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Škofovska vojna, druga (1640)

Škofovska vojna, druga (1640)


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Angleška državljanska vojna , Richard Holmes in Peter Young, zgodnje delo enega najbolj znanih vojaških zgodovinarjev v državi, to je vrhunska enotna zgodovina vojne, od njenih vzrokov do zadnjih vojnih vojn in do konca protektorata.


Zgodovina puritancev pod kraljem Karlom I.

Pod Karlom I. so puritanci postali politična sila in tudi verska težnja v državi. Nasprotniki kraljeve prerogative so postali zavezniki puritanskih reformatorjev, ki so videli, da se angleška cerkev giblje v nasprotni smeri od tistega, kar so želeli, in nasprotovali povečanemu katoliškemu vplivu tako na dvoru kot (kot so videli) v Cerkvi.

Po prvi angleški državljanski vojni so politično moč imeli različne frakcije puritanov. Sojenja in usmrtitve Williama Lauda in takratnega kralja Charlesa so bile odločilne poteze, ki so oblikovale britansko zgodovino. Medtem ko sta kratkoročno puritansko moč utrdila parlamentarna oborožena sila in Oliver Cromwell, v istih letih argument za teokracijo ni dovolj prepričal različnih skupin in ni bilo puritanske verske naselbine, ki bi se ujemala s Cromwellovo postopno domnevo o diktatorski pooblastila. Posebna formulacija reformirane teologije v Westminsterski skupščini bi se izkazala za njeno trajno zapuščino.

V Novi Angliji je bilo priseljevanje puritanskih družinskih skupin in občin na vrhuncu v obdobju srednjih let vladavine kralja Charlesa.


Druga vojna v potoku

William McIntosh V desetletjih pred spopadom sta Creeks in ameriška vlada podpisala vrsto pogodb, v katerih so Creeki odstopili dele svoje zemlje ZDA. Te pogodbe in nezmožnost zveznih in lokalnih vlad, da zadržijo bele naseljence iz domačih dežel, so ustvarile napetosti med potoki ter med potoki in belimi naseljenci v Gruziji in današnji Alabami. Po porazu v prvi vojni leta 1814 je Creek Nation v pogodbi iz Fort Jacksona ameriški vladi odstopil več kot 21 milijonov hektarjev zemlje v Georgiji in Alabami. Druga Washingtonska pogodba (1826) je razveljavila pogodbo iz Indian Springs iz leta 1825 kot goljufanje, ki je Creekom omogočila, da obdržijo svojo zemljo v Alabami, vendar je deželi Creek v zahodni osrednji Gruziji odstopila zvezni vladi v zameno za veliko vsoto denarja in letnih plačil. 20.000 dolarjev za nedoločen čas. Spremembe te pogodbe leta 1827 so povzročile odstranitev vseh potokov iz Gruzije. Nato je leta 1832 90 poglavarjev Creeka podpisalo Cussettsko pogodbo (včasih znano tudi kot tretja Washingtonska pogodba) in odstopilo preostala dežela v Alabami. V zameno naj bi vsak poglavar prejel kvadratno miljo zemlje, vsaka družina Creek pa pol kvadratne milje zemlje po svoji izbiri. Združene države so se tudi zavezale, da bodo državi Creek plačale skupaj 350.000 dolarjev, zagotovile 20 kvadratnih kilometrov zemlje, ki bo prodana v podporo kriškim sirotam, in plačali eno leto stroškov za emigrante iz Creeka, ki se preselijo na indijsko ozemlje. Ta pogodba je tudi spodbudila potoke, da se čim hitreje premaknejo zahodno od Mississippija, obljubila pa je tudi odstranitev vseh vsiljivcev iz odstopljenega zemljišča, dokler ga ne pregledajo. John Gayle Sporazum pa je prejemnikom zemljišč omogočil, da ostanejo in po petih letih pridobijo lastninsko pravico na zemljišču. Guverner Alabame John Gayle (1831-35), zagovornik pravic držav, je pogodbo obsodil kot vmešavanje zvezne vlade v tisto, kar je videl kot državno zadevo. Čeprav se mnogi Alabamci z njim niso strinjali, je bil sredi te polemike leta 1833 ponovno izvoljen s plazom. Neamathla Do leta 1836 so bili voditelji Spodnjega potoka ogorčeni zaradi nezakonitega priliva belih naseljencev na njihova dežela in nepripravljenosti zveznih in državnih vlad, da bi jim pomagale. Nekateri špekulanti so začeli širiti zgodbe o načrtovani vstaji v Creeku. Spomladi 1836 so skupine Chehaw, Yuchi, Hitchiti in druge skupine Creeks začele kampanjo, da bi pregnale bele naseljence. Vojaške stranke v potoku so požgale domove in kmetije, iz maščevanja pobile bele družine in motile poštne etape. 14. maja 1836 so bojevniki Creeka, ki jih vodijo bojevnik Yuchi Jim Henry in ostareli poglavar Hitchitija Neamathla, napadli Roanoke v Gruziji in ubili, živega zažgali in/ali skalpirali 14 od 20 zagovornikov, le šestim je uspelo pobegniti. Bojevniki iz Creeka so mesto nato požgali do tal.

Med sredino 1836 in sredino 1837, ko je vojska zatirala vstajo v Creeku, so vojaki začeli zbirati družine Creek in jih siliti v koncentracijska taborišča. Vojska je sčasoma odpeljala več kot 15.000 Creekov zahodno od Fort Mitchella, približno 10 milj južno od Phenix Cityja, do Fort Gibson v Oklahomi, z malo več kot oblačili na hrbtu. Več kot 3.500 moških, žensk in otrok v Creeku je umrlo na 750-miljski poti, včasih znani tudi kot "Creekova pot solz". Po prihodu v Fort Gibson je vojska vsaki družini Creek dala odejo in jo v bistvu opustila.

Ellisor, John T. Medetnični konflikt in spopad druge vojne v potoku med potovanjem na meji. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010.


Škofje in#039 vojne

Škofovske vojne, 1639 �. Charles I je z dobrim razlogom domneval, da je verska raznolikost vir šibkosti v državi. Leta 1637 je zato škotski prezbiterijanski cerkvi naročil uporabo novega molitvenika po angleškem vzorcu. To je sprožilo protestno gibanje, ki je doseglo vrhunec s sklenitvijo nacionalne zaveze za obrambo ‘ prave vere ’. Charles je zbral vojsko, da bi uveljavil svojo voljo, toda njegove čete so bile nedisciplinirana množica in namesto da bi tvegal boj, je junija 1639 sprejel pacifikacijo Berwicka. S tem se je končala prva tako imenovana škofovska vojna, toda leta 1640 je Charles spet vzel orožje. Rezultat je bil slabši. Škoti so 28. avgusta nemudoma vdrli v Anglijo, odrinili Charlesovo vojsko v Newburnu pri Newcastlu in zasedli severovzhod države. Zdaj so skrivaj sodelovali s kraljevimi nasprotniki in niso želeli razmišljati o umiku, razen če in dokler ne pokliče parlamenta. Charlesova politika je propadla.

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Neodkrita Škotska

5. avgust 1600: Družina Gowrie v Perthu naj bi poskusila življenje Jamesa VI. V času, ki je znan kot zarota Gowrie. Drugi menijo, da je šlo za zaroto kralja, da bi se izognil plačilu 80.000 funtov, ki jih je krona dolgovala družini.

19. november 1600: v palači Dunfermline se je rodil bodoči kralj Charles I.

7. februar 1603: Bitka pri Glen Fruinu se odvija v bližini Loch Lomonda med klanom Gregorjem in klanom Colquhoun. Približno 200 mož klana Colquhoun in njihovih zaveznikov je ubitih, medtem ko so žrtve na strani klana Gregor zelo lahke.

