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7. marec 2014 46. dan šestega leta - zgodovina

7. marec 2014 46. dan šestega leta - zgodovina


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10.00 PREDSEDNIK prejme predsedniški dnevni sestanek
Ovalna pisarna

11:05 PREDSEDNIK in PRVA DAMA odideta iz Bele hiše na skupno skupno bazo Andrews
Južni travnik

11:20 PREDSEDNIK in PRVA DAMA odideta iz skupne baze Andrews

13:40 PREDSEDNIK in PRVA DAMA prispeta v Homestead na Floridi
Zračna rezervna baza Homestead

14.25 PREDSEDNIK in PRVA DAMA obiščeta učilnico srednje šole Coral Reef
Srednja šola Coral Reef, Miami, Florida

14.40 PREDSEDNIK poda pripombe
Srednja šola Coral Reef, Miami, Florida


Zgodovinski dogodki 7. januarja

Dogodek v Obresti

1618 Francis Bacon postane lord kancler Anglije

    Nemčija in Transilvanija podpisali Nikolsburški požar po močnem neurju, ki je uničilo dve tretjini Nizozemske De Rijp, umrla 1 oseba

Dogodek v Obresti

1698 Ruski car Peter Veliki odhaja z Nizozemske v Anglijo

    Pisalni stroj, ki ga je patentiral Anglež Henry Mill (zgrajen leta kasneje) 1. ameriška poslovna banka Bank of North America, se odpre v Philadelphiji 1. ameriška semenarska družba, ki jo je ustanovil David Landreth, Philadelphia

Dogodek v Obresti

1842 kantata Gioachina Rossinija & "Stabat Mater & quot" premiera v Parizu

Dogodek v Obresti

1862 Romneyjeva kampanja: Stonewall Jacksonov pohod proti Romneyju, WV

    Arkansasova ustavna konvencija se sestane v Little Rocku. Ustavna konvencija se sreča v Jacksonu. Afroameriški izumitelj William Purvis prejme patent za nalivno pero Eksplozija mine ubije 100 ljudi v Krebsu, črnci iz Oklahome poskušajo pomagati pri reševanju belih preživelih, odpeljanih s pištolami Hermann Sudermanns & quotHeimat & quot premiere v Berlin

Dogodek v Obresti

1894 William K.L. Dickson posname & quotFred Ott's Sneeze & quot; kot film v studiu Black Mariah Thomasa Edisona, West Orange, New Jersey [1]

    Fannie Farmer izdala svojo prvo kuharsko knjigo & quot; The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book & quot; Walter Camp objavila svojo prvo vseameriško nogometno ekipo v Collier's

Glasba Premiera

1903 Premiera opere Vincenta d'Indyja & "Predvajalec & quot" v Bruslju

Dogodek v Obresti

1904 Marconi Co vzpostavlja & quotCQD & quot; kot prvi mednarodni signal radijske stiske

Dogodek v Obresti

    Anglija je z enim prehodom premagala Avstralijo na MCG Stanleyjevem pokalu, Dey's Arena, Ottawa, ON: Ottawa Senators je premagala Galt (ON), 3-1 za 2-0 pobota nizov izzivov nizozemske taborniške organizacije, ustanovljene v Amsterdamu William M Burton patenti postopek za & quotcrack & quot petrolej prve svetovne vojne: nemški Kaiser Wilhelm odobrava strateško bombardiranje Velike Britanije, vendar prepoveduje bombardiranje Londona, ker se boji, da bi ubili njegove sorodnike v kraljevi družini

Dogodek v Obresti

1916 Nemčija je na pritisk predsednika Woodrowa Wilsona obvestila State Department, da bo spoštovala stroga mednarodna pravila o pomorskem bojevanju

    Ustanovljen je Južnoafriški sindikat industrijskih in komercialnih delavcev, ki ga vodi Clements Kadalie, uporniki črnogorskih gverilcev, ki pa ne preprečujejo srbske aneksije Črne gore Pet ustrezno izvoljenih socialističnih poslancev zavrača skupščina države New York

Anglo-irska pogodba

1922 Anglo-irsko pogodbo s 64 do 57 glasovi ratificira Dail Eireann

    Baltimore Sun opozarja na Ku Klux Klan Musical & quotBig Boy & quot z Al Jolsonom, premiere v New Yorku Komercialna čezatlantska telefonska storitev, odprta med New Yorkom in Londonom Harlem Globetrotters igra svojo prvo igro v Hinckleyju v Illinoisu & quotBuck Rogers & quot & quot quat strip & quot; eden izmed prvih pustolovskih stripov se pojavi 1.

Dogodek v Obresti

1929 Hrvaško nacionalistično gibanje, ustaša, ki ga je ustanovil Ante Pavelić v izgnanstvu v Italiji

    Francoski izumitelj Robert Bureau je izstrelil prvo radijsko sondo - telemetrični inštrument z baterijskim pogonom, ki je bil prenesen v ozračje za merjenje različnih parametrov in njihovo radijsko oddajanje na zemeljski sprejemnik

Sporazum z Obresti

1935 Francosko-italijanski sporazum sta podpisala francoski zunanji minister Pierre Laval in Benito Mussolini

    Teniška prvakinja Helen Moody & amp; Howard Kinsley odbojka 2.001-krat (1h18m) Vodja sindikata delavcev ZDA Tom Mooney osvobojen (zaprt od leta 1916) Zimska vojna: Finska 9. divizija premaga sovjetske sile na cesti Raate-Suomussalmi, čeprav je znatno večja

Dogodek v Obresti

1941 Kitajske sile Kuomintanga po ukazu Chiang Kai-sheka so odprle ogenj na obkoljeno komunistično novo četrto armado pri Maolinu v provinci Anhui in ubile ali ujele 7000 vojakov

Dogodek v Obresti

1945 Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) poroča o popolni zmagi Nemcev v Ardenih

    Zadnji površinski angažma med zavezniki in Japonci v pacifiški kampanji, druga svetovna vojna Kambodža postane avtonomna država znotraj Francoske zveze Avstralija proti Angliji na MCG, izžrebani v 6 dneh, prvi žreb kriketa v Avstraliji od leta 1882

Dogodek v Obresti

1948 Ameriški predsednik Harry Truman zvišuje davke za Marshallov načrt

Dogodek v Obresti

1955 Marian Anderson postane prvi Afroamerikanec, ki nastopa z newyorško Metropolitansko opero

Boksarski naslov Boj

1955 20-letni bodoči svetovni boksarski prvak v težki kategoriji Floyd Patterson je v newyorškem Madison Square Gardnu ​​dosegel 5. krog TKO Willieja Troya v tekmi brez naslova v srednji kategoriji

    Vinoo Mankad je dosegel 231 točk v Novi Zelandiji, 413 na otvoritveni stojnici z alžirskim militentom Royom in pripadnico fronte narodnoosvobodilne fronte Djamilo Bouhired v kavarni v Alžiru sproži bombo, pri čemer je ubil 11 civilistov, kar je pospešilo bitko pri Alžiru Gibson je izdal ameriški patent za letečo kitaro Zmanjšanje vojske ZSSR do 300.000

Dogodek v Obresti

1959 ZDA priznajo kubansko vlado Fidela Castra

Dogodek v Obresti

1959 Ameriški gangster Meyer Lansky pobegne s Kube na Bahame zaradi kubanske revolucije in vzpona Fidela Castra

    Raketa Polaris je preizkušena 1. NFL Playoff Bowl (drugoplasirana posoda)-Detroit premaga Cleveland 17-16 Trucial States (zdaj ZAE) izdajo svoje prve poštne znamke 1. AFL All Star Game, stadion Balboa, SD: Western Division premaga Eastern Division, 47-27 MVP Cotton Davidson, Dallas Texans, QB

Atentat Poskus

1962 Poskus atentata na indonezijskega predsednika Sukarna ni uspel

    Bollingenova nagrada za poezijo, ki jo je prejel John Hall Wheelock, je poštnino prvega razreda dvignila s 4 centov na 5 centov

Dogodek v Obresti

1963 Razdor med lastnikom Cleveland Brownsa Art Modell in glavnim trenerjem Paulom Brownom doseže vrelišče, Brown pa je odpuščen

    Bahami postajajo samoupravni Dick Weber je zvišal najvišjo kegljaško igro v zraku (Boeing 707) Francija napoveduje, da bo 150 milijonov dolarjev svoje valute pretvorila v zlato.

