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Časovna kapsula bronaste dobe: 3.000 let stara vitrificirana hrana, najdena v kozarcih v Angliji

Časovna kapsula bronaste dobe: 3.000 let stara vitrificirana hrana, najdena v kozarcih v Angliji


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Arheologi imajo priložnost odkriti, kako so živeli ljudje v pozni bronasti dobi in kaj so jedli z izkopavanjem stanovanja, uničenega v požaru pred 3000 leti v okrožju Cambridgeshire v Angliji. Raziskovalci to mesto imenujejo časovna kapsula, saj so vitrificirano hrano - kar pomeni, da je postala kot steklo - našli v kozarcih na tem mestu.

Arheologi so na tem mestu našli tudi redke majhne lončke in eksotične steklene kroglice, ki jih bodo v devetmesečnem obdobju preučevali z raziskovalnim projektom v višini 1,1 milijona funtov (1,73 milijona dolarjev). Menijo, da je to naselje uspešnih ljudi.

Druga velika najdba na tem mestu je bila leta 2016, ko so odkrili ogromno leseno kolo. To je eno največjih koles iz bronaste dobe, ki so jih arheologi odkrili kjer koli po svetu. Kolo meri v premeru meter (3,28 ft.) In debelino 3,5 centimetra (1,38 palca). Arheologi menijo, da bi prvotno imela močno usnjeno pnevmatiko. Zaradi teh dimenzij in sloga kolesa so arheologi domnevali, da je verjetno del volovskega vozička.

Naselje je bilo zakopano v mokrih ograjah, vendar ga izkopavajo z uporabo strojev za zemeljska dela. Pred tem so v fens (mokrišča) arheološka dela izvajali le na plitvih območjih ali blizu robov fens, pravi MustFarm.com. Imenujejo jo "arheologija globokega vesolja", ker so ostanki skupnosti tako globoko zakopani v blato. MustFarm.com ga imenuje tudi eno najpomembnejših spletnih mest evropske bronaste dobe.

Predmeti na kmetiji Must so bili odkriti pri pridobivanju gline za izdelavo opeke. (Fotografija Univerze v Cambridgeu)

Must Farm v Flag Fen kotlini je objavil novico leta 2011, ko so tam odkopali devet dobro ohranjenih čolnov. Stanovanje je bilo obdano z lesenimi stebri, dokler požar ni padel v reko. Dejstvo, da je bilo potopljeno, je pomagalo ohraniti njegovo vsebino, pravi Culture24. Med najdbami so okrašene ploščice iz lubja lipe.

Najdbe bodo na ogled v muzeju Peterborough in na drugih prizoriščih.

Čoln iz zgodnje bronaste dobe so našli leta 2011 v starodavnem toku reke. (Fotografija arheologije Cambridge)

"Običajno na mestu poznejše bronaste dobe dobiš jame, luknje in morda eno ali dve res razburljivi kovinski najdbi," je dejal arheolog David Gibson iz arheološke enote Cambridge. "To je fantastična priložnost, da ugotovite, kako so ljudje v pozni bronasti dobi živeli svoj vsakdan, vključno s tem, kako so se oblačili in kakšne obroke so jedli."
Njegova sodelavka Kasia Gdaniec, višja arheologinja pri okrožnem svetu Cambridgeshire, je dejala: »Menimo, da so bili tisti, ki živijo v naselju, prisiljeni pustiti vse, kar je zagorelo. V rečnih nahajališčih je prisoten izredno bogat nabor blaga in predmetov, od katerih so bili nekateri najdeni med oceno leta 2006.

Dejstvo, da je stanovanje ohranjeno pod vodo in je bilo hitro opuščeno, pomeni, da bi v prihodnosti lahko prišlo do velikih najdb, je dejal Duncan Wilson iz zgodovinske Anglije in ga primerjal s tem, kako so v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja rešili potopljeno ladjo Mary Rose, ki je potopila Tudor. je osvetlil tiste čase.

"To bi lahko predstavljalo trenutek iz pozne bronaste dobe, primerljiv s povezavo s preteklostjo, ki so jo naredili predmeti, najdeni z Marijo Rose," je dejal. "Ta stran je mednarodno pomembna in ponuja zanimiv vpogled v življenje naših prednikov."

Galerija nekaterih odkritij Must Farma je tukaj: MustFarm.com. Tu so datoteke PDF, ki podrobno opisujejo zgodovino arheologije in same strani.

Predstavljena slika: Na lokaciji Must Farm je bila hrana v steklenicah zastekljena. (Fotografija arheološke službe Cambridge)

Avtor: Mark Miller


Britansko različico Pompejev odkrili v Cambridgeshireju

Arheologi v Cambridgeshireu so odkrili najbolj ohranjene domove bronaste dobe, ki so jih kdaj našli v Veliki Britaniji.

Prvič bodo zakorakali v dom bronaste dobe v izrednem izkopu v bližini Peterborougha, ki razkriva podrobnosti o tem, kako so ljudje živeli pred tisoč leti.

Spletno mesto na robu kamnitega kamnoloma na kmetiji Must v Whittleseyju primerja z rimskim mestom Pompeji, ki ga je pokopal vulkanski izbruh, saj zagotavlja časovno kapsulo v življenju bronaste dobe, ko se je doba končala.

Stanovanja, odkrita v vzhodnoangalskih ograjah, so bila zgrajena na poljih na reki in uničena v požaru pred 3000 leti.

Ostanki so potopili v vodo in mulj, pri čemer so jih ohranili tako dobro, da so arheologi namigovali, da se jim zdi skoraj & quotrude & quot; izkopati dom, za katerega se je zdelo, da so njegovi lastniki še vedno v bližini.

Toda zaradi zaskrbljenosti zaradi dolgoročne ohranitve arheologije se je začel 1,1 milijona funtov vreden projekt izkopavanja najdišča, ki ga je financirala vladna agencija za dediščino Historic England in lastniki kamnolomov Forterra.

Na spletnem mestu so že postavljeni kozarci s hrano, lesene sklede, živalske kosti, tekstil in steklene kroglice, ki nakazujejo ljudi in omenjajo vrh njihove družbe.

Avgusta, ko so odstranili dva metra zemlje, je izkopavanje, ki ga je izvedla univerza Cambridge 's Cambridge Archaeological Unit, razkrilo tudi dobro ohranjeno ograjo palisad iz jasena, stene in ostankov strehe enega okroglih hiš, uničenih v požaru, ki se je zgodil med letoma 920BC in 800BC.

Več odkritja se pričakuje, ko odstranimo zoglenele, porušene strešne nosilce, da bi razkrili notranjost stanovanja.

& quot; Dejansko bomo prvič v britanski zgodovini vstopili v okroglo hišo iz bronaste dobe. & quotWe ' bova šla v dom bronaste dobe, si bomo ogledali, kaj 's je tam, kaj so nosili, kaj so jedli na dan požara. & quotWe ' bomo razumeli, kako je izgledal svet, v katerem so živeli, kako diši. To je svet, o katerem smo sanjali. Tukaj ga imamo v tem prostoru. & Quot

Mark Knight, direktor izkopavanja

Odkrita je bila tudi človeška lobanja, vendar je gospod Knight dejal, da so potrebna nadaljnja izkopavanja, da bi ugotovili, ali je bilo več ostankov in ali je oseba umrla v požaru ali je bila prikazana lobanja sovražnika ali prednika - & quotGranny 's head & quot odložila pred vrati.

Ekipa upa, da bo s pomočjo gasilskega strokovnjaka ugotovila, ali je bil požar namerno na koncu življenja v stanovanju nesreča ali so ga naredile sovražne sile.

G. Knight je dejal, da je to mesto brez primere tako po količini kot po kakovosti najdb.

& quotNormalno, ko kopate kopna zemljišča, imate srečo, če najdete nekaj drobcev, tukaj 're najdemo popolne lonce, pogosto s hrano v njih. & quot

Strokovnjaki so našli vrsto loncev različnih velikosti in "kot da je nekdo odšel v Habitat in kupil celoten komplet", je dejal.

Odkopavanje Must Farma je prva obsežna raziskava globoko zakopanih sedimentov v fensi in je na mestu, kjer so nastale številne prazgodovinske najdbe, vključno z devetimi nedotaknjenimi ohranjenimi čolni iz leta 2011.

Ko bodo zaključene, bodo najdbe odpeljane v nadaljnjo analizo, nato pa jih bodo razstavljene v muzeju Peterborough in na drugih prizoriščih.