24. marca 1603: Umrla je angleška kraljica Elizabeta I. Dva dni pozneje je do 36 -letnega Jamesa VI Škotskega v Edinburghu prišla novica, da je zdaj tudi angleški kralj James I. Sam se oblikuje "Kralj Velike Britanije ", krone Škotske in Anglije pa so združene pod dinastijo Stewart, čeprav se družinsko ime vedno bolj piše "Stuart ".

3. april 1603: Škotski kralj James VI se preseli proti jugu v London, da bi postal angleški James I. Obljublja, da se bo vrnil vsaka tri leta, vendar se bo na Škotsko vrnil le enkrat v 22 letih do svoje smrti.

1609: Devet visokogorskih poglavarjev je ujetih na mornariški ladji in izpuščenih z otoka Iona šele, ko se strinjajo s programom, namenjenim spodkopavanju galskega jezika in kulture.

1609: Jakob I/VI začne nasad škotskih protestantov v Ulster kot sredstvo za pomiritev.

1611: Vse večja uporaba škotskih protestantov v angleškem jeziku Biblije kralja Jamesa oslabi gelski jezik.

1614: John Napier objavi "Opis Čudovitega kanona logaritmov ": ali zabeleži tabele vsem, ki jih uporabljajo v 360 letih, ki sledijo do izuma elektronskega kalkulatorja.

23. avgust 1614: Sile pod poveljstvom grofa Caithnessa pristanejo na Orkneyju, da bi zatrele upor Roberta Stewarta, sina Patricka Stewarta, drugega grofa Orkneyja.

6. februar 1615: Patrick Stewart, drugi grof od Orkneyja, je zaradi vstaje svojega sina v Orkneyju obglavljen zaradi izdaje.

1616: Škotska cerkev v vsaki župniji ustanovi šole za učenje otrok in znanja in znanja ter za branje in pisanje v angleščini in ne v galski, kar meni, da je glavni vzrok barbarstva in neživljenstva ljudi. "

15. marec 1617: James I/VI potuje proti severu na svoj prvi obisk na Škotsko, odkar je leta 1603 postal angleški kralj.

4. april 1617: Smrt Johna Napierja, izjemno vplivnega matematika, ki je izumil logaritme, ki je izdelal računski stroj in je v Edinburghu umrl v Edinburghu, ki je veliko prispeval k povečanju interesov decimalne vejice v matematiki.

2. marec 1619: Smrt v palači Hampton Court blizu Londona Anne Danske, kraljice soproga angleškega kralja Jakoba I. in Škotskega VI.

5. april 1623: Smrt Georgea Keitha, petega grofa Marischala, vplivnega škotskega plemiča, ki je ustanovil Marischal College v Aberdeenu.

12. februar 1624: Smrt Goldsmitha in filantropa Georgea Heriota v Londonu.

27. marec 1625: Kralj James I/VI umre v starosti 58 let. Njegov najstarejši sin, princ Henry, je umrl leta 1612, zato je Jamesa nasledil mlajši sin Charles. Charles I je star 24 let in malo ve o tem, da je kralj: razen, verjame, da ima božansko pravico do vladavine neposredno od Boga.

6. maj 1625: Smrt Sir Georgea Brucea iz Carnocka, prvega industrijalca, ki je razvil visoko inovativen sistem premogovništva v Culrossu v Fifu.

13. junij 1625: Kralj Charles I se poroči s Henrietto Marijo, hčerko francoskega kralja Henrika IV.

29. maj 1630: v Londonu se je rodil bodoči kralj Charles II.

1633: Charles I prihaja na Škotsko zaradi kronanja za škotskega kralja, pri čemer je uporabil polne anglikanske obrede, ki so vznemirili mnoge v škotski cerkvi.

24. april 1633: Sir John Hepburn je izdal kraljevski nalog za dvig trupa moških na Škotskem za službo v Franciji. Ta polk postane znan kot Kraljevi Škoti.

18. junij 1633: Škotsko kronanje kralja Charlesa I. v katedrali St Giles spremlja anglikanska služba, kar je znak prihodnjega spopada.

23. julij 1637: V katedrali St Giles ' v Edinburghu izbruhne izgred, ko ko prodajalka ulice Jenny Geddes vrže stol z dekanom, potem ko je poskušal uporabiti knjigo skupne molitve, ki jo je na novo uvedel kralj Charles I. po vsem svojem Združenem kraljestvu.

28. februar 1638: Nacionalno konvencijo podpišejo na koncu tisoči Škotov. Skuša ohraniti značilne škotske kulturne in verske prakse pred vse bolj samovoljnim pristopom Karla I.

21. november 1638: Generalna skupščina škotske cerkve začne v Glasgowu enomesečno srečanje kljub prizadevanjem visokega komisarja kralja Lorda na Škotskem, markiza Hamiltona, da ga razpusti. Z nadaljevanjem seje se člani skupščine dejansko razglasijo za upornike proti kralju.

Maj 1639: Vojne zaveze se začnejo s prvo škofovsko vojno. Boji so osredotočeni na severovzhodu Škotske. Marquess of Montrose for the Covenanters prevzame Aberdeen in ujame poveljnika rojalista, markiza Huntlyja. Huntingova sina so 19. junija premagali na Brigu o 39#Dee. Obljubljena podpora sil Karla I. v Angliji in Ulsterju se ne uresniči.

18. junij 1639: Angleška vojska kralja Charlesa je dosegla Berwick-upon-Tweed, ko pa se sooči z veliko večjo škotsko vojsko, se strinja s premirjem, pomirjenjem Berwicka.

September 1639: Škotski "Free parlament " potrjuje odločitve Generalne skupščine prejšnje leto.


BIBLIOGRAFIJA

Elliott, J. H. Grof-vojvoda Olivares. New Haven, 1986.

— —. Upor Kataloncev: Študija v upadu leta Španija 1598 – 1640. Cambridge, Združeno kraljestvo, 1963.

Lynch, John. Hispanski svet v krizi in spremembah 1598 – 1700. Oxford, 1992.

Merriman, Roger B. Šest sodobnih revolucij. Oxford, 1938.

Parker, Geoffrey. Evropa v krizi, 1598 – 1648. London, 1979.

Stradling, R. A. Španski boj za Evropo, 1598 – 1668. London, 1994.


Je bila zgodovina krivična do Karla I.?

V začetku oktobra 1640 se je Charles I, ki je bil začasno v Yorku, potem ko so ga porazili škotski zavezniki, sedel na šahovsko partijo z markizom Winchesterjem. Ko je Charles razmišljal o tem, kako bi igral svojega škofa, je Winchester rekel: "Vidite, gospod, kako moteči so ti škofje?" Charles ni rekel ničesar, vendar je bil "videti zelo mračno".

Poraz v drugi od obeh škofovskih vojn - v katerem je boj za oblast nad prihodnostjo škotske cerkve privedel do silovitih spopadov med kraljevimi silami in njegovimi nasprotniki na Škotskem - je bil začetek konca za Karla I. Ko je izpadel s svojimi parlamenti v poznih 1620 -ih se je lotil obdobja osebne vladavine od leta 1629 in vodil ambiciozno politiko reform v cerkvi in ​​državi v vseh treh svojih kraljestvih: Angliji, na Škotskem in Irskem.

Zastoj prve škofovske vojne ga je spomladi leta 1640 končno pripeljal do odpoklica parlamenta, vendar ga je razpustil po treh tednih, namesto da bi se strinjal z njegovimi zahtevami po reformi. Poraz v drugi škofovski vojni je prisilil Charlesa, da imenuje tako imenovani Dolgi parlament in se z njim pogaja.