Dogodek v Obresti

1966 Gene Kiniski premaga Lou Thesza v St Louisu in postane prvak v rokoborbi NWA

    Premierna predstavitev kviza & quotGE College Bowl na NBC TV Poštnina 1. razreda v ZDA se je zvišala s 5 centov na 6 centov. Surveyor 7, zadnje vesoljsko plovilo v seriji Surveyor, dvigne plačo predsednika ameriškega kongresa za dvojnike

Glasbeni in umetniški sejem Woodstock

1970 Kmetje tožijo Max Yasgurja za 35.000 USD odškodnine, ki jo je povzročil & quotWoodstock & quot

    -40 ° F (-40 ° C) v jezeru Hawley v Arizoni (državni rekord) Letalo Iberian Airlines se je zrušilo na 800ft vrh na otoku Ibiza, 104 die Los Angeles Lakers so premagala Atlanta Hawks, 134-90 za 33. zaporedno zmago , najdaljši zmagoviti niz v večjih profesionalnih športih Lewis F. Powell Jr. postane sodnik vrhovnega sodišča ZDA William Hubbs Rehnquist je prisegel kot sodnik vrhovnega sodišča ZDA

Dogodek v Obresti

1980 Ameriški predsednik Jimmy Carter dovoljuje zakonodajo za reševanje korporacije Chrysler s posojilom v višini 1,5 milijarde dolarjev

NHL Zapis

Deseti hat -trick v karieri Bryana Trottierja iz leta 1982

Dogodek v Obresti

1983 Predsednik Reagan je odpravil embargo ZDA na orožje proti Gvatemali

    Brunej postane šesti član Združenja držav jugovzhodne Azije (ASEAN). & quotKing & amp I & quot se odpre v gledališču Broadway v New Yorku za 191 predstav Japonska vesoljska sonda Sakigake, ki je bila izstreljena na Halleyjev komet KHQ-AM v Spokanu WA spremeni klicna pisma v KLSN (zdaj KAQQ) Lou Brock & amp Hoyt Wilhelm sta izvoljena v Baseball's Hall of Fame Nizozemske Bank 250 gulden ugotavlja, da je misija STS 61 -C zaradi vremenskih težav odpravljena na T -9 m. Ameriški predsednik Reagan napoveduje gospodarske sankcije proti Libiji Francoska letala nadlegujejo libijske položaje v Duadi Doumu

Dogodek v Obresti

1987 Kapil Dev opravi svojo 300. preizkusno vrata, najmlajšo pri 28 letih

Dogodek v Obresti

1989 Akihito postane 125. cesar Japonske po smrti svojega očeta Horohita

    Mednarodna konferenca o omejevanju kemičnega orožja se odpre v Parizu Najdaljši niz zmagovitih zmagovalcev lige Cleveland Cavaliers (11) Cleve Cavs blokira 21 strelov iz New Yorka, ki povezujejo rekord v tekmi lige NBA Lynn Jennings teče svetovni rekord v zaprtih prostorih na 5 km v zaprtih prostorih ob 15: 22.64 Pisaški stolp, zaprt za javnost potem ko se je predaleč nagnil & quotNia Peeples Party Machine & quot; premierno se je predstavil na televiziji

Dogodek v Obresti

1991 Sadam Hussein pripravlja svoje čete na dolgotrajno nasilno vojno proti ZDA

Dogodek v Obresti

1992 Zadnji dan preizkusnega kriketa za Imrana Khana

Dvorana Slava

1992 Tom Seaver in Rollie Fingers izvoljen v Baseball's Hall of Fame

    Četrta republika Gana je bila ustanovljena z Jerryjem Rawlingsom kot predsednikom. Bosanska vojna: Bosanska vojska je začela presenetljiv napad na Kravico, vas v Srebrenici Južnoafriška republika je za 5 tekov premagala Avstralijo na preizkusu v Sydneyju

Dogodek v Obresti

Leta 1994 je žensko prvenstvo v umetnem drsanju za ZDA osvojila Tonya Harding

    Prihodno letalo United Express se je v Ohiu strmoglavilo in ubilo 5 teniških tekem Hopmanovega pokala, Perth: Petr Korda je premagal Nemca Bernda Karbacherja s 6: 3, 6: 3 za neizpodbitno vodstvo 2: 0 (konča z 2: 1) in prvi naslov Češke republike & quot Božič Carol & quot se po 18 predstavah zapre v gledališču Richarda Rodgers Theatre & quotPassion & quot se zapre po 280 predstavah v gledališču Plymouth

Dogodek v Obresti

1995 Hopman Cup Tennis, Perth: Boris Becker je premagal Ukrajinca Andreja Medvedeva s 6-3, 6-7, 6-3 za zmago z 2: 0 in drugi naslov Nemčije

    Larry Brown je objavil svojo 500. zmago v karieri v ligi NBA, potem ko je Indiana Pacers na cesti zmagal 88-83 na Houston Rockets & quotCrazy after You & quot, ki se je zaprl v gledališču Shubert NYC po 1622 predstavah & "Fool Moon" se je zaprl v Ambassador Theatre NYC po * predstavah 16. sklad Združenega črnskega kolidža zbere 12.600.000 $

Volitve zanimiv

1997 Newt Gingrich je ozko ponovno izvoljen za predsednika predstavniškega doma ZDA

Dogodek v Obresti

1998 Nekdanja pripravnica Bele hiše Monica Lewinsky podpiše izjavo, v kateri zanika, da je imela afero s predsednikom Billom Clintonom

Dogodek v Obresti

1998 Shaquille O'Neal, center Los Angeles Lakersa, je v zmagi nad Milwaukeejem s 114: 102 blokiral 3 strele in tako dosegel 1.002 kariere.

Proces obtožbe Bill Clinton

Leta 1999 se je v ameriškem senatu začelo sojenje predsedniku Bill Clintonu o obtožbi zaradi laži o aferi z Monico Lewinsky

    Svet guvernerjev NBA soglasno ratificira novo šestletno kolektivno pogodbo med ligo in nacionalnim združenjem košarkarjev Nekdanji minister britanskega kabineta Jonathan Aitken je bil izpuščen iz zapora po 9 mesecih 18-mesečne kazni

Film in TV Nagrade

2001 27. nagrada People's Choice Awards: Mel Gibson & amp Julia Roberts zmagata (Dramski film) in Drew Carey & amp Jennifer Aniston (TV)

    & quotIn Da Club & quot singel izide pri založbi 50 Cent (MTV Video Music Award Best Rap Video and Best New Artist 2003, Billboard Song of the Year 2003)

Dogodek v Obresti

2007 Phil Jackson zmaga na 900. tekmi kot glavni trener in s tem postane najhitrejši trener, ki je dosegel 900 zmag v karieri

    Danska televizijska drama & quot; The Killing & quot, ki jo je ustvaril Søren Sveistrup in v kateri igra Sofie Gråbøl, se je premierno predstavila na nagradi DR1 13th Critics 'Choice Movie Awards: No Country for Old Men zmaga za najboljši film

Film in TV Nagrade

Film Sprostitev

2011 & quot; Kraljevski govor & quot, v katerem igrajo Colin Firth, Geoffrey Rush in Helena Bonham Carter, izide v Združenem kraljestvu

    Balon z vročim zrakom se je zrušil v Cartertonu na Novi Zelandiji, ubil je 11 teniških tekem Hopmanovega pokala, Perth: Tomáš Berdych je premagal Francoza Richarda Gasqueta s 7-6, 6-4 za nesporno vodstvo 2-0 za 2. naslov Češke

Nogomet Nagrade

Zlata žoga FIFA 2013: Napadalec Barcelone Lionel Messi je osvojil nagrado za rekordno 4. leto zapored Ameriška nogometašica Abby Wambach je osvojila žensko nagrado

Dogodek v Obresti

2015 Teroristični napad na pisarne satiričnega časopisa "Charlie Hebdo" v Parizu ubil 12 (vključno z Jean Cabut in Stéphane Charbonnier), poškodoval 11