Duncan Wilson, izvršni direktor Historic England, je dejal: "To mesto je mednarodnega pomena in njegovo izkopavanje bo resnično spremenilo naše razumevanje tega obdobja."


Bronasta doba Anglija

KLJUČNE TEME
Po mnenju Johna T. Kocha in drugih so se keltski jeziki v tem obdobju pozne bronaste dobe razvili v intenzivno trgovinsko mrežni kulturi, imenovani atlantska bronasta doba, ki je vključevala Veliko Britanijo, Irsko, Francijo, Španijo in Portugalsko, 11 12 13 14 15 16 to je v nasprotju s splošno sprejetim stališčem, da keltski izvor leži v halštatski kulturi. [1] Atlantska bronasta doba je kulturni kompleks iz obdobja bronaste dobe približno 1300–700 pr. N. Št., Ki vključuje različne kulture na Portugalskem, v Andaluziji, Galiciji, Armorici, Veliki Britaniji in na Irskem. [2]

V primerjavi z istim obdobjem v vzhodnem Sredozemlju in Egejskem morju se Britanija bronaste dobe počuti oddaljeno in neumno. [3] Vsak dan odkrivajo, kar radikalno širi znanje o Britaniji iz bronaste dobe. [3] Njihova življenja so nam nejasna, prikaz Britanskega muzeja o bronasti dobi v Veliki Britaniji niti ne zapolni cele sobe. [3] V času britanske bronaste dobe so se še naprej gradili ali spreminjali veliki megalitski spomeniki, podobni tistim v poznem neolitiku, vključno z najdišči, kot so Avebury, Stonehenge, Silbury Hill in Must Farm. [1] V Veliki Britaniji in na Irskem ni jasnega soglasja o datumu začetka bronaste dobe. [1] Velika Britanija v bronasti dobi je doživela tudi široko sprejetje kmetijstva. [1] S tem odkritjem se je v Veliki Britaniji začela bronasta doba. [1]

Ta članek je poskus izoliranja in vrednotenja arheoloških meril za pastoralno kmetovanje v Angliji v neolitiku in bronasti dobi. [4] Arheologi "so o ljudeh iz bronaste dobe v smrti vedeli več kot v življenju", mi je povedal Neil Wilkin, kustos muzeja Evrope iz bronaste dobe. [3] Britanci v zgodnji bronasti dobi so svoje mrtve pokopavali pod zemeljskimi gomilami, znanimi kot gozdovi, pogosto s čašo ob telesu. [5] Starejši arheolog Tony Baker mi je povedal, da je potreboval dvajset let kopanja, da bi našel svoj prvi celoten predmet, lonček iz bronaste dobe s človeškimi ostanki na Must Farm, vendar bi lahko opozoril na več artefaktov, ki čakajo biti izmožen iz blata. [3] Odkritje njenih ostankov prepisuje zgodovino barjanske dobe. [6] Na Irskem se zdi, da bo zadnja Dowrisova faza pozne bronaste dobe upadla okoli leta 600 pr.n.št., vendar se metalurgija železa pojavi šele okoli 550 pr. [1] Ker so ga kategorizirali kot bronasto dobo, so ga prazgodovinski Britanci označili z uporabo bakra, nato pa brona, ki so takšne kovine uporabljali za modna orodja. [1] "Na otoku obstajajo dokazi o poljih iz bronaste dobe, čredah goveda itd., Vendar poselitve ni," je dejal. [3]

Arheologi z arheološke enote Univerze v Cambridgeu odstranjujejo rečne mulje, da razkrijejo les naselbine iz bronaste dobe na kmetiji Must na fenlandskem vzhodu Anglije. [7] Požar, ki je pred približno 3.000 leti uničil vasico iz bronaste dobe v močvirnih predelih vzhodne Anglije, je bil po navedbah nove arheološke študije morda namerno, verjetno v napadu bojevnikov iz sovražne skupine. [7] CAMBRIDGE, ENGLESKA-Po sporočilu za javnost univerze v Cambridgeu so arheologi odkrili najbolje ohranjeno vas iz bronaste dobe, ki so jo kdaj odkrili v Angliji. [8] Naloga kositra v južni Angliji je povzročila, da je to območje postalo glavno središče kulture bronaste dobe. [9] Ugotovitve razširjajo tudi mumifikacijo bronaste dobe v osrednjo in južno Anglijo. [9]

Nekatere zbirke Somerseta in njihovo mesto v bronasti dobi južne Britanije, Zbornik predzgodovinske družbe 25: 144 -87. [10] Datum začetka starosti se je razlikoval glede na regije v Grčiji in na Kitajskem, na primer bronasta doba se je začela pred 3000 pr.n.št., medtem ko se je v Veliki Britaniji začela šele okoli 1900 pr. [11] Trupla iz bronaste dobe so pokopali na lokacijah po vsej Veliki Britaniji. [9] Študija bronaste dobe keramike Velike Britanije in Irske. [10] Boottova ekipa je odkrila skoraj vse kosti-predvsem kosti zgornjih nog-35 posameznikov, pokopanih v britanskih kmetijskih vaseh pred tisto bronasto dobo. [9]

"Dramatičen požar pred 3.000 leti v kombinaciji z naknadnim ohlajanjem je nama pustil zamrznjen trenutek v času, ki nam daje grafično sliko življenja v bronasti dobi," je dejal Duncan Wilson, izvršni direktor organizacije za dediščino Historic England. [12] To okostje bronaste dobe so odkrili v jugovzhodni Angliji. [9] Paleolitik (stara kamena doba) Britanija je obdobje prve znane okupacije Britanije s strani ljudi. [5]

Pred dvanajst tisoč leti, pred koncem ledene dobe in dvigom vodostaja, je bilo morje suho, Britanija pa polotok, rep, pritrjen na telo Evrope. [3] Tudi njihovi poklici so bili kratki in občasni zaradi podnebja, ki se je gibalo med nizkimi temperaturami s habitatom tundre in hudo ledeno dobo, zaradi katere je bila Britanija dolgo časa nenaseljiva. [5] Spor se v bistvu vrti okoli opredelitve besede "keltski", iz arheoloških in zgodovinskih zapisov je razvidno, da je imela Britanija železne dobe veliko skupnega z železno dobo, vendar je bilo tudi veliko razlik. [5]

V zgodnji bronasti dobi so ljudje bili pokopani v posameznih gozdovih (splošno znani in označeni na sodobnih zemljevidih ​​britanske arheološke preiskave kot tumuli) ali včasih v cisternah, pokritih s kamni. [1]

"Ostanki velikih lesenih hiš, zgrajenih na podstavkih na preplavljenem fenskem območju ob starodavnem toku reke Nene, so najbolje ohranjena bivanja iz bronaste dobe, ki so jih kdaj našli v Veliki Britaniji," poroča Guardian. [13] Zdaj so znanstveniki predstavili dokaze, da je bila praksa ohranjanja teles v Veliki Britaniji v bronasti dobi razširjena od leta 2500 pr. do leta 800 pr. Da bi ugotovili, ali so stari Angleži mumificirali svoje mrtve, so arheologi pregledali okostja z grobišč po vsem otoku in jih primerjali z dobro ohranjenimi mumijami iz Jemna in Irske (kjer so bile ohranjene v šotnem barju). [14] Okostja bronaste dobe, ki so nosila ta podpis, so prišla s krajev po vsej Veliki Britaniji, ki se raztezajo od severozahodne Škotske do jugovzhodne Anglije. [15] To je bil prvi dokaz, da so mumifikacijo izvajali po vsej Britaniji iz bronaste dobe. [15] To so zdaj najbolje ohranjena stanovanja iz bronaste dobe, ki so jih kdaj našli v Veliki Britaniji. [16] Mikroskopska analiza 34 posameznikov s pokopališč iz bronaste dobe po Veliki Britaniji razkriva, da je le pri nekaterih okostjih na vsakem mestu prišlo do razgradnje bakterij. [14] Zgodnji in srednji britanski bronasti dobi kamniti kalup za meč in pozno bronasti dobi glineni kalupi za sulice. [17]