Oktobra 1641, ko se je Charles trudil poravnati s Škoti, so se katoliški katoličani na Irskem odločili, da bodo sprožili svoj upor. Nesoglasja glede tega, kdo bi moral nadzorovati vojsko, potrebno za uničenje irskega upora, sta na koncu tako parlament kot kralj združila svoje sile in se med seboj vojskovala leta 1642. Poraz v naslednjih državljanskih vojnah - prišlo je do dveh - je povzročil Charlesa januarja 1649 so mu sodili in usmrtili veleizdajo (zločin, ki ga je mogoče storiti le proti kraljem).

Kaj je šlo narobe s Karlom I?

Zakaj je šlo za Charlesa tako katastrofalno narobe? Le redki bi zdaj sprejeli njegovo starejšo karakterizacijo kot tirana, katerega osebna vladavina je bila velika pot do državljanske vojne in revolucije. Nekateri celo menijo, da je osebno pravilo obdobje konstruktivne in dobrodošle reforme v Angliji, saj trdijo, da je njegov režim podrl le zaradi predhodnih uporov na Škotskem in Irskem.

Ali morajo imeti revolucije velike, dolgoročne vzroke? Je bil Charlesov padec neizogibna posledica njegove politične dediščine? Ali pa je bila to posledica slabe sreče, političnih napak, celo nesreče? Ali krivimo Charlesa ali situacijo, v kateri se je znašel?

Charlesov oče, James VI iz Škotske, je krone združil leta 1603, ko je nasledil Elizabeto I. na prestolih Anglije in Irske, saj je imel James I. Anglija svoje težave-resno premalo financirano krono in globoko zakoreninjene verske napetosti, ki so razdelile različne vrste protestantov med seboj (kalvinisti in protikalvinisti, puritanci in anti-puritanci).

James je zdaj tudi vladal trem kraljestvom z različnimi verskimi polti: anglikanski Angliji, prezbiterijanski Škotski in katoliški Irski (čeprav je bila cerkvena ustanova na Irskem protestantska, katoliška večina pa je bila etnično razdeljena med avtohtono galsko in staro angleščino). Irska je povzročila dodatne varnostne težave kot katoliški otok ob obali protestantske Anglije, ki se je nagibal k uporu proti angleški vladavini. Med Tyronovim uporom v 1590 -ih, ki je bil dokončno uničen leta 1603, so Gaels iz Ulsterja celo ponudili krono Irske kralju katoliške Španije.

Z Jamesom VI običajno gledamo kot na spretnega politika, ki je to problematično dediščino z več kraljestvi vodil razmeroma dobro. Umiril je verske napetosti v Angliji, pod njegovo vladavino pa sta bili Škotska in Irska tišji, kot so bili že dolgo časa.

Toda James je za svojega sina shranil gnezdo težav s sršeni. Mnoge Škote je razjezil z oživitvijo škofovstva (hierarhična struktura, v kateri je glavna oblast nad lokalno cerkvijo škof) severno od meje. Tudi James se je prvi preselil k uvajanju bolj anglikanskega sloga čaščenja v škotski Kirk in s tem vznemiril prezbiterijance. Res je, da je skrbel za delo prek generalne skupščine Kirka in škotskega parlamenta. Vendar je uporabil precejšnjo količino ustrahovanja in ustrahovanja, da bi silil svoje reforme in škotski prezbiterijani nikoli niso sprejeli zborov, ki so podprli Jakobove pobude kot zakonite.

Jamesova rešitev varnostnega problema na Irskem je bila razglasiti deželo šestih okrožij Ulster za krono in pokrajino zasaditi s protestanti iz Anglije in Škotske. Tako škotski zavezniki v poznih 1630 -ih kot irski uporniki leta 1641 izvirajo iz korenin njihovih pritožb vse do njegove vladavine.

Tudi za Jamesa v Angliji stvari niso vedno potekale gladko. S svojimi parlamenti se ni strinjal glede prihodkov in zunanje politike, sam pa je vladal brez parlamenta od leta 1610 do 1621 - za skupščino, ki se je leta 1614 sestala devet tednov, je veljalo, da ni bila parlament, ker ni sprejela nobene zakonodaje.

James nikoli ni rešil problema premalo financirane krone. Na začetku svojega vladanja je naletel na resne težave s puritanci in kakršen koli mir, ki ga je v srednjih letih prinesel cerkvi, se je zdelo, da se je v zgodnjih 1620 -ih letih porušil, ko se je obrnil proti kalvinistom, ker so kritizirali njegovo politiko pomirjanja Španije po izbruh tridesetletne vojne v Evropi (1618–48) in začel iskati podporo pri protikalvinistih.

Ko je Charles leta 1625 nasledil svojega očeta, je bilo povsod vsesplošno veselje, saj je "negotovost pozne vladavine utrudila vse ljudi". Charles je svoje politično vajeništvo opravljal v parlamentih 1621 in 1624, kjer se je pojavil kot priljubljeni patriotski junak, ki je podpiral pozive parlamenta po vojni proti Španiji.

Ta "princ, vzgojen v parlamentih", pa je kmalu padel s parlamentom, ki je bil nekoč kralj. Glavni spor je bil denar. Charles je menil, da je od takrat, ko je parlament zahteval vojno proti Španiji, dolžan to ustrezno financirati. Kljub temu, da je bil konflikt slab - in Anglija je bila hkrati zajeta v sovražnosti s katoliško Francijo - je parlament zahteval obtožbo kraljevega vodilnega ministra, vojvode Buckinghamskega, preden je glasoval o nadaljnji obdavčitvi.

Charles se je odločil stati ob strani svojemu najljubšemu in denar poskušal zbrati s prisilnim posojilom. Politično se je to izkazalo za drago potezo, saj je privedlo do peticije parlamenta o pravici iz leta 1628, ki je obsodila samovoljno obdavčitev. Vendar je bil to bolj dokaz, da je neizkušenega kralja panika, ko se je znašel v vojni z dvema velikima silama Evrope brez ustreznega financiranja, kot pa želja po spodkopavanju ustave.

Do leta 1629 je Buckinghamsko rezilo odstranilo s prizorišča, vendar je parlament še naprej kritiziral fiskalno in versko politiko krone. Ko se je Charles tistega leta odločil za prekinitev parlamenta, je to storil, ker je menil, da mu parlament preprečuje, da bi izpolnil svojo božansko določeno dolžnost vladanja v javno dobro.

Po prekinitvi parlamenta je Charles hitro končal vojne s Francijo in Španijo, spodbujal socialne in gospodarske reforme doma (za pomoč revnim in spodbujanje trgovine in industrije) ter se lotil reforme milice in mornarice. V primerjavi s tistim, kar se je v tistem času dogajalo v Evropi, na vrhuncu tridesetletne vojne ali nemirom, ki so ga v naslednjem desetletju doživeli Anglija, Škotska in Irska, se je zdelo, da so bila leta 1630 v Angliji čas relativnega mir in blaginjo. Politike, ki jih je vodil Charles, so bile nedvomno kontroverzne. Vlado je financiral z vrsto davčnih sredstev - donacijami monopolov, gozdnimi globami in odvračanjem od viteštva.

Prav tako je uveljavljal prerogativne dajatve, kot je ladijski denar, nujni ukrep za oskrbo mornarice v času nacionalne nevarnosti. Vendar te niso bile niti nezakonite niti brez primere: kraljeva pravica do vsiljevanja ladijskega denarja je bila potrjena v preizkusni zadevi 1637–38, 90 odstotkov donosov pa je dejansko prišlo, kar je izjemen dosežek po merilih iz 17. stoletja. Poleg tega podaljšana obdobja vladanja brez parlamenta niso bila neustavna niti nujno nezaželena, saj je bila ena od glavnih nalog parlamenta glasovanje o obdavčitvi.