Film in TV Nagrade

2015 41. nagrada People's Choice Awards: zmagata Robert Downey & amp; Jennifer Lawrence (filmska zvezda), Patrick Dempsey, Ellen Pomero (TV -drama)

    V Sani, glavnem mestu Jemna, je eksplodirala avtomobilska bomba, pri čemer je umrlo 38 ljudi, več kot 63 pa je bilo poškodovanih v tenisu Hopman Cup, Perth: francoski par Kristina Mladenovic in amp Richard Gasquet je s 4-1, 4-3 premagal Američane Coco Vandeweghe & amp Jacka Socka klinč 2-1 osvojil 2. naslov Francije

Zlati globusi

2018 75. zlati globus: & quotLadybird & quot, & quotThe Handmaid's Tale & quot, Elisabeth Moss, Sterling K. Brown med nagrajenci, Oprah Winfrey sprejme nagrado Lifetime z močnim govorom


Vsebina

Najzgodnejši praznik dneva žena, imenovan "nacionalni dan žena" [13], je potekal 28. februarja 1909 v New Yorku v organizaciji Socialistične partije Amerike [14] na predlog aktivistke Theresa Malkiel. [15] Obstajajo trditve, da je bil dan v spomin na protest delavk oblačil v New Yorku 8. marca 1857, vendar so raziskovalci trdili, da je to mit, katerega namen je ločiti Mednarodni dan žena od njegovega socialističnega izvora. [16] [17] [18]

Avgusta 1910 je bila pred skupščino Druge socialistične internacionale v Københavnu na Danskem organizirana Mednarodna konferenca socialističnih žensk. [19] Delno navdih ameriških socialistov so nemški delegati Clara Zetkin, Käte Duncker, Paula Thiede in drugi predlagali ustanovitev letnega "dneva žena", čeprav datum ni bil določen. [7] [16] [20] 100 delegatov, ki predstavljajo 17 držav, se je strinjalo z idejo kot strategijo za spodbujanje enakih pravic, vključno z volilno pravico žensk. [21]

Naslednje leto, 19. marca 1911, je prvi mednarodni dan žena (IWD) zaznamovalo več kot milijon ljudi v Avstriji, na Danskem, v Nemčiji in Švici. [14] Samo v Avstro-Ogrski je bilo 300 demonstracij, [16] z ženskami, ki so paradirale po Ringstrasse na Dunaju in nosile transparente v čast mučenikom pariške komune. [16] Po vsej Evropi so ženske zahtevale volilno pravico in opravljanje javnih funkcij ter protestirale proti spolni diskriminaciji pri zaposlovanju. [3]

IWD sprva ni imel določenega datuma, čeprav so ga na splošno praznovali konec februarja ali v začetku marca. Američani so zadnjo nedeljo v februarju še naprej praznovali "nacionalni dan žena", medtem ko je Rusija prvič mednarodni dan žena praznovala leta 1913, zadnjo soboto v februarju (čeprav po julijanskem koledarju, tako kot v gregorijanskem koledarju, datum je bil 8. marec). [22] Leta 1914 je bil 8. marca prvič v Nemčiji mednarodni dan žensk, verjetno zato, ker je bil ta datum nedelja. [22] Kot drugje je bilo nemško spoštovanje namenjeno volilni pravici žensk, ki so jo Nemke osvojile šele leta 1918. [22] [23] Hkrati je v Londonu potekal pohod v podporo volilni pravici, med katerim je bila Sylvia Pankhurst aretirana pred postajo Charing Cross na poti za govor na Trafalgar Square. [24]

Posvojitev s strani socialističnih in komunističnih gibanj Uredi

8. marca 1917 so v Petrogradu ženske tekstilne delavke začele demonstracije, ki so sčasoma zajele celo mesto in zahtevale "Kruh in mir" - konec prve svetovne vojne, pomanjkanje hrane in carizem. [22] To je pomenilo začetek februarske revolucije, ki je skupaj z oktobrsko revolucijo sestavljala rusko revolucijo. [3] [25] Revolucionarni vodja Leon Trotsky je zapisal: "23. februar (8. marec) je bil mednarodni dan žena in predvidena so bila srečanja in dejanja. Vendar si nismo predstavljali, da bo ta" dan žensk "odprl revolucijo. Predvidena so bila revolucionarna dejanja vendar brez datuma. Toda zjutraj, kljub nasprotnim ukazom, so tekstilni delavci zapustili svoje delo v več tovarnah in poslali delegate, da prosijo za podporo stavke ... kar je privedlo do množične stavke. vsi so šli na ulice. " [22] Sedem dni kasneje je car Nikolaj II abdiciral in začasna vlada je ženskam podelila volilno pravico. [14]

Leta 1917, po oktobrski revoluciji, sta boljševika Alexandra Kollontai in Vladimir Lenin IWD uradno praznovala v Sovjetski zvezi. [26] 8. maja 1965 je predsedstvo vrhovnega sovjeta ZSSR Mednarodni dan žena razglasilo za neradni dan v ZSSR, "v spomin na izjemne zasluge sovjetskih žensk v komunistični gradnji, v obrambi svoje domovine med Veliko domovinsko vojno, v svojem junaštvu in nesebičnosti na fronti in v zadnjem delu ter označuje tudi velik prispevek žensk k krepitvi prijateljstva med ljudmi in boju za mir. Kljub temu je treba dan žena praznovati tako kot druge praznike . " [ potreben citat ]

Po uradnem sprejetju v Sovjetski Rusiji so IWD večinoma praznovali v komunističnih državah in v komunističnem gibanju po vsem svetu. Komunistična voditeljica Dolores Ibárruri je vodila ženski pohod v Madridu leta 1936 na predvečer španske državljanske vojne. [16] Kitajski komunisti so praznik opazovali od leta 1922 [16], čeprav se je kmalu uveljavil v celotnem političnem spektru: leta 1927 je Guangzhou videl pohod 25.000 žensk in moških podpornikov, vključno s predstavniki Kuomintanga, YWCA in delavcev. organizacije. [27] Po ustanovitvi Ljudske republike Kitajske 1. oktobra 1949 je državni svet 23. decembra razglasil, da bo 8. marec uradni praznik, pri čemer bodo ženske imele poldnevni dopust. [28]

Posvojitev Združenih narodov Edit

IWD je ostal pretežno komunistični praznik do približno leta 1967, ko so ga prevzele feministke drugega vala. [16] Ta dan se je ponovno pojavil kot dan aktivizma in je v Evropi včasih znan tudi kot "mednarodni dan boja žensk". V sedemdesetih in osemdesetih letih so se ženskim skupinam pridružile levičarke in delavske organizacije, ki so pozivale k enakemu plačilu, enakim ekonomskim možnostim, enakim zakonskim pravicam, reproduktivnim pravicam, subvencioniranemu varstvu otrok in preprečevanju nasilja nad ženskami. [29] [30]

Združeni narodi so leta 1975 začeli praznovati mednarodni dan žena, ki je bilo razglašeno za mednarodno leto žensk. Leta 1977 je Generalna skupščina Združenih narodov države članice povabila, naj 8. marec razglasijo za uradni praznik ZN za pravice žensk in svetovni mir. [31] OZN in velik del sveta ga odtlej vsako leto obeležujejo, pri čemer se vsako leto osredotoča na določeno temo ali vprašanje v okviru pravic žensk.