Bronasta doba, tretja faza v razvoju materialne kulture med starodavnimi ljudmi v Evropi, Aziji in na Bližnjem vzhodu, po obdobjih paleolitika in neolitika (stare kamene dobe in nove kamene dobe). [11] Bronasta doba Arheološko obdobje, ki je sledilo stari in novi kameni dobi. [9] "Običajno na mestu poznejše bronaste dobe dobiš jame, luknje in morda eno ali dve res razburljivi kovinski najdbi," pravi David Gibson, arheološki vodja pri arheološki enoti Cambridge. [8] Prvotna vas iz bronaste dobe na arheološkem najdišču Must Farm v Peterboroughu je sestavljala do osem okroglih lesenih hiš, zgrajenih na podstavkih nad reko, in bi bile dom več družin, so dejali arheologi. [7] Tako kot v Pompejih je tudi katastrofa v vasi iz bronaste dobe sodobnim arheologom dala veliko informacij o izjemno prefinjenih ljudeh, ki so tam živeli pred nekaj več kot 3000 leti. [7] Enako so ugotovili za 183 ljudi, ki so počivali približno 2000 let po bronasti dobi. [9] V bronasti dobi so se germanska ljudstva razširila po južni Skandinaviji in prodrla globlje v Nemčijo med rekama Weser in Vistolo. [11] Ta zgodnja bakrena faza je običajno mišljena kot del bronaste dobe, čeprav je bil pravi bron, zlitina bakra in kositra, sprva uporabljen le redko. [11]… približni datumi, kot je prikazano: bronasta doba (2300–700 pr. N. Št.) In železna doba (700–1 pr. N. Št.), Ki sta sledili manj jasno opredeljeni bakreni dobi (ok. 3200–2300 pr. N. Št.). [11] To izjemno naselje v vzhodni Angliji je bilo zasedeno ob koncu bronaste dobe, nekje okoli 1200-800 pr. Več krogov je živelo v okrogli zgradbi, ki je bila naslonjena na podstavke nad vodo. [12] Kasnejša bronasta doba v dolini spodnje Temze: dokazi o kovinskih delih, v Barrett & Bradley, (ur.): 437-69. [18] Kose lesa iz pokopane vasi iz bronaste dobe na kmetiji Must so prvič odkrili v šestdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja delavci, ki so kopali glino. [7] Zvončasta keramika iz Aiguafrede v Kataloniji, značilna za bronasto dobo kulture "Bell Beaker". [19]

Arheologi imajo priložnost odkriti, kako so živeli ljudje v pozni bronasti dobi in kaj so jedli z izkopavanjem stanovanja, uničenega v požaru pred 3000 leti v okrožju Cambridgeshire v Angliji. [20] Prvo zgodovinsko delo, Biblija in meč Barbare Tuchman: Anglija in Palestina od bronaste dobe do Balfourja, obsega zgodovinsko, versko, diplomatsko in politično znanost. [21]


V drugem tisočletju je uporaba pravega brona močno povečala nahajališča kositra v Cornwallu v Angliji, ki so bile zelo uporabljene in so bile odgovorne za velik del velike proizvodnje bronastih predmetov v tistem času. [11] Odkritja vključujejo veliko redkih lesenih orodij in drugih artefaktov, ohranjenih v močvirnatih fenlandskih predelih, na primer kuhinjske krožnike iz sešiti plasti lubja lesenih žlic in vedrov, bronaste sekire in bronaste sulice z nepoškodovanimi lesenimi ročicami. osem čolnov in eno najstarejših lesenih koles, ki so jih kdaj našli v Veliki Britaniji. [7] Starodavni bronasti pripomočki, orožje in okraski Velike Britanije in Irske. [10]

... stoletja bakrene, bronaste in železne dobe, vendar so bile to postopne spremembe, ki so se začele in upravljale v veliki meri znotraj in s hitrostjo, ki je narekovana od znotraj. [11]

Celotno najdišče je bilo arheološko izkopano leta 1994, ko so odkrili drobce bronaste dobe, železne dobe in rimske keramike. [22] "Običajno na mestu poznejše bronaste dobe dobiš jame, luknje in morda eno ali dve res razburljivi kovinski najdbi," je dejal arheolog David Gibson iz arheološke enote Cambridge. [20] Ljudje s čašami so bili opisani kot nomadski in pastirski, saj je znanih zelo malo domačih najdišč v tem obdobju -kot z vsem starejšim obdobjem bronaste dobe -, medtem ko obstajajo dokazi o lovu na srnjad in zbiranju školjk. [17] Dokazi kažejo, da so ljudje iz bronaste dobe več let ali celo desetletij svoje mumije držali nad tlemi: ravno nasprotno od praks starega Egipta, kjer so bila mumificirana telesa zaprta v grobnici. [15] Obstaja veliko dokazov za obred v pokopaliških praksah iz prejšnje bronaste dobe, a o temeljnih prepričanjih ni skoraj nič znanega. [17] Kasnejša bronastodobna naselbina vključuje "mini gradine", ki jih sestavlja velika koča, obdana z velikim bregom ter notranjimi in zunanjimi jarki. [17] Arheologi z univerze v Cambridgeu so na kamnolomu v vzhodni Angliji v Peterboroughu odkrili neverjetno dobro ohranjene ostanke bronaste dobe. [13] Spletno mesto je tako bogato z materialnimi dobrinami, da moramo zdaj pogledati na druga najdišča iz bronaste dobe, kjer je bilo najdeno zelo malo, in vprašati, ali so bila nekoč enako bogata, a so bila odvzeta, "pravi Knight. [13]" To bi lahko predstavljajo trenutek iz pozne bronaste dobe, ki je primerljiv s povezavo s preteklostjo, ki so jo naredili predmeti, najdeni z Marijo Rose, "je dejal. [20] Uvod Za bronasto dobo je značilna prva uporaba bakra in brona. [ 17] V pozni bronasti dobi je prišlo do poslabšanja podnebja, ki se je nadaljevalo tudi v železni dobi, kar je privedlo do razširjenosti odejnega močvirja. [17] V bronasti dobi se vse pogosteje nagiba k enojnemu pokopu, trend, ki se je začel v poznejši neolitik. [17]

Zaradi tega je drugo najstarejše kolo iz bronaste dobe v Združenem kraljestvu in tudi prvo celotno kolo iz bronaste dobe, najdeno v Veliki Britaniji. [23] "Zaznamo 10 samcev, ki so pripadali R1b-L21/M529, vsi datirani v obdobja čaše in bronaste dobe ter izkopani v Veliki Britaniji. [24] Železna doba britanskih otokov zajema obdobje od približno 800 pr. do rimske invazije leta 43 n.š. Arheološki zapisi kažejo, da sta se trgovanje in izmenjava med Veliko Britanijo in celinsko Evropo, ki se je razvila v bronasti dobi, nadaljevala v celotni železni dobi. [25] Arheologi so v postopku izkopavanja tistega, kar imenujejo najboljši -Ohranjena bivanja iz bronaste dobe, ki so jih kdaj odkrili v Veliki Britaniji, je v torek dejala Univerza v Cambridgeu. [26] V svojih britanskih vzorcih sklepajo, da 90% prednikov populacije zgodnje bronaste dobe izvira iz migrantov iz Srednje Evrope z nekaterimi stepskimi predniki. [24]

Ljudje iz bronaste dobe so jahali tudi konje in so bili prvi ljudje v Angliji, ki so tkali tkanine. [27] "Dramatičen požar pred 3.000 leti v kombinaciji z naknadnim ohlajanjem je pustil zamrznjen trenutek v času, ki nam daje grafično sliko življenja v bronasti dobi," je citiran Duncan Wilson, izvršni direktor Historic England. v sporočilu za javnost Univerze v Cambridgeu. [26]


Kot stransko opombo se mi niti sanjalo ni, da ste morali v srednjem veku iz Anglije na romanje v Jeruzalem iz Anglije hoditi, tudi čez Alpe, vendar je to storilo na tisoče ljudi. [21] Kratek odgovor na to vprašanje je, da je stara zaveza (hebrejska Biblija) od srednjega veka na Britanijo močno vplivala na Britanijo. [21] Knjiga preučuje odnos med Anglijo in Sveto deželo v zadnjih 2000 letih in kako je to razmerje pripeljalo do Balfourjeve deklaracije, ki jo je Britanija iz leta 1917 namenila Palestini (pred kratkim iztrgana iz umirajočih krempljev Osmanov Empire), da bi bil narodni dom judovskega ljudstva. [21] Knjiga preučuje odnos med Anglijo in Sveto deželo v zadnjih 2000 letih ter kako je to razmerje pripeljalo do Balfourjeve deklaracije, britanske izjave iz leta 1917, ki je namenjena Palestini (pred kratkim po tem, ko je avgusta končal The Guns, za katero sem mislil, da je prava mojstrovina, prevzelo me je navdušenje nad Barbaro Tuchman (Tuch-mania?) in sem se odločil, da takoj pregledam njen zadnji katalog. [21]