Karlove najbolj kontroverzne politike pa so bile rezervirane za cerkev. Vse vodilne škofovske sedeže je predstavil tako imenovane Arminance (moške, ki so izpodbijali kalvinistične nauke o predodrejenosti in so se zavzemali za bolj ceremonialistični slog verskega čaščenja). Pod svojim nadškofom v Canterburyju Williamom Laudom je Charles spodbujal popravilo in olepšanje župnijskih cerkva z vitražnimi okni in okrašenim oltarjem na vzhodu-pred katerim bi morali farani poklekniti za obhajilo-in se priklenili na Puritansko nesoglasje.

Kritiki so se pritoževali, da je Charles peljal cerkev nazaj proti Rimu. Kljub temu se je vzpon Arminov začel pri Jakobu in ljudje so že dolgo napovedovali, da bo prišlo do državljanske vojne, če ne bi bilo nekaj storjeno za rešitev puritanskega problema. Čeprav so se številni nasprotniki Laudianstva pritoževali nad preganjanjem, je Charles v času svojega vladanja prikrajšal le približno 30 puritanskih ministrov. James je nasprotno prikrajšal približno 80 na začetku svojega.

Res je, da je prerogativno sodišče zvezne zbornice dosodilo brutalne kazni - blagovno znamko, pohabljanje, visoke globe in večne zaporne kazni - puritanskim kritikom, kot so Leighton, Burton, Bastwick in Prynne. Ti možje pa so bili skrajneži, krivi za vzbujanje pobune proti vladi. Dejstvo je, da je manj kot pol odstotka prebivalstva dvignilo palice in se odpravilo v Novi svet, da bi pobegnilo iz Charlesovega režima.

To ne pomeni, da Charlesove pobude niso povzročile nasprotovanja. Toda Charlesova politika je imela svojo logiko. Kralj se je odločil soočiti s težavami, ki jih je bilo treba odpraviti, tako njegove diagnoze kot predlagane rešitve se takrat niso zdele nerazumne. Vsi vodje vlad, ki se lotijo ​​politike radikalnih reform, bodo morali nekaj perja raztresti - jaz in James VI sva to gotovo naredila - vendar večina ne podleže revoluciji. Nezadovoljstvo ne pomeni, da bo režim propadel. Politika gre za obvladovanje tega nezadovoljstva.

Katere osebnostne lastnosti so prispevale k padcu Karla I.

Zakaj so potem pod Charlesom stvari razpadle? Zgodba je zapletena, a številne širše razlage nakazujejo same po sebi. Charles ni imel očetove sposobnosti, da bi se milostivo umaknil, ko je bil pod pritiskom. James bi lahko s svojo pretirano retoriko in konfrontacijskim slogom podžgal napetosti v parlamentu, vedel pa je tudi, kdaj se je treba umakniti. Charles je imel tendenco, da svojim parlamentom odpove, ko ga niso podprli.

Charles ni dovolil, da bi drugi prevzeli krivdo, ko je šlo kaj narobe - to je lastnost, ki bi jo danes lahko občudovali, vendar je bila v osebni monarhiji katastrofalna, ko je bila običajna modrost, da »če je kaj storjeno, ni upravičeno ali neprimerno biti dovoljeno, "so kralji" krivili ministra ". James je dovolil, da sta državni tožilec Francis Bacon in lord blagajnik Middlesex padla v zgodnjih 1620 -ih. Charles je Buckinghamu vztrajal v letih 1625–28, čeprav je bilo njegovo nadaljevanje očitno kontraproduktivno. Ko je parlament leta 1628 pritisnil Charlesa, da bi se znebil arminijskih duhovnikov Richarda Neila in Williama Lauda, ​​se je Charles odzval tako, da jih je ob prvi priložnosti promoviral na dva nadškofska sedeža v Yorku in Canterburyju!

Charles je hkrati ustvarjal nasprotovanje na preveč frontah, njegova politika pa je težila k temu, da je svoje kritike združila v skupni zadevi. Vsi niso marali vseh njegovih politik, vendar je na koncu vznemiril celo vrsto ljudi iz različnih razlogov - in kar je bistveno, je odtujil sredino, pa tudi skrajneže.

Vzemite primer ladijskega denarja. Tudi tisti, ki so bili pripravljeni podpreti Charlesa, so se prostovoljno zgražali nad sodbo, da gre za dajatev, ki jo ima kralj pravico pobrati. Medtem je Charlesova politika do cerkve morda dobila podporo nekaterih, vendar so posebni vidiki njegovih cerkvenih reform užalili širok prerez prebivalstva-zmerne in radikalne puritance, da ne omenjam mainstream protestantov. Uspelo mu je celo odtujiti tiste, ki niso imeli posebno močnih verskih prepričanj, tako da je zahteval, da plačajo za prenovo župnijskih cerkva, in s tem, da je poskušal strožje obiskovati cerkev v soboto (kar bi, ironično, puritanci podpirali).

Še poslabšalo je dejstvo, da so Laudijci tako učinkovito uveljavljali svoje reforme, nekaj pa je bilo omogočeno le zato, ker so imeli v nekaterih krajih nekaj podpore. To težnjo po združevanju med opozicijskimi ljudmi, ki niso bili naravni politični prijatelji, je poslabšalo dejstvo, da je imel nadškof Laud prst v toliko pite. Ne samo, da je nadzoroval reforme v cerkvi, ampak je tudi sedel v Zvezdni zbornici, sodeloval pri monopolih in svetoval Charlesu pri številnih drugih politikah v času osebne vladavine.

Najdemo primere ljudi, vpoklicanih v boj proti Škotom v letih 1639–40, ki so v preteklosti imeli težave s cerkvenimi sodišči zaradi nemorale. O njih ni mogoče misliti, da so nagnjeni k puritanstvu, kljub temu pa se poistovetijo s puritanskim in škotskim prezbiterijanskim nasprotovanjem Laudu, ker so se zgražali nad naborom.

Podoben vzorec je mogoče opaziti na Škotskem in Irskem. Charles je razburil škotsko plemstvo s svojo shemo preklica leta 1625 (poskus krone, da si povrne dežele, ki so bile odtujene med kraljevskimi manjšinami), in s svojim očitnim ustrahovanjem škotskega parlamenta leta 1633. Prav tako je razjezil škotske prezbiterijane, saj jih je poskušal upreti nove kanone in molitvenik v angleškem slogu v letih 1636–37 brez posvetovanja z generalno skupščino ali škotskim parlamentom.

Tudi tisti Škoti, ki se niso identificirali s prezbiterijani, so se zgražali nad načinom, kako je Charles ravnal s Škotsko. Na Irskem je Charles -ov poročnik Thomas Wentworth, grof Strafford, s širitvijo politike nasadov in spodbujanjem Laudianca ustvaril sovražnike katoličanom in protestantom, Gaelsom in Angležem.

Morda najbolj resno, Charles je šel v kot zaradi financ. Ker ni zgradil delovnega odnosa z angleškim parlamentom in ni rešil problema strukturno premalo financirane krone, si je Charles pustil omejene možnosti za zbiranje denarja, ki ga je potreboval za zadušitev škotskega upora. Ni toliko, da je upor Covenanterja destabiliziral sicer dobro delujoč režim v Angliji. Namesto tega je razkril že obstoječe probleme in poudaril, kako krhek je bil režim.

Še zadnja točka. Predlagalo se je, da je Charles naletel na težave, ker ni videl potrebe po pritožbi na javno mnenje ali temu, da bi svojim podanikom razložil svojo politiko. Pravzaprav je bil Charlesov režim precej prefinjen v svojem pristopu k politiki spina. Težava je bila v tem, da ljudje v 1630 -ih letih tega zanimanja niso uživali.