Mednarodni dan žena je sprožil nasilje v Teheranu v Iranu 4. marca 2007, ko je policija premagala na stotine moških in žensk, ki so načrtovali shod. (Prejšnji shod je bil ob tej priložnosti v Teheranu leta 2003.) [32] Policija je aretirala na desetine žensk, nekatere pa so izpustili po večdnevni samici in zaslišanju. [33] Shadi Sadr, Mahbubeh Abbasgholizadeh in več drugih aktivistov skupnosti so bili 19. marca 2007 izpuščeni, s čimer so prekinili petnajstdnevno gladovno stavko. [34]

Sprejetje s strani korporacij Uredi

Do enaindvajsetega stoletja so IWD kritizirali kot močno razredčeno in komercializirano, zlasti na Zahodu, kjer jo sponzorirajo velike korporacije in se uporablja za spodbujanje splošnih in nejasnih pojmov enakosti, ne pa za radikalne družbene reforme. [35] Spletno mesto @ dot.com @ je bilo ustanovljeno leta 2001 in določa letno temo in oznake, ki niso povezane s projektom ZN. [36] Leta 2009 je spletno mesto upravljalo britansko marketinško podjetje Aurora Ventures s korporativnim sponzorstvom. [37] [38] Spletno mesto je začelo promovirati hashtagove kot teme dneva, ki so se začele uporabljati po vsem svetu. [39] Dan so obeležili poslovni zajtrki in komunikacija v družabnih medijih, za katere so nekateri družbeni kritiki menili, da spominjajo na voščila ob materinskem dnevu. [35] [29]

IWD 2010 Edit

Mednarodni dan Rdečega križa (ICRC) je ob mednarodnem dnevu žena 2010 opozoril na stiske, s katerimi se soočajo razseljene ženske. Razseljevanje prebivalstva je ena najhujših posledic današnjih oboroženih spopadov. Na ženske vpliva na različne načine. [40]

IWD 2011 Edit

Čeprav je bilo praznovanje na zahodu skromno, so se 8. marca 2011 v več kot 100 državah [10] zgodili dogodki v počastitev 100. obletnice mednarodnega dneva žena. [41] V Združenih državah je predsednik Barack Obama razglasil marec 2011 za "mesec zgodovine žensk", pri čemer je Američane pozval, naj označijo IWD z razmišljanjem o "izjemnih dosežkih žensk" pri oblikovanju zgodovine države. [10] Državna sekretarka Hillary Clinton je na predvečer IWD začela pobudo "100 žensk: opolnomočenje žensk in deklet z mednarodnimi izmenjavami". [42] Rdeči križ je pred mednarodnim dnevom žena 2011 pozval države in druge subjekte, naj ne popuščajo v svojih prizadevanjih za preprečevanje posilstev in drugih oblik spolnega nasilja, ki škodijo življenju in dostojanstvu neštetih žensk na območjih spopadov po vsem svetu vsako leto. [43]

Avstralija je izdala spominski kovanec za 20 centov za 100. obletnico IWD. [44]

V Egiptu, na trgu Tahrir v Kairu, je na stotine moških prišlo ne v podporo, ampak v nadlegovanje žensk, ki so prišle zagovarjati svoje pravice, medtem ko sta policija in vojska gledala, ne da bi naredila nič, da bi ustavila množico moških. [45]

IWD 2012 Edit

Oxfam America je ljudi povabil, naj praznujejo navdihujoče ženske v svojem življenju, tako da pošljejo brezplačno e-voščilnico za mednarodni dan žena ali počastijo žensko, katere prizadevanja so v boju proti lakoti in revščini spremenila nagrado Oxfam za mednarodni dan žena. [46]

MKCK je ob mednarodnem dnevu žena 2012 pozval k več ukrepom za pomoč materam in ženam ljudi, ki so izginili med oboroženim spopadom. Velika večina ljudi, ki izginejo zaradi konflikta, so moški. Poleg trpljenja, da ne vedo, kaj se je zgodilo z pogrešanim možem ali sinom, se mnoge od teh žensk soočajo z ekonomskimi in praktičnimi težavami. MKCK je poudarilo dolžnost strank tega spora, da iščejo pogrešane in družinam posredujejo informacije. [47]

IWD 2013 Edit

Mednarodni odbor Rdečega križa (ICRC) je opozoril na stisko žensk v zaporu. [48]

Tema mednarodnega dneva žena 2013 je bila "Obljuba je obljuba: čas za ukrepanje za odpravo nasilja nad ženskami." [49]

Poročali so, da 70% žensk po vsem svetu v svojem življenju doživlja kakšno fizično in/ali spolno nasilje. Irina Bovoka, generalna direktorica Unesca na mednarodni dan žena 2013, je dejala, da moramo "za opolnomočenje žensk in zagotovitev enakosti vsakič, ko se pojavi, izzvati vsako obliko nasilja". [50] Zaradi naraščajočega nasilja nad ženskami in po brutalnem napadu na Malalo Yousafzai oktobra 2012 so ZN osredotočili svojo pozornost na odpravo nasilja nad ženskami in to postalo osrednja tema mednarodnega dneva žena 2013. UNESCO je priznal, da je nasilje proti mladim dekletom je bil eden glavnih razlogov, da dekleta ne obiskujejo šole, nato pa je sodelovalo z vladami po vsem svetu pri podpori pravic žensk pri zagotavljanju kakovostnega izobraževanja v varnem okolju. [51]

Za bolj kulturno in umetniško praznovanje je Unesco organiziral tudi koncert v Parizu kot "Poklon ženskam v glasbi: od romantike do elektronike". [52]

IWD 2014 Edit

Ameriška pevka Beyoncé je na svoj račun v YouTubu objavila tudi video posnetek mednarodnega dneva žena. Skozi celoten videoposnetek igra njena pesem "Flawless", ki vključuje del govora avtorice Chimamande Ngozi Adichie "We Should We Be Feministists". [53]

IWD 2015 Edit

Vlade in aktivisti po vsem svetu so se spominjali 20. obletnice pekinške deklaracije in platforme za ukrepanje, zgodovinskega načrta, ki je določil agendo za uresničevanje pravic žensk. [54]

IWD 2016 Edit

Indijski predsednik Shri Pranab Mukherjee je dejal: "Ob mednarodnem dnevu žena izrekam srčne pozdrave in dobre želje indijskim ženskam in se jim zahvaljujem za njihov prispevek v letih izgradnje našega naroda." [55] Ministrstvo za razvoj žensk in otrok je 8. marca poleg osmih, ki že delujejo po vsej državi, napovedalo ustanovitev še štirih kriznih centrov na enem mestu. [56] Pred dnevom žena je nacionalni prevoznik Air India v okviru praznovanj Mednarodnega dneva žena opravljal najdaljši neprekinjen let na svetu, kjer so celotno letenje opravljale ženske. Let od Delhija do San Francisca je v približno 17 urah prevozil razdaljo okoli 14.500 kilometrov. [57]

IWD 2017 Edit

Generalni sekretar ZN António Guterres je v sporočilu v podporo mednarodnemu dnevu žensk komentiral, kako se pravice žensk "zmanjšujejo, omejujejo in spreminjajo". Ker so moški še vedno na vodilnih položajih in se povečuje gospodarska vrzel med spoloma, je pozval k spremembi "z opolnomočenjem žensk na vseh ravneh, omogočanjem njihovega glasu, da jim prisluhnejo, in jim dajejo nadzor nad lastnim življenjem in nad prihodnostjo našega sveta". [58]

IWD 2018 Edit

Tema ZN za mednarodni dan žena je bila: "Čas je zdaj: podeželske in mestne aktivistke spreminjajo življenje žensk".

Globalni pohodi in spletne kampanje, kot sta #MeToo in #TimesUp, ki izvirajo iz Združenih držav Amerike, a so postale priljubljene po vsem svetu, so mnogim ženskam iz različnih delov sveta omogočile, da se soočijo s krivicami in spregovorijo o vprašanjih, kot so spolno nadlegovanje in napad ter spol plačilna razlika. [59]

Urejanje IWD 2019

Tema ZN za mednarodni dan žensk je bila: "Misli enako, gradi pametno, inoviraj za spremembe". Tema se je osredotočila na inovativne načine za spodbujanje enakosti spolov in krepitev vloge žensk, zlasti na področju sistemov socialne zaščite, dostopa do javnih storitev in trajnostne infrastrukture. [60]

Zvezna zveza Berlin je prvič obeležila mednarodni dan žena kot državni praznik.