Od zgodnjih časov ljudstva Beaker in kalifatov do prvih križarskih vojn in romanja, vse do nastanka judovske domovine s strani aristokratskega in vrbaškega nekdanjega britanskega premierja Authurja Jamesa Balfourja in Balfourjeve deklaracije iz leta 1917 ter tudi pogosto spregledani palestinski mandat, nič ne manjka pri opisovanju nastanka Izraela in pogosto zgodovinsko pozabljene vloge Anglije pri njeni zasnovi. [21] Zdaj o tem še ne vemo, vendar smo našli človeške ostanke, ki jih trenutno izkopavamo, "pravi Duncan Wilson, izvršni direktor Historic England, javnega organa britanske vlade, ki ga sponzorira ministrstvo za kulturo, medije in šport. [16]


Ostanki ene od okroglih hiš iz bronaste dobe na arheološkem najdišču Must Farm. [28] To je omogočilo tudi ustrezno izkopavanje najdišča, na katerem je bil odkrit pogrebni kompleks iz zgodnje bronaste dobe (približno 2300 pr. N. Št.). Ob prvem obisku je g. Bradshaw dejal, da gre za anglosaksonski pokop. G. Keith Parfitt, lokalni arheolog, je odgovoril: "To je bronasta doba velikega pomena, tukaj ne bomo našli Saksov." [29] Arheolog je izkopal na robovih ene od okroglih hiš iz bronaste dobe na [28] V bronasti dobi so v tem močvirnatem okolju vodne poti tvorile edino zanesljivo prevozno sredstvo in komunikacijo (leta 2011 so v bližini odkrili devet starih čolnov iz hlodov), zato je bilo najdišče na nekem mestu [28] Vemo, da so ljudje iz bronaste dobe živeli v okroglih lesenih kočah s slamnatimi strehami, vendar o njihovi družbi ali o tem, kako je bila organizirana, ni znano ničesar. [27] Eden od načinov za to bi lahko bil res, če bi bila genetska izolacija, učinki ustanovitelja in premik med prebivalci na severnoevropski ravnici so bili moderni precej močan za nedoločen čas po začetni širitvi bronaste dobe. (In indoevropski jeziki so se tudi precej dolgo razlikovali, saj ti ljudje niso bili del ene same govorne skupnosti). [24] To kolo ne prikazuje le, da so ljudje v pozni bronasti dobi izdelovali in uporabljali kolesa, ampak tudi, da so imeli ljudje tega vodnega območja povezave s suho zemljo na drugi strani reke, kar pomeni, da so ti ljudje so bili tehnološko bolj spretni, kot smo mislili prej. [23]

Nekateri Kelti so bili kovači (delali z železom), bronarski kovači, mizarji, usnjarji in lončarji. (Lončarsko kolo je bilo v Britanijo uvedeno okoli 150. pr. N. Št.). [27] V Veliki Britaniji so od okoli 2100 pr. [30]

Julia Farley, kustosinja železne dobe v Britanskem muzeju, je za BBC dejala, da je bila najdba ena od peščice čelad iz železne dobe, najdenih v Veliki Britaniji, vendar je dodala, da "nobene druge upepelitve še nikoli niso našli skupaj s čelado." [25] Slika na levi prikazuje starodavne (neolitska/bronasta doba) frekvence izbranih SNP -jev, sodobne frekvence v Britancih v črtkanem branju. [24]

Ta najdba je bila del bogastva artefaktov, odkritih na kmetiji Must v angleškem mestu Peterborough, mestu, ki so ga imenovali "britanski Pompeji". [23] Redka najdba v Angliji je prikovala britansko arheološko skupnost. [25]

Od približno 2.500 let pred našim štetjem v Angliji so kmetje iz neolitika (nova kamena doba) izdelovali krožne spomenike, imenovane henges. [27] Artefakte, vključno z bronasto čelado iz 1. stoletja pr.n.št., je moški z detektorjem kovin odkril na kmetijskih zemljiščih blizu Canterburyja v jugovzhodni Angliji, poroča BBC. [25] Avgusta je BBC poročal, da je bilo na vikinških lokacijah v Bornaisu na jugu Uist, otoku ob obali Škotske, odkritih več artefaktov iz železne dobe, vključno z zelenim marmorjem iz Grčije, bronastimi zatiči z Irske in slonovino z Grenlandije. [25] Čeprav so detajli teh artefaktov posebni, to niso prvi artefakti iz železne dobe, odkriti v Veliki Britaniji letos. [25]

Ljudje iz čaše so bili tudi vešči izdelovanja okraskov iz zlata, srebra in bakra, primeri teh pa so bili najdeni v grobovih bogate kulture Wessex v osrednji južni Britaniji. [5] Mnogi primeri teh so bili najdeni v grobovih bogate kulture Wessex v južni Britaniji, čeprav niso tako pogosti kot irske najdbe. [1]

Približno leta 750 pred našim štetjem so iz Južne Evrope v Veliko Britanijo prispele tehnike obdelave železa. [5] Na obrobju Evrope je Britanija evropske tehnološke in kulturne dosežke prejela veliko pozneje kot južna Evropa in sredozemska regija v prazgodovini. [5] Med arheologi je potekala razprava o tem, ali so bili ljudje "Beaker" rasa ljudi, ki so se množično preselili v Veliko Britanijo s celine, ali je kulturni "paket" blaga in vedenja Beakerja (ki se je sčasoma razširil po večini) zahodne Evrope) se je razširil na obstoječe prebivalce Velike Britanije s trgovino prek meja plemena. [1] Arheologi so odkrili niz zgodnjih najdišč, ki se nahajajo blizu poti zdaj izgubljenega vodotoka, imenovanega reka Bytham, kar kaže, da je bil izkoriščen kot najzgodnejša pot proti zahodu v Veliko Britanijo. [5] Snop je vseboval zakladnico edinstvenih predmetov: kositrno kroglico in 34 pločevinastih čepkov, ki so prvi dokaz obdelave kovin v jugozahodnem tekstilu, vključno z edinstvenim pasom iz koprivinih vlaken z nakitom iz usnja, vključno z jantarjem iz Baltika in skrilavca iz Whitbyja ter lesene ušesne čepke, ki so prvi primer struženja lesa v Britaniji. [6] Toponimi in podobno tvorijo majhno količino jezikovnih dokazov iz imen rek in hribov, ki so zajeti v članku o predkeltski Britaniji in keltski invaziji. [5] Nekateri učenjaki menijo, da so keltski jeziki v tem času prispeli v Veliko Britanijo, vendar je bolj splošno sprejeto stališče, da keltski izvor izvira iz halštatske kulture. [5] Prva izrazita kultura zgornjega paleolitika v Veliki Britaniji je tisto, kar arheologi imenujejo creswellovska industrija, pri čemer so konice v obliki listov verjetno uporabljene kot puščice. [5] Pisanje je prišlo šele, ko so Rimljani napadli, v prvem stoletju pred našim štetjem pa je bila Britanija stvar popotniških zgodb. [3] V Britaniji je za razliko od celine znanih le nekaj dejanskih naselij. [5] Več milijonov ljudi je občasno okupiralo Britanijo že skoraj milijon let. [5] Žalosten, a neizogiben zaključek tega mora biti, da ima Velika Britanija malo vlogo pri kakršnem koli razumevanju dolgoročne človeške evolucije in da je njena kulturna zgodovina v veliki meri podrejena, odvisna od zunanjih predstav in otoškega razvoja, ki na koncu ne vodijo nikamor. [5] Zgodovina, miti in legende za stoječimi kamni Velike Britanije. [31] Zlasti prihod Keltov v Veliko Britanijo sproža misli na časovno obdobje, zavito v skrivnost in mit. [31] V času, ko Britanija ni bila otok, so lahko lovci nabiralci sledili selitvi čred severnih jelenov iz Belgije in severovzhodne Francije čez velikansko reko Channel. [5] Zakaj? "Knight je rekel, da so reke avtoceste v osrednjo Britanijo in celinsko Evropo. [3] Obstajajo dokazi o razmeroma obsežnih motnjah kulturnih vzorcev, za katere nekateri znanstveniki menijo, da lahko kažejo na invazijo (ali vsaj selitev) v južno Veliko Britanijo okoli 12. stoletja pr.n.š. približno v tem času. [1] Bogata kultura Wessexa se je v tem času razvila na jugu Velike Britanije. [1] Okoli leta 2700 pr.n.št.je v Veliko Britanijo prišel nov lončarski slog: kultura čaš. [1] Več regij domnevali so izvor kulture Beaker, zlasti Iberskega polotoka, Nizozemske in Srednje Evrope.8 Del kulture Beaker je v Veliko Britanijo prinesel spretnost rafiniranja kovine. [1]