Stvari so se spremenile v letih 1641–42, ko je Dolgi parlament preigral svojo roko. Ko se je lotil tega, kar je videl kot zlorabe osebne vladavine, je zdaj začel pozivati ​​k daljnosežnejšim reformam v cerkvi in ​​državi, vključno z odpravo škofovstva in radikalnim omejevanjem kraljevske prerogative. Izven parlamenta so radikalni puritanci, razočarani zaradi počasnega poteka reform, začeli uničevati oltarne tirnice in vitraje ter motiti molitvenike.

Charlesov odgovor je bil sijajen: postaviti se za kralja, ki se je zavzemal za tradicionalno ustavo, pravno državo in škofovsko cerkev ter molitvenik proti grožnji političnega in verskega ekstremizma. Pri tem mu je uspelo veliko ljudi obrniti proti parlamentu in puritancem - seveda ne vsem, odkar je Anglija postala razdeljen narod, vendar dovolj, da je lahko razmišljal o boju proti državljanski vojni.

Ironično, državljanske vojne niso izbruhnile, ker Charles ni bil dober v politiki spina, ki so jo izbruhnili, ker je bil.

Tim Harris je profesor zgodovine na univerzi Brown na Rhode Islandu v ZDA, specializiran za britansko revolucionarno obdobje. Njegova knjiga, Upor: prvi britanski kraljevi Stuart, ki ga je objavila Oxford University Press, bo od 1. oktobra 2015 na voljo v mehki vezavi.


1603 Mountjoy konča osvajanje Irske. Smrt Elizabete.

1603 Jakob Prvi, umrl 1625.

1604 Parlament trdi, da obravnava oboje

Cerkev in država. Konferenca v Hampton Courtu.

Baconov napredek pri učenju. "1610 Parlamentova peticija za pritožbe. Nasad Ulster.

1613 Poroka volilca Palatina.

1614 Prvi prepiri s parlamentom.

1616 Sojenje grofu in grofici Somerset. Razrešitev vrhovnega sodnika Coca -Cole. Shaksperejeva smrt.

Predlogi za špansko poroko. Športna deklaracija.

1618 Odprava in smrt Ralegha.

1618 Začetek tridesetletne vojne.

1620 Invazija Pfalca.

Pristanek očetov romarjev v Novi Angliji.

1621 Baconov "Novum Organum". Obtožba slanine.

James raztrga Protestanto Commons.

1623 Potovanje princa Charlesa v Madrid.

1624 Rešitev vojne proti Španiji.

1625 Karlo Prvi, umrl 1649. Prvi parlament se je razpustil. Neuspeh odprave proti Cadizu.

1626 Buckinghamska obtožba. Drugi parlament razpuščen.

1627 Pristojbina in prisilno posojilo. Neuspeh odprave v Rochelle.

1628 Peticija pravice. Umor Buckinghama. Loud Londonski škof.

1629 Razpustitev tretjega parlamenta. Listina podeljena Massachusettsu. Wentworth Lord predsednik severa.

1630 Purigransko emigracijo v Novo Anglijo. 1633 Wentworth Lord namestnik na Irskem.

Laud nadškof Canterbury. Miltonova "Allegro" in "Penseroso". Prynnein "Histrio-mastix". 1634 Miltonov "Comus". 1636 Juxon Lord Blagajnik.

Knjiga kanonov in skupnih molitev, izdana za Škotsko. Hampden noče plačati ladijskega denarja.

1637 Edinburški upor. Sojenje Hampdenu.

1638 Miltonov "Lycidas". Škotska zaveza.

1639 Leslie pri zakonu Dunse. Pomiritev Berwicka.

1640 Kratki parlament. Škofovska vojna.

Veliki sestanek Sveta vrstnikov v parlamentu York Long se sestane, november Pym vodja skupnosti.

1641 Izguba Strafforda, maj Charles obišče Škotsko. Hyde organizira rojalistično zabavo. Irski pokol, okt.

Velika opomina, nov.

1642 Obtožba petih članov, januar Charles pred Hullom, april. Rojalisti se umaknejo iz parlamenta. Charles dvigne Standard v Nottinghamu, 22. avgusta. Bitka pri Edgehillu, 23. oktobra. Hobbes piše "De Cive".

1643 Zbor bogov v Westminsterju. Vstanek Kornižanov, maj. Hampdenova smrt, junij.

Battle of Roundway Down, July.

Charles negotiates with Irish Catholics.

Taking of the Covenant, Sept. 25.

1644 Fight at Cropredy Bridge, June. Battle of Marston Moor, July 2. Surrender of Parliamentary Army in Cornwall, Sept. 2.

Battle of Tippermuir, Sept. 2. Battle of Newbury, Oct. Milton's "Areopagitica".

1645 Seif-denying Ordinance, April. New Model raised.

Battle of Naseby, June 14. Battle of Philiphaugh, Sept.

1646 Charles surrenders to the Scots, May.

1647 Scots surrender Charles to the Houses, Jan. 30. Army elects Agitators, April. The King seized at Holmby House, June. "Humble Representation" of the Army, June. Expulsion of the Eleven Members. Army occupies London, Aug. Flight of the King, Nov.

1647 Secret Treaty of Charles with the Scots, Dec.

1648 Outbreak of the Royalist Revolt, Feb. Revolt of the Fleet, and of Kent, May. Fairfax and Cromwell in Essex and Wales, June - July. Battle of Preston, Aug. 17. Surrender of Colchester, Aug. 27 Pride's Purge, Dec. Royal Society begins at Oxford.

1649 Execution of Charles I., Jan. 30. Scotland proclaims Charles II. Kralj. England proclaims itself a Commonwealth. Cromwell storms Drogheda, Sept. 11.

1650 Cromwell enters Scotland. Battle of Dunbar, Sept. 3.

1651 Battle of Worcester, Sept. 3. Hobbes's ""Leviathan".

1652 Union with Scotland. Outbreak of Dutch War, May. Victory of Tromp, Nov.

1653 Victory of Blake, Feb.

Cromwell drives out the Parliament, April 20.

Constituent Convention (Barebones Parliament), July.

The Instrument of Government.

Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, died 1658.

1654 Peace concluded with Holland. First Protectorate Parliament, Sept.

1655 Dissolution of the Parliament, Jan. The Major-Generals. Settlement of Scotland and Ireland. Settlement of the Church.

Blake in the Mediterranean.

War with Spain and Conquest of Jamaica.

1656 Second Protectorate Parliament, Sept.

1657 Blake's victory at Santa Cruz. Cromwell refuses title of King. Act of Government.

1658 Parliament dissolved, Feb. Battle of the Dunes. Capture of Dunkirk. Death of Cromwell, Sept. 3. Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, died 1712.

1659 Third Protectorate Parliament. Parliament dissolved.

Long Parliament again driven out.

The "Convention" Parliament. Charles the Second,landsat Dover, May, died 1685.

1660 Union of Scotland and Ireland undone.

1661 Cavalier Parliament begins.

1662 Act of Uniformity re-enacted. Puritan clergy driven out. Royal Society at London,

1663 Dispensing Bill fails.

1665 Dutch War begins. Five Mile Act. Plague of London. Newton's Theory of Fluxions.

1667 The Dutch in the Medway. Dismissal of Clarendon. Peace of Breda.

Lewis attacks Flanders. Milton's " Paradise Lost".

1668 The Triple Alliance. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Ashley shrinks back from toleration to Catholics.

Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress " written 1671 Milton's "Paradise Regained" and " Samson Agonistes." Newton's Theory of Light.