IWD 2020 Edit

Tema ZN za mednarodni dan žensk je bila: "Jaz sem generacijska enakost": Uresničevanje ženskih pravic ". [61] Kljub pandemiji COVID-19 so se ulični pohodi zgodili v Londonu, Parizu, Madridu, Bruslju, Moskvi in ​​drugih evropskih mestih. [62] [63] [64] [65] Pohod Auratov v Islamabadu so po neuspelem poskusu prepovedali kot neislamskega pokvarili napadi metalcev kamenja. V Biškeku, glavnem mestu Kirgizistana, je policija pridržala več deset udeležencev kmalu po tem, ko naj bi maskirani napadli pohod. [62]

Wikispore ima sorodno stran: Dogodek: Mednarodni dan žena 2020

IWD 2021 Edit

Tema ZN leta 2021 za Mednarodni dan žena je "Ženske na vodstvu: doseganje enake prihodnosti v svetu COVID-19", ki poudarja vpliv, ki so ga imela dekleta in ženske po vsem svetu kot zdravstveni delavci, negovalci, inovatorji in organizatorji skupnosti v času COVID- 19 pandemija. [66] Letošnja tema je: #ChooseToChallenge.

Wikispore ima sorodno stran: Dogodek: Mednarodni dan žena 2021

IWD je uradni praznik v več državah po svetu, vključno z Afganistanom, [67] Angolo, Armenijo, [68] Azerbajdžanom, [69] [70] Belorusijo, [71] Burkino Faso, [72] Kambodžo, [73] Kitajsko (za samo ženske), [74] Kuba, [75] Gruzija, [76] Nemčija (samo Berlin), [77] Gvineja Bissau, Eritreja, Kazahstan, [78] Kirgizistan, [79] Laos, [80] Madagaskar (za samo ženske), [81] Moldavija, [82] Mongolija, [83] Črna gora, Nepal, Rusija, Tadžikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukrajina, [84] Uzbekistan, [85] in Zambija. [86]

V nekaterih državah, kot so Avstralija, [87] Kamerun, [88] Hrvaška, [89] Romunija, [90] Bosna in Hercegovina, [91] Bolgarija, [92] Vietnam, [93] in Čile [94] IWD je ni uradni praznik, vendar se kljub temu pogosto praznuje.

Ne glede na pravni status je v večini sveta običajno, da moški kolegom in ljubljenim podarjajo rože in majhna darila. V nekaterih državah (na primer v Bolgariji in Romuniji) ga obravnavajo tudi kot ekvivalent materinskega dne, ko otroci tudi materam in babicam podarijo majhna darila. [90] V Češkoslovaški socialistični republiki so vsako leto potekala velika praznovanja v sovjetskem slogu. Po padcu komunizma je praznik, ki je na splošno veljal za enega glavnih simbolov starega režima, padel v negotovost. Češki parlament je leta 2004 [95] na predlog socialdemokratov in komunistov ponovno ustanovil mednarodni dan žensk kot uradni "pomemben dan". To je sprožilo nekaj polemik, saj velik del javnosti kot tudi politična desnica praznik vidi kot relikvijo komunistične preteklosti države. [95]

IWD v Franciji pogosto slovijo kot Journée internationale des femmes. V Italiji praznik praznujejo moški, ki ženskam dajejo rumene mimoze. [96] [97] To izvira iz komunistične politikke Terese Mattei, ki je leta 1946 izbrala mimozo za simbol IWD, ker so bili prevladujoči simboli dneva, vijolice in šmarnice, premalo in dragi, da bi bili učinkovito uporablja v Italiji. [98]

Igralka in aktivistka za človekove pravice Beata Pozniak je v Združenih državah sodelovala z županom Los Angelesa in guvernerjem Kalifornije pri lobiranju članov ameriškega kongresa, da bi predlagali uradno priznanje praznika. Februarja 1994 je na predlog Beate Pozniak H. J. Res. 316 je predstavnica Maxine Waters skupaj s 79 sponzorji predstavila 8. marec istega leta kot mednarodni dan žensk. Na predlog zakona se je nato skliceval in je ostal v hišnem odboru za pošto in državno službo. O tem zakonu ni glasoval niti en dom kongresa. [99] V Pakistanu je marec Aurat izpodbijal mizoginijo od leta 2018. [100]


Vsebina

Apple je prvotno izdajo iTunes zasnoval na SoundJam MP, programu, ki ga je razvil Bill Kincaid in ga je izdal Casady & amp Greene leta 1999. [1] Apple je program kupil pri Casady & amp Greene leta 2000. V času nakupa sta Kincaid, Jeff Robbin in Dave Heller sta zapustila Casady & amp Greene in nadaljevala razvoj programa kot zaposleni pri Appleu. Pri Applu so razvijalci poenostavili uporabniški vmesnik SoundJam, dodali možnost zapisovanja CD -jev in odstranili snemalno funkcijo programa in podporo za kožo. [2]

Apple je 9. januarja 2001 v Macworldu v San Franciscu izdal različico 1.0 programa pod novim imenom "iTunes". Uporabniki Macintosha so takoj začeli prebirati po vilicah virov iTunes, kjer so odkrili številne strune in druge vire, ki kažejo, da je iTunes preoblikovan poslanec Sound Jam. Casady & amp Greene je 1. junija 2001 na zahtevo razvijalcev prenehal distribuirati SoundJam MP. [3]

Prvotno aplikacija samo za Mac OS 9 je iTunes začela podpirati Mac OS X z izdajo različice 1.1 marca 2001. Izdaja 2.0 je dodala podporo za takrat novi iPod. [4] Različica 3 je opustila podporo za Mac OS 9, vendar je dodala pametne sezname predvajanja in sistem ocenjevanja. [5] Aprila 2003 je različica 4.0 oktobra predstavila iTunes Store, različica 4.1 je dodala podporo za Microsoft Windows 2000 in Windows XP. [6] Različica 4.7.1, predstavljena na Macworldu 2005 z novim iPod Shuffleom, je uvedla možnost samodejnega pretvorjenja pesmi z višjo bitno hitrostjo v 128kbit/s AAC, saj te naprave izvorno niso podpirale zvoka, kodiranega v formatih AIFF ali Apple Lossless. izboljšanje ponudbe vrednosti omejenega shrambnega prostora samo za naključno shranjevanje. [7] Version 7.0 introduced gapless playback and Cover Flow in September 2006. [8] In March 2007, iTunes 7.1 added support for Windows Vista, [9] and 7.3.2 was the last Windows 2000 version. [10]

iTunes lacked support for 64-bit versions of Windows until the 7.6 update on January 16, 2008. iTunes is currently supported under any 64-bit version of Windows, although the iTunes executable was still 32-bit until version 12.1. The 64-bit versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 are not supported by Apple, but a workaround has been devised for both operating systems. [11] Version 8.0 added Genius playlists, grid view, and a new default visualizer. [12]

iTunes 9 added "Home Share" enabling automatic updating of purchased items across other computers on the same subnet and offers a new iTunes Store UI . Genius Mixes were added, as well as improved App synchronization abilities, extending the iPod Shuffle 128 kbit/s down-convert feature to all of Apple's AAC-capable devices. [13] It also adds iTunes LPs to the store, which gives additional media with an album. Apple added iTunes Extras as well to the store, which adds content usually reserved for films on DVD and Blu-ray discs. [14] Both iTunes LPs and Extras use web-standards HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. [15]

On September 1, 2010, Apple held their annual music press event where they unveiled an updated version: iTunes 10. The new version was available for download later that day. One major feature includes the integration of "iTunes Ping", which brings a social factor to the iTunes experience. Apple CEO Steve Jobs also announced a new logo, one without a CD in the background because of the increasing popularity of iTunes digital downloads.

In October 2012, Apple announced the launch of the iPhone 5 and iPad Mini, the refresh of the iPod and Mac lines, and the upcoming release of iTunes 11. Slated for release by the end of October, the launch was pushed back to November 29, 2012. This version included tighter integration with iCloud, and a new user interface. Users' libraries now include all media they have stored in their iCloud account, along with any media unique to the device they are using. Media files stored in the cloud don't need to be downloaded before playing, allowing a larger collection to be accessible without increased disk usage. The new user interface includes a refreshed grid view, which replaces Cover Flow as the default layout method. With this change, Cover Flow is no longer available within the application. With the release of this software, the iTunes Store was redesigned to remain consistent with the new interface, and the stores available on iOS devices. The social element Ping was also removed and replaced by increased Twitter and Facebook integration. Other minor changes included disabling the sidebar by default, and slightly altering the icon to match that of the Mac App Store better.