Študija iz leta 2017 je pokazala, da so bili britanski neolitski kmetje prej genetsko podobni sodobni populaciji na Iberskem polotoku, toda od obdobja kulture Beaker so imeli vsi britanski posamezniki visok delež stepskega porekla in so bili genetsko bolj podobni ljudem, povezanim s Beakerjem, Območje Spodnjega Porenja. [5] Na splošno velja, da je do leta 500 pr. [5] Približno leta 1600 pred našim štetjem je jugozahodni del otoka doživljal razcvet trgovine, saj so britanski kositer izvažali po Evropi. [1] "DNK, pridobljen s podvodnega britanskega mesta, lahko prepiše zgodovino kmetijstva v Evropi". [5] Lingvisti še naprej uporabljajo izraz »keltski« za opis družine, ki vključuje številne starodavne jezike zahodne Evrope in sodobne britanske jezike, kot je valižanski, brez sporov. [5] Although the main evidence for the period is archaeological, available genetic evidence is increasing, and views of British prehistory are evolving accordingly. [5] Certainly by the Roman period there is substantial place and personal name evidence which suggests that this was so Tacitus also states in his Agricola that the British language differed little from that of the Gauls. [5]

Many of the changes in British society demonstrated in the archaeological record are now suggested to be the effects of the native inhabitants adopting foreign customs rather than being subsumed by an invading population. [5]

This article is about the prehistoric human occupation of Britain. [5] Great Britain had large reserves of tin in the areas of Cornwall and Devon in what is now Southwest England, and thus tin mining began. [1]

The earliest evidence for modern humans in North West Europe is a jawbone discovered in England at Kents Cavern in 1927, which was re-dated in 2011 to between 41,000 and 44,000 years old. [5] The distribution of finds shows that humans in this period preferred the uplands of Wales and northern and western England to the flatter areas of eastern England. [5]

An archeologist uncovers the remnants of a three-thousand-year-old wooden house near Peterborough, England, earlier this year. [3] The Cambridge Archaeological Unit, which operates out of the university, an hour’s drive away, did some exploratory work and found, through radiocarbon dating, that the material dated from about 900 B.C. The site was monitored for several years, until Historic England, a government agency devoted to preserving the country’s heritage, began to press for it to be properly excavated. [3] The earliest known metalworking building was found at Sigwells, Somerset, England. [1] The tribes of southeast England became partially Romanised and were responsible for creating the first settlements (oppida) large enough to be called towns. [5] The major centres were southern England and Ireland, north-western France, and western Iberia. [2]

This distribution and the age of the haplogroup, indicate that individuals belonging to U5 were among the first people to resettle Northern Europe, following the retreat of ice sheets from the Last Glacial Maximum, about 10,000 years ago. [5] Archeologists know that Stonehenge, its best-known prehistoric monument, was begun in the Neolithic Age, around five thousand years ago, but they have failed to divine its exact purpose and meaning, although theories abound. [3] The jewellery and other conserved artefacts will feature in an exhibition later this year at Plymouth city museum, but although work continues on her bones, it is unlikely to answer the mystery of who she was, how she died, and why at such a young age she merited a burial fit for a queen. [6]

Their stone tools are similar to those of the same age found in Belgium and far north-east France, and very different from those in north-west France. [5]

The artistic style of these Iron Age people, twisting and bending animal, plant and human forms, are common across Europe. [31] Although the first had been built about 1500 BC, hillfort building peaked during the later Iron Age. [5]

At first they made items from copper, but from around 2150 BC smiths had discovered how to make bronze (which is much harder than copper) by mixing copper with a small amount of tin. [1] The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the 'Middle Bronze Age' (c. 1400-1100 BC) to exploit the wetter conditions. [1]

Among these people were skilled craftsmen who had begun producing intricately patterned gold jewellery, in addition to tools and weapons of both bronze and iron. [5] Iron tipped ploughs could turn soil more quickly and deeply than older wooden or bronze ones, and iron axes could clear forest land more efficiently for agriculture. [5] The bronze axehead, made by casting, was at first similar to its stone predecessors but then developed a socket for the wooden handle to fit into, and a small loop or ring to make lashing the two together easier. [1] Over the next thousand years, bronze gradually replaced stone as the main material for tool and weapon making. [1]

Although tin - essential for making bronze - from Cornwall and Devon became famous across the ancient world, there was no previous evidence of smelting from such an early date. [6] Groups of unused axes are often found together, suggesting ritual deposits to some, though many archaeologists believe that elite groups collected bronze items, perhaps restricting their use among the wider population. [1]

True bronze, a metal alloy formed from a mix of copper and tin, came later. [9] The beginning of the period is sometimes called the Chalcolithic (Copper-Stone) Age, referring to the initial use of pure copper (along with its predecessor toolmaking material, stone). [11] These included. tzi the Ice Age man who died some 5,300 years ago. (His body was found in 1991, frozen in the Italian Alps.) [9]

A single human skull was found at the site, but the archeologists think it was probably a "curated item" kept in one of the houses -- a practice that was not uncommon in prehistoric Britain, Davenport said. [7] Reich's team analysed the genomes of 19 Beaker individuals across Britain and found that they shared little similarity with those of 35 Neolithic farmers there. [19] By 2000 BC, signals of Neolithic ancestry disappear from ancient genomes in Britain, Reich's team find--largely replaced by Beaker-associated DNA. Such turnover is "pretty striking", says Garrett Hellenthal, a statistical geneticist at University College London who has studied the peopling of the island through the genomes of living Brits. [19] Archaeologists in Britain have uncovered the charred remains of a 3,000-year-old stilted wooden structure that plunged into the river after it caught fire. [12] Anthropomorphic wooden figurines from Britain and Ireland, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56 : 315 -33. [18]

On further discoveries of Celtic and Roman remains in the Thames of Battersea, fournal of the British Archaeological Association 14 : 326 -30. [18] On the discovery of Celtic crania in the vicinity of London, Journal of the British Archaeological Association 13 : 237 -40. [18] A generic geomorphological approach to archaeological interpretation and prospection in British river valleys: a guide for archaeologists investigating Holocene landscapes. [18] The organisational context in the history of archaeology: Pitt Rivers and the other British archaeologists in the 1860s, Antiquaries’ Journal 69 : 23 - 42. [10] Some archaeologists say that the study does not prove the scale of the British Beaker invasion, but agree that it is a major work that typifies how huge ancient-DNA studies are disrupting archaeology. [19]

The ancient stone implements, weapons, and ornaments of Great Britain. [10]

"We found 29 complete vessels which is something that is really exciting for archaeologists, but what is even better than that is that there is actually preserved food remains in here and this food is basically the remains of a meal that was being eaten at the time the settlement was destroyed by a fire, which is something that is phenomenally rare to find, not just in Britain, but in Europe," says Chris Wakefield, Outreach Officer at the Cambridge Archaeological Unit. [16] I found the content to be voluminous and certainly appreciated an in-depth view of what has transpired between Britain and Palestine over such a large period of time. [21] Economic interests kept Britain entangled in Palestinian affairs even during periods (like the 18th century) when religious fervor waned, and gave England a major incentive to keep the region under their thumb after World War I, even as a Jewish protectorate instead of a full-on colony. [21] It can no longer be maintained, as used to be supposed even 20 years ago, that Roman Britain was a frontier province, with boundless wild woods surrounding occasional precarious clearings on the best land. [32] The book was also interesting on the subject of the waxing and waning interest that Britain took in Palestine over the years. [21] Tuchman’s thesis is basically that two driving influences shaped the relationship between Britain and Palestine, religion and economics (or the "Bible and Sword"), but she has a lot of ground to cover with a subject this vast, and the book has much to say on a variety of different topics. [21] Basically, the book covers relations between Britain and Palestine from an English perspective. [21] I disagree almost entirely with the politics, but setting aside some of Tuchman's more egregiously false assumptions, privileged political presumptions, and bigoted religious biases regarding the issues, this book is still an essential tool for learning about and understanding the complicated history behind the relationship between Britain and Israel. [21] Later evidence for settlement in southern Britain is associated with Deverel-Rimbury pottery. [17] There is also evidence for extensive field systems in other parts of Britain, although as yet there is little evidence for settlement. [17]

