299
SOLD - Alternates Available!


Cilician Armenia. King Hetoum I, 1226-1270 AD. Bronze Equestrian Kardez - BROCKAGE. Hetoum on horseback riding right, head facing / Relief of obverse on back, made when the coin was accidentally struck on top of another coin! 25 mm, 5.12 g. ref: AC 361. VF, dark green-brown patina. ex-Aram Manasaryan Collection ex-CNG. Quite unusual. #CA2036: $199


Cilician Armenia. Hetoum II, reigned 1289-1293, 1295-1296, and 1301-1305 AD. Billon Denier. Crowned facing bust, inscription "Hetoum King" / Byzantine cross star to lower left, crescent to lower right, "of All the Armenians". AC 396 var. (rev. legend) 16 mm, 0.65 g. ref: CCA 1575, AC 396v. Near VF. ex-Aram Manasaryan Collection ex-CNG. Rare. #CA2037: $225 SOLD
Cilician Armenia. Royal. Levon I, 1198-1219 AD. Large bronze Tank. Crowned Bearded leonine head of king Levon facing slightly right, Armenian inscription: "+ Levon King of the Armenians." / Jeweled Patriarchal cross with NO STARS. Armenian inscription: "+ Struck in the City of Sis& quot. 32mm, 9.21 g. Prim. AC 300-13 (with stars flanking cross, no known reference for this variant!). VF, dark glossy green-brown patina. ex-CNG. Extremely rare variety! #YCA2121: SOLD
Commagene, ancient Armenia, c. 31 BC - 38 AD. Bronze Chalcus. Lion waling right / Tyche seated right, holding palm-branch CAMOCATW POLEWC. ref: ACV-240, RPC-3850. 20 mm, 7.32 grams and very thick! Dark olive-green patina, light earthen deposits around edge. ex-old Los Angeles, CA collection. #CP2141: $125 SOLD

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Armenia, 1st century AD. Bronze coin. Four-pointed Armenian tiara left Delta to left, comet star to right / Horse standing right. ref: AC 244 Saryan p. 112. 22 mm, 9.76 g. VF, dark red-brown surfaces, minor roughness. From the R.A. Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group XXVII (29 September 1993), lot 35. RARE! #GVCA2045: $299 SOLD
Kings of Sophene. Arsames II. Circa 230 BC. AE (17 mm, 4.09 g). Diademed and draped bust right, wearing flat-topped tiara / Piloi of the Dioskouroi. ref: Nercessian, Coinage 8 AC 9. VF, green patina, flan flaw on the obverse. ex-Aram Manasaryan Collection ex-CNG. Extremely rare. #YCA2041: $1950 SOLD
Kings of Commagene. Mithradates I Kallinikos. Circa 96-70 BC. Bronze chalcus. Draped bust left, wearing tiara / Club within wreath. ref: AC 193. 19 mm, 4.73 g. Fine, dark green-brown patina. ex-Aram Manasaryan Collection ex-Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 284, lot 90. #YCA2043: $150 SOLD
Kings of Commagene. Mithradates I Kallinikos. Circa 96-70 BC. Bronze chalcus. Head right, wearing tiara / Athena standing left, holding spear and round shield. ref: Bedoukian, Coinage 20, AC 187. 19 mm, 6.32 g. Near VF, dark green patina. ex-Aram Manasaryan Collection ex-CNG. Rare! #YCA2042: $225 SOLD


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