On October 16, 2014, Apple released iTunes 12, with a redesigned icon and interface, inspired by OS X Yosemite. With iTunes 12.1 and later, there is a new widget for notification center in OS X Yosemite, which allows the user to see what's playing, skip ahead, and even buy songs from iTunes Radio, right from notification center. It also improves performance when syncing to an iOS device.

iTunes has been credited with accelerating shifts within the music industry. The pricing structure of iTunes encouraged the sale of single songs, allowing users to abandon the purchase of more expensive albums. This hastened the end of the Album Era in popular music.

On April 26, 2018, Apple released iTunes 12 for Windows 10 via the Windows Store. The Universal Windows Platform app retains all features available in the desktop version, but will be updated and available through the Windows Store. [16]

On June 3, 2019, Apple stated that they would no longer include iTunes with future Mac computers. Starting with the operating system macOS Catalina, Apple instead split iTunes into separate apps: Apple Music, Apple TV, and Apple Podcasts. [17] [18] iTunes continues to be available on Windows and on macOS operating systems prior to Catalina. [18] [17] Users can also still install iTunes versions 10, 11, and 12 on macOS Catalina and macOS Big Sur using the Retroactive app. [19]


2014 Holidays

The most common (Federal) holidays of the United States (USA) in 2014 are listed below.

DateHolidayDanDays to go
1. januar 2014Novoletni danWednesday-
January 20, 2014Martin Luther King DayMonday-
January 24, 2014Belly Laugh DayFriday-
February 2, 2014Dan mrmotaNedelja-
February 12, 2014Lincoln's BirthdayWednesday-
February 14, 2014ValentinovoFriday-
February 17, 2014Presidents Day and Washington's BirthdayMonday-
March 4, 2014Mardi Gras Carnival

See more holidays in other years, click on one of the links below or view the 2014 calendar.


January 1 Becomes New Year’s Day

The early Roman calendar consisted of 10 months and 304 days, with each new year beginning at the vernal equinox according to tradition, it was created by Romulus, the founder of Rome, in the eighth century B.C. A later king, Numa Pompilius, is credited with adding the months of Januarius and Februarius. Over the centuries, the calendar fell out of sync with the sun, and in 46 B.C. the emperor Julius Caesar decided to solve the problem by consulting with the most prominent astronomers and mathematicians of his time. He introduced the Julian calendar, which closely resembles the more modern Gregorian calendar that most countries around the world use today.

As part of his reform, Caesar instituted January 1 as the first day of the year, partly to honor the month’s namesake: Janus, the Roman god of beginnings, whose two faces allowed him to look back into the past and forward into the future. Romans celebrated by offering sacrifices to Janus, exchanging gifts with one another, decorating their homes with laurel branches and attending raucous parties. In medieval Europe, Christian leaders temporarily replaced January 1 as the first of the year with days carrying more religious significance, such as December 25 (the anniversary of Jesus’ birth) and March 25 (the Feast of the Annunciation) Pope Gregory XIII reestablished January 1 as New Year’s Day in 1582.


The Birthstone(s) for March is the aquamarine and the bloodstone.

  • 1933 – Barbara Feldon, American actress and model (Get Smart)
  • 1938 – Johnny Rutherford, American auto racer (Won the Indianapolis 500 in 1974, 1976 and 1980)
  • 1946 – Liza Minnelli, American singer and actress
  • 1947 – Mitt Romney, American politician, 70th Governor of Massachusetts
  • 1948 – James Taylor, American singer-songwriter (You've Got a Friend)
  • 1957 – Marlon Jackson, American singer and actor (The Jackson 5)
  • 1962 – Darryl Strawberry, American baseball player
  • 1968 – Aaron Eckhart, American actor (Erin Brockovich, Thank You For Smoking, The Dark Knight)

Bumble Information, Statistics, Facts and History

Bumble with their Beehive logo was launched in December of 2014 by founder Whitney Wolfe Herd. Whitney originally had co-founded Tinder but left after suing Tinder for sexual discrimination which was settled for over $1 million in September 2014. After leaving Tinder Whitney had met with the founder of Badoo, Andrey Andreev and the 2 eventually struck a deal where Andrey would invest $10 million and offer the use of Badoo's infrastructure for a new dating service while receiving a 79% stake, and Whitney would serve as CEO of the service and receive 20% ownership. Since launch Bumble has also started several other services including BFF (mode in Bumble for finding friends - in 2016), The Hive (dating events - in 2017), and Bumble Bizz (business networking - in 2017).

Users are required to use their mobile phone number or Facebook when they login and create an account on the Bumble dating app (iOS and Android). As of 2018 users can also now access the Bumble service from the website. When using Facebook, photos and other information is pulled (with the users permission) to create a basic profile. Bumble is one of the first female friendly dating apps. Bumble displays a profile and the user must either swipe left or right before they can see a new match. Both members must mutually swipe right on each other before a conversation can begin. The main difference with Bumble is that female members must initiate the conversation (males cannot for heterosexual relationships). Males then must continue the conversation within 24 hours or the match disappears.

In 2016 Bumble added a paid subscription service called Bumble Boost which offers enhancements (see who already likes you, rematches, add additional time for matches) over the free service. One time payments for Bumble Coins was also added so users could purchases features like the Super Swipe (shows extra interest in someone).

In 2019 Bumble surpassed 55 million registered members and was #2 on the list of revenue earned on Google Play for all dating brands. Bumble also became part of Magic Lab, a new holding company for dating brands that Andrey Andreev has either founded or is in partnership with their founders.

In a little over a year Bumble surpassed 100 million registered users. In 2020 Magic Labs was also rebranded to Bumble Inc.


March 7, 2014 Day 46 of the Sixth Year - History

The oldest of Iranian traditions, Nowruz (also referred to as eyd-i sar-i sal and eyd-i sal-i now ) recalls the cosmological and mythological times of Iran. Its founder is a deputy of Ahura Mazda on earth, a position that imparts to him and the celebration a spiritual dimension and a particular sense of secular authority. The celebration is organized according to the dynamics of love between the Creator and his creation, the material world. The annual return of the spirits of the departed to their homes is celebrated by their offsprings according to primordial rites of which only a faint trace remains among the Persians and the Parsees of today. But that in no way diminishes the importance of the bond which is refreshed at every Nowruz.

The word " Nowruz " is a compound of two Persian words, " now " which has the same etymology as the English word "new" and means new, and the word " ruz " which means both "day" and "time." Literally meaning the "new day," nowruz is usually translated as "new year." The Persian Nowruz begins on the first day of spring (usually the 21st of March). The 21st of March, therefore, is equal to the 1st day of Farvardin of the Islamic solar calendar.

In the mind of Iranians, the word nowruz invokes colorful images which are sumptuous, elegant, and opulent as well as delightfully simple, refreshing, and cordial. Although colored with vestiges of Iran's Mazdian and Zoroastrian past, the Nowruz celebration is neither religious or national in nature, nor is it an ethnic celebration. Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian and Turkish Iranians and Central Asians celebrate the Nowruz with the same enthusiasm and sense of belonging. Perhaps it is this very universal nature of the message of Nowruz that speaks to its wealth of rites and customs as well as to its being identified as the unique fount of continuity of the Iranian culture.

Preparation for the Nowruz begins early in March with sprouting of sabzeh (lentil, wheat, or barley seeds) and a thorough khane tekani (house cleaning). The former harks back to the agrarian background of the Iranian tribes that celebrated the main transitions in the climate that dictated the dynamics of their lives. The latter, which entails washing carpets, painting the house, and cleaning the yard and the attic, stems from the Zoroastrians' preoccupation with cleanliness as a measure for keeping Evil away from the kingdom of Good.

Symbolically, khane tekani signals to the spirits of the ancestors that their kin are ready and willing to entertain them. In other words, they are invited to descend on their previous homes to help them nourish the growth of the sabzeh, the main source of their sustenance which has been depleted during the long and cold days of winter.