The one exception was pine, which burns well and, perhaps as a consequence, disappeared almost completely from southern Britain, the presumption being that prehistoric man could easily burn the trees where they stood: the image of pine trees burning like beacons across the countryside is a strong one. [32] The original three-period structure to which was added a fourth period -a Copper Age- has been made obsolete in overall Irish and British prehistoric metallurgy by the discovery of the fact that tin-bronzes were introduced very early. [17] I then looked at bacterial tunnelling in the bones of over 300 British archaeological skeletons dating to various periods. [15] Historically, the British were drawn to the Holy Land for two major reasons: first, to translate the Bible into English &a From Barbara W. Tuchman, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Guns of August, comes history thru a wide-angle lens: a fascinating chronicle of Britain’s long relationship with Palestine & the Middle East, from the ancient world to the 20th century. [21] Rather than being a history of Zionism, this book is more of a panoramic history of the British intellectual debate over the idea of of Jewish state in Palestine which is how you get a massive chapter on the history of the crusades and exactly no chapters on As always, Tuchman's narrative prose is pleasant and her methodology is a bit problematic. [21] The book ends with the Balfour declaration during WW I pledging Palestine as the homeland to be created under British auspices. [21] Although mention is made of possible prehistorical connections, more important are myths the British spun about such connections from remotest antiquity (the first Britons were a Lost Tribe) to the Balfour dec Having read and enjoyed a number of books by Tuchman I picked this up from a sale shelf at The Amarynth Bookstore in Evanston. [21] Historically, the British were drawn to the Holy Land for two major reasons: first, to translate the Bible into English &, later, to control the road to India & access to Middle Eastern oil. [21] While religion continued to play a major role in the way the British approached their relationship with Palestine, as time went on economics took on more and more importance. [21] This is an important book to read as the eminent historian traces the religious and political relationships between Great Britain and Palestine culminating in the 1917 Balfour declaration and mandate. [21] This excellent book about the dual history of Great Britain and Israel was enlightening to me. [21] Over the past centuries, the remains of more than 500 men, women, and children have been unearthed during peat cutting activities in north-western Europe, especially in Ireland, Great Britain, the. [20]

There is also growing evidence for pre-Iron Age settlement of hillforts, consisting mainly of palisades and ditches surrounding huts and pits, and there is also evidence for some cave occupation, and for unenclosed settlement sites, associated with Post Deverel-Rimbury tradition pottery. [17] We are forever constructing prelapsarian narratives in which a golden sunlit time -- the Pax Romana, the Elizabethan golden age, that Edwardian summer before the First World War, a brief moment in the mid-1960s with the Beatles -- prefigure anarchy and decay. [32] With the arrival and gradual domination of the Anglo-Saxons during the Dark Ages, more woodland was slowly lost, and a pattern of villages emerged, ready for the Domesday Book to record after the Norman conquest. [32] Archaeologists in Denmark have unearthed a well-preserved Iron Age village, along with the remains of one human and eight dogs lying next to tethering stakes in a nearby peat bog. [20] Tollund Man is the naturally mummified body of a man who lived during the 4th century BC, during the period characterised in Scandinavia as the Pre-Roman Iron Age. [20]

Many bronze implements have been found in rivers and bogs which may have been ritual deposites. [17] Tightly wrapped mummies conjure up images of ancient Egypt, but very few people would think of ancient England. [14] Restoring the Jewish people to Palestine was considered in England as long ago as Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans, in order to facilitate the second coming. [21] She traces the history of England's connection to Palestine and the Jewish people from mythical pre Roman times right up to the partition of 1947. [21] Bible and Sword focuses on England's relationship with Palestine from the Roman Empire to the Balfour Declaration in 1917. [21]

"Bible and Sword" is a history book about England and the Jewish State. [21] Some nucleated or village-like settlements are known in southern England consisting of trackways, huts and enclosures. [17] England 3,000 years ago was already as suburban as the outskirts of Basildon. [32]

The fact that the dwelling is preserved under water and was abandoned quickly means there could be great finds in the future, said Duncan Wilson of Historic England, comparing the new site to the Mary Rose, a Tudor ship that sunk, was salvaged in the 1960s and shed a lot of light on those times. [20]

RANGIRANI IZBRANI VIRI(32 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Burned 3,000-Year-Old Settlement Frozen in Time May Have Been Torched by Raiding Party

Archaeologists believe that an raiding party torched a village of the Bronze Age on stilts well preserved in the silt of the river, which fell into about 3000 years ago. Many findings at the site just east of Peters-borough, England, including palisades made of new wood, indicate that a little while before they burned, people had lived there.

The site is at 120 km (74.5 miles) north of Must Farm in a quarry. An archeologist found out in 1999 when he saw wooden stakes or palisades sticking out of the mud and silt that protects them and many other artifacts. Scorching and charring wood also contributed to preserving some of the material.

A website on this site and excavations says: “At some point after the palisade, a fire was created in the area causing the platform to fall into the river underneath which immediately extinguished the flames.

As the material lay on the riverbed it was covered with layers of non-porous silt which helped to preserve everything from wooden utensils to clothing. It is this degree of preservation which makes the site fascinating and gives us hundreds of insights into life during the Bronze Age.”

The ancient people built the roundhouses over the water and encircled them with a possibly defensive palisade.

Along with its nine log boats, nine roundhouses and other main objects, the entire site is amazing, two of the most interesting finds were textiles and vitrified food. Also, beads, likely from the Balkans and the Middle East, showed there was long-distance trade in Britain, where the Bronze Age began about 4,000 to 4,500 years ago.

The purpose of the textiles has not been discovered because there are no telltale clues such as cuffs to say whether it was used for clothing or other purposes. However, one of the team members, Susanna Harris of Glasgow University, said they have found fine linen with thread counts of 30 per centimeter, as fine as any cloth known from Europe of the time. “I counted them several times, thinking ‘This can’t be right,’” Harris told

Archaeologists working on Must Farm revealed some of their findings to the media this week. Now they intend to retreat into the laboratory to more closely examine and analyze the many artifacts they have discovered at this site.

It’s the best Bronze Age settlement ever found in the United Kingdom,” said Mark Knight, project manager with the Cambridge Archaeological Unit, a private company that is in charge of the excavations. “We may have to wait a hundred years before we find an equivalent.”

The archaeologists say the roundhouses were about 8 meters (26.25 feet) in diameter. They were built above the water as a defense and to facilitate trade on the river, which led to the North Sea and other farms in the area.

Each house had woodworking tools, including chisels, axes and gouges. They also had sickles to reap grain, spears for hunting and perhaps fighting, and sets of ceramics that contained tiny cups, fine bowls and storage jars.

In the northeast sector of each house were butchered lambs. Dumped into the river were parts of deer and wild pigs. The archaeologists speculate the inhabitants may have had a taboo against butchering wild game indoors. A bowl with a woodchip.

Several food vessels contain charred, wheat, barley and residues of food that had already been cooked. One bowl of stew had a spoon in its burned crust. Experts hope to get Bronze Age recipes from the prehistoric smorgasbord.

Tree rings from wood used to construct the roundhouses and palisade were from about 1290 to 1250 BC and were all green and undisturbed by insects. That, plus wood chips found there, tell archaeologists it was a new settlement when it burned.

Archaeologist Karl Harrison of Cranfield University has been analyzing the fire damage and scorch marks to determine if the fire started in a house or outside. If it started inside, it may have been from a cook fire. If the blaze started outside, it might have been a case of arson. “It was rapid, smoke-filled, and incredibly destructive,” he told

The people never returned to the site, which ensured it was well-preserved for modern archaeologists to discover and analyze.


In recent day’s Nová Baňa, approximately 40 volunteers have worked under the expert supervision of archeologists to unleash a special Potter atmospheric steam engine, the first one of its kind on the continent of Europe.

In the Althandel shaft, the atmospheric steam engine was built and was used in the 18th century. Enthusiasts from the mining group Novobanský had decided a while ago to reveal this treasure to the public, hidden in the garden of one house.

Matej Styk, an expert assistant from the Department of Archaeology of the Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, said that two-week research followed last year’s findings of the archaeologists. Its aim was to research the discovered construction and the discovered features, proving mining activity in the 18th century.

“In two weeks, we succeeded in uncovering the entire measurement of the Potter engine room, about eight and 14 meters,” he said, as quoted by the TASR newswire. He added that the masonry is compact, undamaged, located about 30 to 40 centimeters under the ground surface.

Bigger than anticipated

Thanks to research, they can prove that activities were ongoing not only in the 18th but also in the 19th century. In the interior of the engine room, the bases of another construction were found, about which there was no knowledge until now.