1672 Closing of the Exchequer. Declaration of Indulgence. War begins with Holland. Ashley made Chancellor.

1673 Declaration of Indulgence withdrawn. The Test Act.

Shaftesbury dismissed. Shaftesbury takes the lead of the Country Party.

1674 Bill of Protestant Securities fails. Charles makes Peace with Holland. Danby Lord Treasurer.

1675 Treaty of mutual aid between Charles and Lewis.

1677 Shaftesbury sent to the Tower.

Bill for Security of the Church fails. Address of the Houses for War with France. Prince of Orange marries Mary.

Oates invents the Popish Plot.

1679 New Parliament meets. Fall of Danby.

New Ministry with Shaftesbury at its head. Temple's plan for a new Council. Habeas Corpus Act passed. Exclusion Bill introduced. Parliament dissolved. Shaftesbury dismissed.

1680 Committee for agitation formed.

1680 Monmouth pretends to the throne. Petitioners and Abhorrers. Exclusion Bill thrown out by the Lords. Trial of Lord Stafford.

1681 Parliament at Oxford. Treaty with France. Limitation Bill rejected. Shaftesbury and Monmouth arrested.

1682 Conspiracy and flight of Shaftesbury. Penn founds Pennsylvania.

1683 Death of Shaftesbury. Rye-house Plot.

Execution of Lord Russell and Algernon Sidney.

1684 Town charters quashed. Army increased.

1685 James the Second, died 1701. Insurrection of Argyll and Monmouth. Battle of Sedgemoor, July 6.

The Bloody Circuit. Army raised to 20,000 men.

1685 Revocation of Edict of Nantes.

1686 Test Act dispensed with by royal authority. Ecclesiastical Commission set up.

Expulsion of the Fellows of Magdalen.

Dismissal of Lords Rochester and Clarendon.

Declaration of Indulgence.

William of Orange protests against the Declaration.

Tyrconnell made Lord Deputy in Ireland.

1688 Clergy refuse to read the new Declaration of Indulgence. Birth of James's son. Invitation to William. Trial of the Seven Bishops. Irish troops brought over to England. Lewis attacks Germany. William of Orange lands at Torbay. Flight of James.


Root and Branch Petition

What is the best form of church government? Should there be bishops ruling in a hierarchical order, should each congregation be independent, should councils and synods establish church policy, or should a church be organized along some other lines? These issues were being fiercely debated in England in the seventeenth century. On December 11, 1640 , the citizens of London presented a petition with 15,000 signatures to Parliament. Known as the "Root and Branch Petition", it sought to sweep away the existing church hierarchy with its "roots and branches."

The petition listed dozens of reasons for being rid of the existing system. Its second point can be taken as an example of the whole document. The evil it complained of was "The faint-heartedness of ministers to preach the truth of God, lest they should displease the prelates [churchmen of high rank] as namely, the doctrine of predestination, of free grace, of perseverance, of original sin remaining after baptism, of the Sabbath, the doctrine against universal grace, election for faith foreseen, freewill against Antichrist, non-residents, human inventions in God's worship all which are generally withheld from the people's knowledge, because not relishing [ie: not pleasing] to the bishops."

The Parliament which received the "Root and Branch Petition" became known as the Long Parliament. It was called by King Charles I out of his desperate need for money and lasted for twenty years. Once called, the Parliament took measures to destroy the absolutism of the King in both civil and religious affairs. The House of Commons accepted the "Root and Branch Petition" and passed the "Roots and Branch Bill." A majority of the members believed the office of bishop and the policies of Archbishop Laud should be destroyed, but they were not sure what form of church government to put in their place. As one member, Oliver Cromwell said, "I can tell you, sirs, what I would not have, though I cannot what I would."

There were several options available once the old hierarchy of rule by king-appointed bishops was abolished. Some wanted a state church with a commission chosen by Parliament replacing the bishops some wanted a form of Scottish Presbyterianism. Others wanted an independent church, with each individual congregation controlling its own affairs. In the end, the House of Commons favored Presbyterianism while the Army favored the Independents. The House of Lords (which included many bishops), opposed the Root and Branch Bill entirely. They resented any pressure from the people to reorganize their House. Ultimately, the Bill was rejected by the House of Lords, and the episcopal organization of the Church of England remained in place.


WW2 1940

None were sorry to see the back of 1939, but those wishing for a peaceful and happy new year were in for a rude awakening. Vklopljeno 1 January conscription was extended to all men aged between 20 and 27, and on 8 January food rationing was introduced – starting with butter, sugar and bacon. Other foods were soon to follow, as was the rationing of fuel and clothing. Also of little cheer was news that since the start of blackout regulations *4,133 people had been killed on Britain’s roads, 2,657 of which were pedestrians. 30,000 had been injured.

*At this time road fatalities were nearly twice as many than had been killed by enemy action.

The snow and freezing conditions that affected Britain and Europe in December, continued into January – the end of the month proving to be this country&rsquos coldest since 1894. The British people, who only a few months earlier had prepared themselves for annihilation from air attacks, now found themselves having to endure the petty miseries of the blackout, burst water pipes, milk freezing on doorsteps and no coal supplies. The Thames froze over, 1500 miles of railtrack was impassable, villages were cut off, and shops were bare of vegetables because they couldn’t be dug from the frozen earth.

Vklopljeno 6 February the ‘Careless Talk Costs Lives’ campaign was launched on 22 February two IRA bombs exploded in London, and on 11 March all meat was rationed.

But still no attack came and as the long, cold winter finally gave way to Spring, thousands more evacuees returned to their city homes. Then on 9 April, in a surprise attack consistent with their Blitzkrieg tactics, German Forces stormed into Norway and Denmark. Their successful invasion marked the end of the so called Phoney War and the start of war in western Europe. On the Home Front, however, the public remained largely unaffected by all this for another month.

17 April: The film ‘Gone With The Wind’ starring Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh, was released in the UK 23 April: Budget Day. Tax on beer raised by 1d a pint, whiskey up 1s. 9d and postage up 1d

Vklopljeno 9 May the age for conscription in Britain rose to 36, and on 10 May German Forces turned their attention towards Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and France. That same day Neville Chamberlain resigned as Prime Minister and Winston Churchill took his place. Hitler’s formidable invasion of the Netherlands and subsequent push into western Europe now made war a stark reality for the British people.

Vklopljeno 11 May the King signed a proclamation cancelling the Whitsun Bank Holiday, and on 13 May (Whit Monday) Churchill addressed the House for the first time as Prime Minister. He told assembled MPs he had nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat, that his only policy was to wage war and his only aim was victory.

There followed on the evening of 14 May an urgent appeal from the British foreign secretary Anthony Eden, broadcast by the BBC, asking all men aged between 17 and 65 and not already serving in the armed forces, to become part-time soldiers. The response was astonishing. Within 24 hours of the appeal, over 250,000 men had applied to become Local Defence Volunteers.

15 May: Holland surrendered to Germany 20. maj: Germans were on the coast of France looking across the English Channel 22 May: The entire British fighter force of 300 planes was withdrawn from France

That same month there was some concern about the activities of the supposed *Fifth Column in Britain, and rumours of German Fifth Columnists being parachuted in to help undermine the war effort. The threat was real, but true to form the British sense of humour shone through – political cartoonists and satirists having a field-day with the subject. It was even parodied by the H&E Observer’s gardening expert, Roy Hay. In his column dated 25 May, under the headline ‘Look out For Parachute Troops’, he wrote ‘This is the time of year when all sorts of ‘fifth columnists’ of the insect world try to wreck all the good work you have put in during the winter months. The worst offender is the Flea beetle.. ‘

*Fifth Columnist is the term used for a group within a nation that sympathises with and secretly works with the enemy

Nazi Germany’s surprise invasion of the Low Countries and France, outnumbered and so overwhelmed the British Expeditionary Force that they were forced to retreat back to the small Channel port of Dunkirk where they remained trapped on the beaches. The subsequent evacuation by the Royal Navy, starting on 26 May, of over 338,000 Allied troops back to England also owed much to civilians in their ‘little boats’, but all of the expeditionary force’s military hardware was lost. The rescue of so many was hailed by the government and press as a victory, though it was in fact a humiliating defeat.