The sprouting of seeds and house cleaning are followed by kharid-i Nowruz i ( Nowruz shopping). Nowruz shopping, a family affair performed mostly to engage the children in the celebration, must include all the members. Everyone must be measured and outfitted with new clothes, shoes, hats, and the like. In addition, as we shall see below, the sofreh ( Nowruz display cloth) requires certain items--sweetmeats, confectioneries, candles, fruits, and nuts--which are also bought at this time. In addition to what is bought, women of the household bake various types of sweet breads and sew special clothes for the little ones. At the end a trip must be made to the bank for acquiring shiny, new coins and crisp, fresh banknotes to give out as eydi (gift) and for the sofreh.

Known as the traditional herald of the Nowruz , Haji Firuz is a black-faced character clad in bright red clothes and a felt hat playing a tambourine and singing, " haji firuze, sali ye ruze. " (It is Haji Firuz time. It happens one day a year!). People of all ages gather around him and his troupe of musicians and listen to them play the drum, saz or kamancheh and dance. Those who are impressed with the troupe's performance shower it with coins and paper money.

Often, well-to-do Iranians invite Haji Firuz to their home to perform for their wife and daughters who would otherwise never see Haji Firuz in action on the street. Here the group plays popular folk music, performs a variety of comic routines, and tells jokes. At the end of the performance the members are invited to a nice Nowruz meal and are handsomely compensated for their contribution with an eydi ( Nowruz gift).

The actual Nowruz ceremonies begin on the eve of the last Wednesday of the out-going year. Early in the evening of that day, referred to as charshanbe souri or "Red Wednesday," several rather large bonfires are made every member of the family jumps over the fire and says, " sorkhi-e to az man, zardi-e man az to, " which literally means "Give me your redness and take away my wintry sallow complexion). The jumping over the fire is followed by a get together in which nuts and fruits are served. This party is mostly for the benefit of the children of the family who are entertained, long into the night, with stories that they will remember with joy throughout their lives.

While the party goes on the fire dies out. The ashes are gathered and, as the symbol of the bad luck imposed by winter, are taken out of the house and buried in the fields. When the person in charge of burying the ashes returns and knocks on the door, those who are in the house ask, "Who is it?"

"It is I," says the person returning.
"Where are you coming from?"
"From a wedding," is the response.
"What are you bringing with you?" is the last question.
"Happiness and mirth," is the response.

Only then the door is opened and the herald of the new life, who has warded off the bad omen and the evil eye, is ushered in.

Fire is of particular significance in ancient Iranian cultures. The charshanbe souri fire might have been related to the signals sent to the spirits of the departed to guide them to their previous abodes to enjoy the prayers that their descendants perform for their benefit. The fact that traditionally the fires were lit on the roofs of houses speaks directly the necessity of the fire to be distinct and visible.

As part of the charshanbe souri festivities, and very much like Halloween, children--sometimes accompanied by adults--visit their neighbor's houses in disguise. The disguise is usually something like a veil ( chador ) covering the entire body. Each member of the party carries an empty metal bowl and a metal spoon. At the neighbor's door, they create a chorus with banging the spoons on the bowl and on the door. The neighbor opens the door and places a treat in each visitor's bowl. The party then proceeds to the next house. As a rule, the members of the party must remain silent and anonymous throughout the process. Often boys and girls who otherwise would have no occasion to see each other, meet across the threshold.

A more culturally interesting aspect of the charshanbe souri celebration is the falgush performed by girls in their teens and young unmarried women. For this, the teenagers or the unmarried women huddle in the corners of dark alleys and listen to the conversations of passersby. The contents of the first sentence of a conversation exchanged is regarded as an omen ( fal ) or portent for the future. For instance, if a young girl hopes to get married sometime during the next year and hears the following, "There is no way that any sane person would say no to such an offer. " she would be elated. Conversely, if she hears some thing like, "Do you think we didn't try? It's like talking to a brick wall. " she would be utterly disappointed.

Tup-i morvari or pearl cannon was a large cannon kept at the Arg (citadel) of Tehran. Studded with pearls, the cannon was rolled out on charshanbe souri night. Tehrani women, wishing to get married in the coming year, climbed on the cannon and walked under it hoping that their wish would come true.

Those who have encountered problems for which there has been no solution often stop the first passerby crossing their path and ask him or her to undo a knot they have tied in a shirt tale. The willingness or unwillingness of the strange passerby to undo the knot is an omen for the resolution of the problem in the coming year.

Still as a part of the charshanbe souri festivities the family places several low-denomination coins ( pul-i siyah ), a piece of charcoal, seeds of the wild rue, and a piece of rock salt in a new earthen water jar. The jar then is taken up to the roof and from the edge of the roof, the content of the jar is tossed off into the street. While filling the jar the person says, "My pains and misfortunes into the jar!" and when tossing the contents, says, "My pains and misfortunes onto the street!" Serving as a preventative measure, the items in the jar have the power to foil any attempt by Evil at harming the family during the coming year. Often water is also added to the contents to aid the absorption of evil and to make it sink deeper into the ground.

The dinner for the Thursday before Nowruz must include pilau and chicken. Fulfilling this ritual would assure a similar dinner at least once in a week for the entire duration of the coming year.

Sofreh-i Nowruz

A few days before the arrival of Nowruz , a rather large table cloth is spread on the floor of the main room of the house and the following items are placed on it:

Lighted candles, which represent the goodness and warmth that enters life with the coming of spring and the dissipation of evil that has had the world in its cold grip, are placed on the sofreh . In a large setting, an open fire would replace the candles. The number of the candles must be the same as the number of the offspring in the household. Often an egg accompanies each candle. It should be mentioned that the candles on displays must be allowed to burn themselves out. It is bad luck to blow out a candle.

Holy Book
A copy of family's holy book (i.e, Avesta, Tora, Injil (Bible), oz Qur'an - depending on the faith to which the family belongs) is placed in a prominent place on the sofreh . The holy scripture refreshes the bond between the faithful and the source of good emanating from the light.

Haftsin or seven edible things the names of which in Persian begin with the letter " sin " or "s" are placed in a tray or otherwise placed next to each other on the sofreh . Sib (apple), somaq (sumac), sir (garlic), samanu (a paste made with wheat sprouts), senjed (jujube fruit), sohan (a candy made with honey and nuts), siyahdane (sesame seeds), serke (vinegar), and sangak (bread baked on a bed of rocks) are the usual edible items from among which seven are chosen. Since the edible items on the haft-sin are not to be eaten until after the change of seasons, often non-edibles such as sekke (coins), sonbol (hyacinth), spand (the wild rue), sepestan (sebestens), samovar (samovar), or sabzeh (wheat or lentil sprouts) are substituted. The seven "sin"s symbolically recall Ahura Mazda and the six Amesha Spentas who help him regulate the affairs of man according to the " din " or order prescribed by Ahura Mazda's Ahuric Order. It should be added that today the seven " sin "s are interpreted rather differently, as the following example illustrates:

sweetness, fertility, having many children

medicine for recovering from evil

health, natural beauty, fragrance

color of the sun at sunrise

age and patience wards off bitterness in life

purity, opulence, and good fortune

Needless to say, these interpretations are not sanctioned by any particular authority or based on any overall analysis of the theological and/or cosmological values that ancient Iranians might have had for them. What else can be an apt interpretation of sekke (coin) in this context but affluence, wealth, and prosperity? Ironically, this is one of the "s's" that comes into fruition right after the tahvil-i sal. The coins which equal the number of family members, are distributed among the members by the family patriarch (grandfather or father).

Additionally, it should be mentioned that haft-sin could have been haft-shin -- shir (milk) , shekar (sugar) , shahd (nectar) , sharbat (compote) , shane (comb) , sharab (wine) , and sham' (candle )--in pre-Islamic times. " Shin " has been changed to " sin " to accomodate Islam's disapproval of sharab or wine. Why that one item could not have been replaced with a different item befinning with " shin " is not known.

Other traditions relate haft-sin or haft-shin to seven trays ( sini ) filled with seven delicious food items or seven different growing seeds, or seven varieties of nuts offered to the king. Others consider the seven "s's" to have been Life, Health, Happiness, Prosperity, Joy, and Beauty, all forming the seventh "s" which, according to Zoroastrian traditions, represents Truth.

Still others contend that while the first tray to Ahura Mazda was empty (Truth is a combination of things with no substance of its own), the other six trays were filled with flowers, sugar, milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, cream, eggs, water, mirrors, candelabra, burning coal, silver, and gold. These items, according to this belief, represent Truth, Good thought, Dominion, Piety, Prosperity, Immortality, and Obedience.