“There were many tiles from a stove inside,” Styk noted for TASR. “We think that the building was wooden. It has a stone foundation wall and inside another production activity was ongoing.”

Styk noted that the measures of the engine room itself were surprising. The building was bigger than they anticipated.

They succeeded in finding several interesting objects during the research, a mining button from probably the 19th century, a pipe or various iron nails, and components.

Mining failed

The steam engine served to drainage of water from mine. The head of the Slovak mining archive in Banská Štiavnica, Peter Konečný, said that it was built by Isaac Potter in the Althandel shaft in the years 1721-1722.

“Isaac Potter operated this machine alongside his colleagues within the mining industry, which received the right to mine local ores,” Konečný noted, as quoted by TASR.

However, mining was not successful, over in a few years and the machine put out of the operation, Konečný said. Potter remained for several years, but the state, which paid the construction, offered the opportunity to shift it to another private miner, to Hodruša.

“There we lost its traces because the supposed shift to Banská Štiavnica did not happen,” said Konečný for TASR, adding that this assumption is not proven.

The remains of the unique machine should be accessible to the public in the future. The association would like to build an open-air folk museum at the site. They succeeded in persuading the municipality in purchasing the house with the garden where the engine room was discovered.

Museum and replica planned

The head of the association, Zoltán Vén, said that the original owners did not have a clue as to the treasure in the ground. The association was behind the finding, which discovered it inaccessible documents.

Vén noted that they have big plans with the compound. They would like to build a replica of the machine and they have some ideas on how to use the house as well. It should be the headquarters of the mining association and a museum exhibition.

Vén said that last year, British Ambassador Andrew Garth, who is leaving Bratislava at the end of July, also visited the place.

“We would like to have contact with him to be able to go to the UK, as they have one museum piece working. We would like to see it,” Vén summed up, as quoted by TASR.


Britain’s Pompeii: Bronze Age settlement gives incredible insight into life 3,000 years ago

Archaeologists are set to step inside a Bronze Age home for the first time in an extraordinary dig revealing details of how people lived thousands of years ago.

The site at the edge of a brick quarry near Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, is drawing comparisons with Roman city Pompeii – buried by a volcanic eruption – because it provides a time capsule into Bronze Age life, just as the era was ending.

The dwellings discovered at Must Farm quarry, Whittlesey, in the East Anglian fens, were built on stilts on a river and destroyed in a fire 3,000 years ago.

The remains plunged into the water and silt, preserving them so well that archaeologists suggested it felt almost ‘rude’ to excavate a home that seemed as if its owners were still nearby.

But amid concern over the archaeology’s long-term preservation, a £1.1 million project to excavate the site, funded by government heritage agency Historic England, and quarry-owners Forterra, was launched.

Already the site has turned up jars with food still inside, wooden bowls, animal bones, textiles and glass beads that suggest people ‘at the top of their society’.

Beginning in August with the removal of two metres (6ft) of earth, the dig run by Cambridge University’s Cambridge Archaeological Unit has also exposed a well-preserved palisade fence made of ash trees, wattle walls and the remains of the roof of one of the roundhouses destroyed in the fire that took place between 920BC and 800BC.

More finds are expected when the charred, collapsed roof beams are removed to expose the inside of the dwelling.

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Mark Knight, site director of the excavation, said: ‘We are, effectively, for the first time in British history about to go inside a Bronze Age roundhouse.

‘We’re going to go inside a Bronze Age home, we’re going to see what’s in there, what they were wearing, what they were eating on the day of the fire.

‘We’ll understand what the world they lived in looked like, what it smelt like. It’s a world we’ve dreamed about getting into. Here we have it in that space.’

A human skull has also been found, but Mr Knight said further excavation was needed to discover if there were more remains and whether the person had died in the fire, or was the skull of an enemy or an ancestor being displayed – ‘Granny’s head’ hung up by the door.

With the help of a fire expert, the team hope to discover if the blaze was set deliberately at the end of the dwelling’s life, was an accident or was done by hostile forces.

Mr Knight said the site was unprecedented in both the quantity and quality of the finds.

‘Normally when you dig dry land sites, you’re lucky if you find a few shards, here we’re finding complete pots, often with the food inside them.’

Experts had found a range of different sized pots, ‘like someone has gone to Habitat and bought the whole set,’ he said.

The Must Farm excavation is the first large-scale investigation of deeply buried sediments in the fens, and is at a site which has produced a number of prehistoric finds, including nine pristinely-preserved log boats in 2011.

When it is complete, the finds will be taken for further analysis, then displayed at Peterborough Museum and other venues.

Duncan Wilson, chief executive of Historic England, said: ‘This site is of international significance, and its excavation really will transform our understanding of the period.’


3,000-Year-Old Footprints Found in Ancient Site

Archaeologists believe they have discovered the best-preserved Bronze Age village ever found in Britain — and it even includes what are likely 3,000-year-old footprints.

Thought to be home to several families, the settlement in eastern England consisted of large wooden roundhouses built on stilts above water.

When they caught fire, archaeologists say, the dwellings collapsed and plunged into the river. The mud and water preserved the structures and even filled in some residents’ footprints, transforming the site into an extraordinary time capsule.

It contains items that normally would have been decomposed by now, such as textiles made from plant fibers, as well as bowls and jars with traces of food in them. The Bronze Age began in different regions of the world at different times, and that period in what is now Britain dates to about 2000 B.C.

The team also found timbers with tool marks, well-preserved charred roof timbers and the remnant of a wooden fence once surrounding the village.

Region rich with Prehistoric Finds

The wider area is known for its prehistoric finds, including a sword and rapier, which were unearthed in 1969, and the discovery of nine wooden boats in 2011.

“This is the best project I’ll ever work on in my life,” David Gibson, archaeological manager at the Cambridge Archaeological Unit, told CNN. “We understood that this was a special site when we started finding pieces of woods, then more material came.”

Usually, he said, sites from this period are “drier,” offering few interesting elements.

“So much more has been preserved that we can actually see everyday life during the Bronze Age” in its entirety, Gibson said, adding that the finds were unsurpassed “both in terms of range and quantity.”

Mark Knight, site director of the excavation at Must Farm quarry, said the site “is not a one-off, but in fact presents a template of an undiscovered community that thrived 3,000 years ago.”


Archaeologists say Bronze Age residents may have abandoned site after fire, compare discoveries to Mary Rose

An “extraordinary testimony” to the lives of prosperous people in Bronze Age Britain could lie under the soil of a 1,100-square metre site destroyed in a fire 3,000 years ago, say archaeologists who are about to start digging within a brick pit near Peterborough.

Must Farm – part of the Flag Fen Basin, and the site where nine pristine log boats were famously unearthed in 2011 – was protected by a ring of wooden posts before a dramatic fire at the end of the Bronze Age caused the dwelling to collapse into the river.

Its submergence preserved its contents, creating what experts are describing as a “time capsule” of “exceptional” decorated tiles made from lime tree bark.

Rare small pots, jars complete with the remains of hastily-abandoned meals and “sophisticated” exotic glass beads are expected to provide a complete picture of prehistoric life during the nine-month excavation, which is part of a four-year, £1.1 million project at the site.

“We think those living in the settlement were forced to leave everything behind when it caught on fire,” says Kasia Gdaniec, Cambridgeshire County Council’s Senior Archaeologist.

“An extraordinarily rich range of goods and objects are present in the river deposits, some of which were found during an evaluation in 2006.

“Among the items was a charred pot with vitrified food inside it and a partially charred spoon, suggesting that the site had been abandoned quickly.

“We anticipate that more of the timber structure, a range of organic remains and fishing equipment and the whole gamut of personal, work and settlement paraphernalia will be found.

“But we are hoping not to find remains of people that may have suffered the impact of the fire, though this possibility cannot be ruled out.

“It’s an exciting excavation. The finds are well preserved due to the waterlogged sediments within this former river channel.”

The footprints of the settlement’s former residents still stand, although more discoveries are not expected to emerge until late summer.

“Usually at a Later Bronze Age period site you get pits, post-holes and maybe one or two really exciting metal finds,” says David Gibson, the Archaeological Manager at the Cambridge Archaeological Unit.

“Convincing people that such places were once thriving settlements takes some imagination. But this time so much more has been preserved.

“It’s a fantastic chance to find out how people in the Late Bronze Age lived their daily lives, including how they dressed and what meals they ate.”

The location of the site, at the edge of the quarry, meant attempts to preserve it in situ after it was discovered in 2006 proved unviable as a long-term historic record.