German bombing of Paris on 3 June prompted the British Government to pass a law requiring all householders in possession of an Anderson shelter to have them erected and earthed-up by 11 June. Vklopljeno 10 June Italy declared war on Britain and France, and on 17 June France surrendered to Germany. With the enemy now camped 30 miles across the Channel, war was suddenly a lot closer to home and a second evacuation moved over 200,000 school children away from the most vulnerable areas of possible invasion in southern and eastern England. The Germans consolidated their positions and the British prepared for invasion – the first such threat since the days of Napoleon in 1804.

Such depressing events are usually synonymous with grey, cold wintry weather, but June heralded the start of a truly glorious British summer. Clear blue skies were the norm every day and a top temperature of 90 degrees F (32C).

One reader of the H&E Observer wrote that he was worried by the suggestion in the national press that church towers should be used as lookout posts for home defence, reasoning they could then be termed as ‘military objects’ and therefore vulnerable to attack and destruction. Winston Churchill, in his speech to the nation on *18 June, put things into perspective for the concerned gentleman ‘..the Battle of France is over – I expect the Battle of Britain is about to begin.’

Perhaps in response to Churchill’s speech, that night the Luftwaffe sent 120 bombers to attack eastern England, which included Cambridge. Nine people were killed when a row of houses was destroyed there.

In fact, Britain was now extremely vulnerable to attack by the Luftwaffe. The battle for France had left Fighter Command with just 768 planes in operational squadrons, of which only 520 were fit for operations. Matters weren’t helped by replacement aircraft from North America taking so long to produce, forcing Britain to fight with only what its own factories could produce.

Government finances were also stretched to the limit, so at the end of June the newspaper magnate Lord Beaverbrook, who was also Minister of Aircraft Production, instigated the *’Spitfire Fund’ – a fund into which individuals, companies, organisations or towns could donate money to buy replacement fighters. A nominal sum of £5,000 was quoted as the cost of a Spitfire, though the true cost was more like £15,000. Nationwide, the fund raised an astonishing £2.5 million in the first six weeks, although Bishop’s Stortford’s objective to raise £7,500 proved too optimistic. When the fund closed on 31 January 1941, donations from public collections and private donations amounted to just £3,084. 10s. 6d.

*Most of the money raised through the fund went to build Spitfire Mark IIs that were introduced in late 1940, early 1941

In the meantime, preparations to repel a full-scale invasion of the British mainland were hastened on 30 June when German troops landed on the Channel island of Guernsey. In towns and cities, iron in any form of gates and railings was removed for salvage and in rural areas pillboxes were built and anti-tank traps put in place. All signposts and milestones were removed or defaced.

In order to save roughly a thousand tons of copper a year, essential for munition making, June also saw the government suspend the minting of pennies. Pennies were made from bronze, which were nearly all copper. More economical to make was the twelve-sided threepenny bits, which people were urged to use instead.

Locally the RAF chose a former First World War airfield on the outskirts of Mathams Wood at Thorley as a suitable landing ground for No 2 (Army Cooperation) Squadron – within months extending it to 77 acres. It then became RAF Sawbridgeworth for the duration of the war. (For a brief history of the airfield see Thorley) An ammunition dump was sited in the spinney at Henley Hearne spring, Thorley.

Haymeads hospital became an annexe for the London Hospital, caring for walking wounded soldiers, at the same time being expanded to take casualties from any future bombing. The chance of London hospitals being bombed at this time was extremely high, so to protect expectant mothers the War Office requisitioned many large properties outside of London for use as maternity hospitals. Locally, this included *Twyford House at Pig Lane, where it is said 693 babies were born between 1940 and the end of the war (See Thorley Guide).

Most women were evacuated when nearing the end of their pregnancy, those sent to Stortford being first accommodated either on local farms or at No 50 Hockerill Street until the time came to enter Twyford House and give birth. Locals with their sense of humour still intact renamed Pig Lane, Pudding Lane.

Norwich had its first raid on 9 July, the Coleman’s Mustard factory being hit and several workers losing their lives.

Vklopljeno 23 July, more than 1,300,000 Local Defence Volunteers had their name changed to Home Guard – the headquarters of Bishop’s Stortford’s Home Guard being the Drill Hall at Market Square (See Market Square – Guide 2). Thorley&rsquos Home Guard headquarters was at Oxford House, White Posts in Stortford, with nearby Twyford Mill used as a base for one of its platoons commanded by Tom Streeter. Later promoted to Major Streeter and Company Commander he was ably assisted by Lieut. George Wilson, an ex naval man and signals expert who at that time owned a tobacconists in South Street.

Also announced on 23 July was the third War Budget: income tax increasing by 1d to 8s. 6d. (42 1/2p) in the pound, beer going up 1d a pint, and a 33% purchase tax introduced on luxury items.

July: Tea and margarine rationed

August Bank Holiday was officially cancelled this year but on 8. avgusta, British Forces pay was increased by 6d per day putting a private’s wage up to 17s 6d a week.

For Hitler’s invasion of Britain – code-named ‘Operation Sea Lion’ – to succeed, German control of the air was vital to protect their invasion fleet. To this end, starting 10 July, the Luftwaffe probed for weaknesses, relentlessly attacking convoys in the channel, coastal towns, RDF stations, airfields and factories. Then on 8. avgusta they implemented phase two of their strategy – to destroy the aircraft of Fighter Command on the ground or in the air.

Airfields in South East England including nearby Duxford and North Weald were constantly targeted, the daily wail of Stortford’s air-raid sirens and the drone of approaching German bombers becoming an all too familiar sound to local people.

The bishop of Chelmsford at the time was Dr Henry Albert Wilson, a colourful and outspoken man whose strong opinions regularly featured in the monthly Chelmsford Diocesan Chronicle and also in the H&E Observer. He was of the opinion that the way in which the warning of an air raid was given was a psychological blunder. The old saying ‘Whistle to keep your courage up is a scientific truth’ he said, ‘but the depressing wail of the air-raid siren was like the cry of a lost soul.’ He thought its affect was profoundly bad on the individual, and though admitting to getting used to the wailing siren himself, he thought a warning which had a note of cheery defiance would save many people a great deal of unnecessary distress. To this end he suggested that a ‘gay cock-a-doodle-do’ repeated half-a-dozen times would be in the nature of a whistle to keep up the courage of the people. Needless to say his suggestion was ignored and the familiar wail of the sirens continued, as did German raids and air battles over Britain.

Vital to the public’s safety at this time was the building of public air raid shelters, though in the town their provision by Bishop’s Stortford UDC was always a contentious issue. The government may well have subsidised construction costs, but the council was always hard-pressed to find its share of the cash. The only solution was to take out a loan or increase the general rates, the latter option being chosen when £600 was needed towards the total cost of £1,710 for nine public shelters. This resulted in a twopence in the Pound increase on the half yearly rates.

To keep expenditure to a minimum the council later bought 200,000 second-hand bricks with which to build more shelters, but even then construction proved an ordeal. One proposal by the council for two communal shelters at the station was constantly delayed because, first and foremost, a site had to be determined in conjunction with the railway authorities. Design was also an issue but when two sites were finally agreed upon it was then found that a shortage of materials [other than bricks] meant that only one shelter could be built.