A mirror placed on the sofreh face up with a plain hard-boiled egg placed on it in the middle.

A bowl of clear water with an orange and a leaf of a rose bush floating in it.

Live goldfish in a bowl of clear water

The barley, lentil, or wheat sprouts that had been growing since early March decorated with a red ribbon around the outside and an orange seated in the center.

In addition to these there are representatives of the other kingdoms sustaining life on earth, i.e., products from the animal kingdom in the form of cheese and yogurt, the plant kingdom in the form of flour, vegetables, rice, and of the water kingdom in the form of the goldfish are also placed on the sofreh . Pomegranates and pussy willows also are sometimes seen. The latter is especially important as it blossoms at this very time of the year.

An upright mirror and plenty of colored eggs, cookies, and various types of fruits and sweets, candies, and nuts are added to decorate the sofreh.

Sa'at-i tahvil Sa'at-i tahvil means the hour during which the old year ends and the new year begins. In an Iranian house, during the Nowruz celebration, sa'at- tahvil is a most crucial moment in the life of the family, especially with regard to forgiving past failings, putting away petty frictions that would otherwise fester into conflicts, and looking forward to more constructive relations. And, of course, this is the moment when the egg rolls on the mirror and the orange flips over in the bowl of water. The moment is announced by the resounding boom of cannons fired in the square, by a brief speech delivered by the leader of the nation, and by the debut of a popular song contributed by a popular favorite artist.

Just before the change of the year, all members of the family, in their new clothes and holding a new coin in their hand for good luck, gather around the haft-sin display and, quietly and patiently, watch the solitary white egg on the mirror. Each one imagines a huge bullfish in the ocean of time carrying the world on one of its horns. Any moment now, the bullfish will toss the world over to the other horn, resulting in a tremor that will dislodge the egg and send it rolling to the side of the mirror.

As soon as the egg rolls, the members of the family, rejoicing, kiss each other, exchange Nowruz greetings, eid-i shoma mobarak! (May you have an auspicious new year!), and proceed, especially in the case of children, to make the rounds of the elders of the family first and of the neighborhood. Adults, too, have a set schedule of visits and of receiving visitors.

As a rule, the patriarch of the house stays home until all those younger, and lower in rank, than him come and pay their respects, then he would return those visits. Visits are short. Sweets and tea are the most often served items. The rounds of visitations might last as long as thirteen days.

Beliefs attached to Sa'at-i tahvil

Several beliefs related to sa'at-i tahvil are interesting. The first thing to eat, for instance, should be an egg because it is believed that eggs ensure good fortune. In fact, in some traditions, the patriarch of the family must eat all the eggs that have accompanied the candles placed for each offspring on the sofreh ! The first person who enters the house after sa'at-i tahvil might decide the good or bad fortune that would visit the house in the next year. Often a member of the family known to be blessed with good fortune is sent out to become the first visitor. Things brought into the house, especially their color, also have the potential of influencing the course of the future of the family. The color white is regarded auspicious. Black is believed to be associated with grief and strife. Even the place where the individual is at sa'at-i tahvil is significant in that he or she might be stuck to that or a similar location for the entire duration of the coming year. In this context, therefore, one tends not to be anywhere near schools, offices, or the bazaar.

The Nowruz ceremonies end on the thirteenth day of the first month of the new year. On that day almost all the people leave the towns and villages and spend a day in the countryside enjoying the beautiful weather that accompanies the change of seasons. During this outing the sabzeh that had been displayed and with it, all the sins, worries, and concerns of the past are thrown into running water. The new year then begins with a fresh slate on the 14th of the month.

With regard to the sabzeh, it should be noted that some rural folk might plant the sabzeh rather than throw it into running water. It should also be noted that one should not touch other peoples' sabzeh on that day. Before the sabzeh is thrown, girls at the age of being married and unmarried women often tie the blades of the sabzeh saying , "sal-i digar, khane-i showhar, bachcheh dar baghal! " (Let next year find me in my husband's house with a baby in my arms!"


Monthly Holidays and Observances

  • Academy Awards Month
  • Adopt a Rescued Guinea Pig Month
  • Alport Syndrome Awareness Month
  • American Diabetes Alert Month
  • American Red Cross Month
  • Bell Peppers and Broccoli Month
  • Berries and Cherries Month
  • Bleeding Disorders Awareness Month
  • Brain Injury Awareness Month
  • Child Life Month
  • Colic Awareness Month
  • Colorectal Cancer Education and Awareness Month
  • Credit Education Month
  • Deaf History Month - March 13 - April 15
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Awareness Month
  • Dolphin Awareness Month
  • Employee Spirit Month
  • Endometriosis Month 
  • Exotic Winter Fruit & Leeks and Green Onions Month
  • Expanding Girls' Horizons in Science and Engineering Month
  • Gardening, Nature and Ecology Books Month
  • Gender Equality Month
  • Hemophilia Month
  • Honor Society Awareness Month
  • Humorists are Artists Month
  • International Ideas Month
  • International Listening Awareness Month
  • International Mirth Month
  • International Rescue Cat Awareness Month
  • Irish-American Heritage Month
  • Kidney Month
  • Mad for Plaid Month
  • Malignant Hyperthermia Awareness and Training Month
  • Mental Retardation Awareness Month
  • Middle Level Education Month
  • Music in our Schools Month
  • National Athletic Training Month
  • National Breast Implant Awareness Month
  • National Caffeine Awareness Month
  • National Celery Month
  • National Cerebral Palsy Awareness Month
  • National Cheerleading Safety Month
  • National Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Awareness Month
  • National Clean up Your IRS Act Month
  • National Color Therapy Month
  • National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month
  • National Craft Month
  • National Crochet Month
  • National Developmental Disabilities Awareness Month
  • National Endometriosis Awareness Month
  • National Essential Tremor Awareness Month
  • National Ethics Awareness Month
  • National Eye Donor Month
  • National Flour Month
  • National Flower Month
  • National Frozen Food Month
  • National Kidney Month
  • National March Into Literacy Month
  • National Multiple Sclerosis Education and Awareness Month
  • National Noodle Month
  • National Nutrition Month 
  • National On-Hold Month
  • National Optimism Month
  • National Peanut Month
  • National Poison Prevention Awareness Month
  • National Problem Gambling Awareness Month
  • National Professional Social Worker's Month
  • National Sauce Month
  • National Social Work Month
  • National Umbrella Month
  • National Women Inventors Month
  • National Women's History Month
  • Play the Recorder Month
  • Preschool Education Month
  • Read an E-Book Month
  • Red Cross Month
  • Rosacea Awareness Month
  • Save Your Vision Month
  • Sing with Your Child Month
  • Small Press Month
  • Spiritual Wellness Month
  • Supply Management Month
  • Trisomy Awareness Month
  • Vascular Anomalies Awareness Month
  • Workplace Eye Healthy and Safety Awareness Month
  • Youth Art Month

Free Printable 2014 Calendars

Free 2014 calendars that you can download, customize, and print. Calendars are available in PDF and Microsoft Word formats.

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2014 Calendar with Large Dates

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal)

2014 Calendar (vertical, descending)

2014 Calendar (horizontal, descending)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical grid)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal grid)

2014 Calendar (vertical grid)

2014 Calendar (horizontal grid, descending)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, shaded weekends)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, shaded weekends, notes)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal, shaded weekends)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, week starts on Monday)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal, week starts on Monday)

2014 Calendar on one page (vertical, holidays in red)

2014 Calendar on one page (horizontal, holidays in red)

2014 Calendar (vertical, descending, holidays in red)

2014 Calendar (horizontal, descending, holidays in red)

2013-2014 Academic Calendar

2014-2015 Academic Calendar

2014 Computer Monitor Calendar

2014 Cute Scallop Calendar

2014 Horizontal Scrapbook Calendar Cards

2014 Morning Afternoon Night Calendar

2014 One Page Calendar With Flowers

2014 Vertical Scrapbook Calendar Cards

2014 Calendar Three Months Per Page

2014 Calendar Vertical List

2014 Weekly Calendar (vertical)

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