“The combination of sudden abandonment followed by exceptional preservation means that there is a real possibility of further exciting discoveries,” says Duncan Wilson, of Historic England.

“This could represent a moment of time from the Late Bronze Age comparable to the connection with the past made by the objects found with the Mary Rose.

“This site is internationally important and gives a fascinating insight into the lives of our ancestors.”

A rapier and sword were found at the clay quarry, now run by a building company, in 1969. The new discoveries will be displayed at Peterborough Museum and other local venues.


Understanding the danish man

-Stylish but usually “wishy washy” in the personality department If you really want to make him feel comfortable, wash your hair prior to the date and don’t bother drying it, this drives the Dutch male crazy with passion. I’d fit right in there. Recognizing that this was an ancient burial, Glob began efforts to remove the body for further study. A biography of the Danish actor and comedian.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. He turns out to be a jerk - at first. The antelope calls the shots and the Lion simply needs to drink his biertjes and wait to be hunted. I hope to god this is satire. The Tollund Man as he appears today. Tommy's two friends Ole & . See full summary », Jonas Bechmann, a defense attorney, is a man of the system. Naupa Iglesia: An Egyptian Portal in the Andes? Understanding E-sports with Nikolaj Nyholm. Tollund Man was naked apart from a leather cap and a wide belt around his waist. I’ll give you this: I like your writing style. This is the film, about the tragic life off stage, of one of Denmarks biggest actors ever. So to all the foreign I can assure you Dutch guys are really nice. But that everywhere not juts Dutch guys. The Dutch female selects the man she is interested in with the precision of a special forces sniper, aiming at a target.

Was this review helpful to you? (Due to smoking, they are Dutch after all). if you look anything like I do, you will never have to worry about being pursued by women as I’m considered one of the most ugliest looking men world-wide. The Amsterdam Confessions of a Shallow Man, Life in the Netherlands Through the Eyes of a Sarcastic Expat. Head of Tollund Man on the left (Photo credit: Wikipedia) and a restoration image on the right (Photo credit: Jeff DiNunno). Has wife or gf but still be asking you out talk about bullshit right. Before telling you about the mistakes expats often make when dating a Dutch man, here’s a story about an incident in Amsterdam. Stereotypes exist for a reason. I sort of had this thing going on for a while with a dutch (wouldn’t call it a relationship either though). As a person who lives in the Netherlands I can attest to the stereotype. It contains the most important and most frequently used Danish words. The Shallow Man, is, as always, sensitive to the needs of his expat flock. Wut? Not to say there aren’t Dutchmen. One Romanian site that serves as a national landmark is hidden in the wooded hills above Sinca Veche village.

Nefili: velikanski potomci božjih sinov in človekovih hčera? What does understanding mean? Interpretations are made through a narrow framework of strong beliefs. He definitely had this issue with money, had me pay for a whole week-end in Paris and I’ll spare you the details. The Last of the Siberian Unicorns: What Happened to the Mammoth-Sized One-Horned Beasts of Legend? Some Dutch guys are asshole and some aren’t. She makes fun of the man … Are the Reclusive Shihuh People of Musandam the Original Arabians? The man's physical features were so well-preserved that he was mistaken at the time of discovery for a recent murder victim and the police were called. Was he a criminal, a victim of crime, or part of a ritual sacrifice? Slowly an unusual love affair begins. Definition of understanding in the Definitions.net dictionary. The ancient pealazg people comes from Atlantis, about Bronze Age time capsule: 3,000-year-old vitrified food found in jars in England, about Corlea Trackway Holds the Echoes of 2000-year-old Footsteps, about Medieval Sword in Excellent Condition Accidentally Found in a Peat Bog in Poland, about Iron Age Sacrificial Site with Human and Canine Remains Discovered in Denmark, about Ancient bog body found in Ireland may be Iron Age sacrifice, about Ancient Bog Mummies Reveal Secrets of their Identity, Great Chain of The Golden Horn: Constantinople’s Impenetrable Barrier.

Being American, however, we have to be more plastic and beat around the bush. The Little Ice Age and Its Giant Impact on Human History, The Morbid Legacy Of The Doctor Who Tried To Weigh The Human Soul, The origins of human beings according to ancient Sumerian texts, "I am the Lord God Dionysus": Parallels between Yahweh and Dionysus, 3 Problems to Remember When Trying to Find Atlantis. In other words Dutch men are like autistic feminine cowards, Your email address will not be published. The Controversial Lapedo Child – A Neanderthal / Human Hybrid?


The chance discovery of lines carved into the boulders of an ancient tomb in what is now the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights could offer new insight into an enigmatic culture that thrived thousands of years ago.

Archaeologists discovered rock art engraved inside this 4,000-year-old stone monument in northern Israel. Illustrations highlight the herd of horned animal figures etched into the boulder

In a small clearing in the Yehudiya nature reserve, between yellow weeds and shaded by eucalyptus trees, huge dark basalt boulders and slabs form a small roofed chamber that opens to the east. The megalithic structure is one of the thousands of so-called dolmens scattered around northern Israel and the wider region, burial tombs erected some 4,000-4,500 years ago in the Intermediate Bronze Era.

Today, on the plateau captured in 1967 from Syria, with Israeli soldiers securing the frontier just 23 kilometers (14 miles) away, scientists seek to shed light on the region’s distant past. The identity and beliefs of those who built the monuments remain largely unknown. But a recent serendipitous finding of rock art might change that.

The rock art findings — published in a recent article by Sharon and Berger in the journal Asian Archaeology — display the animal drawings in this ancient culture for the first time.

About two years ago, “when one of the rangers here in the park walked her daily walk, she looked inside and saw something carved in the walls,” recalled Uri Berger, an archaeologist with the Israel Antiquities Authority.

The ranger contacted the IAA, and “when we looked inside we saw this is not just lines carved or some stains on the wall, this is rock art,” Berger said. The lines form the shapes of six horned animals of varying sizes, three facing east and three facing west, with two of them — likely a male and female — directly facing each other.

Another horned animal is carved into the interior of one panel, facing the other six. The zoomorphic depictions, hidden in plain sight since the study of the dolmens began 200 years ago, were the first to be discovered in the region and a major development for Berger and his research partner, Gonen Sharon.

Sharon, an archaeology professor at the Tel-Hai college in northern Israel, is responsible for a previous landmark discovery. Just north of the nature reserve, outside the northern Galilee Kibbutz Shamir, Sharon was hiking with his children in 2012 on a field with some 400 dolmens spread across it.

The capstone of a dolmen at Kiryat Shemona features three straight lines carved in an approximation of a human face.

Crawling into the shade of the largest monument, Sharon sat down, looked up at the huge slab roof of the dome, and said he noticed “weird shapes” that didn’t look like natural formations.

“It looked like someone made them,” he recalled.

The markings were found to be a series of man-made carvings resembling tridents.

“It turned out this was the first artwork done in the context of dolmens in the Middle East,” Sharon said. The Shamir carvings, unnoticed by generations of researchers, reinvigorated archaeological study in the area. One of the sites revisited was inside an industrial zone near Kiryat Shmona, a town northwest of Shamir, where three small megalithic structures that survived the zone’s development a few decades ago are surrounded by circles of stones.

On the relatively rounded capstone of the largest dolmen there, two sets of short parallel lines are carved into each side of the rock, with a longer line carved below creating the image of closed eyes and a grimacing mouth facing the sky.

“The grooves don’t seem to be functional,” said Sharon. “To us, they look like a face.”

The stone monuments have “altered the landscape” of northern Israel, said Berger. But their prominence has also made them targets for antiquities theft, which largely stripped remains that could provide clues to their creators.

Small pieces of ceramics, metal spearheads and daggers, bits of jewellery and beads, and some bones are found at the sites from time to time, Sharon said. “But it’s very rare to find” anything, and such finds are very scattered.

“We know very little of the actual culture of the people who built them.”

With the discovery of the art carved into the stones, “we can say something that is much more than what we knew for 200 years,” said Berger.

The rock art findings — published in a recent article by Sharon and Berger in the journal Asian Archaeology — display the animal drawings in this ancient culture for the first time and present the larger pattern of visual presentation in the region.

Berger said the drawings raise new questions about the people who created them.

“Why those animals? Why in these dolmens and not others? What made this one special?”

The slow but steady accumulation of artistic finds brings scholars “closer and closer” to the subjects of their research, “to the civilization you’re looking to know about,” Berger said.

To Sharon, “this is like a letter from the past starting to suggest what was the world of culture and symbolism beyond just building and erecting very large stones.”