All public and communal shelters were brick-built surface type with concrete roofs. This design wasn’t favoured for safety reasons and townspeople didn’t want them, but they were quick and easy to construct so that’s what they got. Public shelters were built at various points in the town including Market Square, Bridge Street and Portland Road – the latter being the largest with a reinforced concrete roof, three entrances, electric lights, and seating for up to 700 people. Waterside school at Water Lane, and Hockerill girls and boys schools at London Road were both fortunate enough to have a cellar converted for use as a shelter by pupils and staff. All other schools n the town had brick-built surface type shelters.

In the sky the battle for air supremacy continued, with dogfights between British and German fighters often taking place over Thorley. Bombs were also dropped on Thorley, sometimes randomly, including one night a Molotov basket of incendiary bombs that landed near to Moor Hall Cottages and lit up the sky for miles around.

By the middle of August, relentless attacks by the Luftwaffe had the RAF firmly on the back foot, and even more so when they switched to nighttime bombing of airfields and aircraft factories to delay repair and production. The turning point, however, came on the night of 23/24 August when bombs were accidentally dropped on London civilians – something Hitler had strictly forbidden. Bomber Command replied the following night by bombing Berlin, though the fear then was that British cities would now suffer even more raids. School children were once again evacuated to the safety of the countryside, including many of those who had returned home during the Phoney War period.

The first high explosive bomb to fall on Hertfordshire was at London Colney in June 1940. Bishop’s Stortford experienced its first aerial bombardment on 31. avgust: several incendiaries causing damage to one house in the area but with no casualties. This isolated incident was probably the action of a marauding bomber.

Mass attacks on airfields and factories continued until 7 September, when Hitler, enraged by the bombing of Berlin and by the Luftwaffe’s failure to destroy the RAF, turned his attention to London and other major cities in an attempt to demoralize the population and force Britain to come to terms. This was the beginning of the Blitz (short for Blitzkrieg), massed bombing raids that continued for the next consecutive 57 days and nights. *Civilians were constantly in the front line and casualties were high, but Hitler’s change of tactics did give the RAF time to rebuild airfields, regroup, and deploy their own tactics that during daytime raids dealt heavy losses on the Luftwaffe.

*Between 7 September and 12 November, 13,000 tons of high explosive and about 1 million incendiary shells fell on London. 13,000 civilians were killed and more than 20,000 injured.

Vklopljeno 15 September, massive German air raids took place on London, Southampton, Bristol, Cardiff, Liverpool and Manchester. The market town of Bishop’s Stortford was somewhat more fortunate with just two isolated bombings this month. Local people would have been fully aware of where the bombs dropped but because censorship forbid newspapers to specify where war related damage or casualties occurred, newspaper reports of enemy action were always ambiguous. In reference to the local raid on 16/17 September, H&E Observer (dated 21 September) reported the following: Lone German raiders were flying almost continually over one district in Eastern England throughout Monday night and the early hours of Tuesday morning. Bombs were scattered over a wide area but damage was confined to two villages.

The local ARP report of the same bombings was a little more succinct: 17 Sept 1940: Several High explosives in fields east and west of Bishop’s Stortford, no damage, no casualties.

Vklopljeno 20 September, Viscount Hampden officially opened the town’s new police station in High Street, to which provision had been made (by an electrician) to install an additional siren for the town on its roof at a cost of £47. Half of this amount would be met by government grant.

That same day ARP recorded: 1 High explosives north of Bishop’s Stortford, no damage, no casualties.

The H&E Observer, dated 21 September, carried all the general local news including fund raising events, local sport reports and details of Petty Sessions hearings. It also included the following rather amusing report:

A German pilot gave a five-mark note on Sunday 7 September 1940 to the mayor of Chatham’s Spitfire Fund. The pilot, who had been shot down by RAF fighters of Kent earlier in the day, was being escorted under armed guard by train through Chatham. The train pulled up with the pilot’s compartment opposite the refreshment buffet. A waitress held out her Spitfire Fund collecting box, and the pilot, who was made to understand what the box was for, obtained his wallet from one of the escort and smilingly pushed a note into the box. It has been suggested that the note should be auctioned for the fund.

The last major bombing raid on Britain in daylight hours was 30 September

To instill fear in the wider population, towns and villages around major cities were often subjected to attack by lone German aircraft, and to random bombing – especially at night. Pilots unable to reach their targets due to anti-aircraft fire, bad weather or damage to their aircraft, regularly jettisoned their bombs wherever they thought damage might be caused. Never was the need to adhere to blackout regulations made more clear than when one captured German pilot told how they were ordered to drop bombs wherever they saw a glimmer of light.

This being the case it would seem that Bishop&rsquos Stortford was extremely lucky not to be bombed more frequently. For despite vigilant ARP wardens barking the order to &lsquoPut that light out&rsquo, many residents took no heed. Testimony to this is the large number of fines regularly imposed by Magistrate on individuals who didn&rsquot comply with *blackout regulations.

*In 1940, 300,000 people nationwide were taken to court for blackout offences

Even so, the town was a veritable haven when compared to London&rsquos war-torn East End and soon became a popular destination for firms wanting to get away from the Blitz. One such firm was a cork making factory that had been resident in London’s East End since the 1800s. Owned by a Mr T Briggs of Portland Road, and before him his father, he not only moved his business to Stortford but also his employees and their families, setting up a factory at Anchor Yard (See Guide 11 – Riverside).

Also to arrive here from London’s East End at that time was a small processing plant, absolutely vital to the war effort. This was the London Hospital (Ligature Department) Ltd, responsible for the production of catgut used for suture after operations and for wounds. Demand for the product greatly increased when war broke out, so to protect the costly equipment used for the final process both plant and staff were moved here for the duration of the war and production continued in the club-house of Bishop’s Stortford Golf Club (See Guide 10 – Brooke Gardens).

British civilian casualties for the month of September: 6,954 dead, 10,615 injured

Vklopljeno 3 October Neville Chamberlain resigned from the War Cabinet, and on 7 October German troops entered Romania. Winston Churchill became leader of the Conservative Party

Safe haven or not, with ever more German bombing raids on Britain it was clear that those residents of Bishop&rsquos Stortford with no domestic shelter of their own would need protection. The council&rsquos response was a community shelter scheme costing an estimated £11,640, of which the council was expected to contribute £2,000. But as work on the project began so too did the bombing, marking October as the most memorable month in Bishop’s Stortford&rsquos war. ARP, who was required to record all bombing incidents, filed more reports this month than any other. The following (in bold type) are some of them.

8 October 1940: 3 high explosives at Foxdells Farm, half a mile NW of Bishop’s Stortford, no damage, no casualties.

It may well have been this incident that prompted Tresham Gilbey, who lived at Whitehall, to build an air raid shelter in the middle of a field at nearby Dane O Coys. The remains of the shelter are still visible (See Guide 5 – Dane ‘O Coys).

9 October 1940: 5 high explosives couple of miles WNW of Bishop’s Stortford, no damage or casualties.

10 Oct 1940: 3 high explosives in fields at Wickham Hall, no damage or casualties

3 high explosives in Bishop’s Stortford, 2 in Girls Training College, 1 house demolished, 3 girls killed, road blocked .

The latter incident caused Bishop&rsquos Stortford’s only recorded deaths by direct bombing during the entire war. Reports since that time have varied as to exactly what happened that night. Some suggest it was random bombing, while others believe a marauding aircraft was trying to destroy a train travelling on the nearby branch line. Three bombs were dropped, the first hitting the Dunmow Road outside the college causing a large crater and damage to gas and water mains. Of the two remaining bombs, one exploded in open ground but the other made a direct hit on Menet House – accommodation within the college grounds used by students and staff. Three girl students were killed instantly. Rescue services worked through the night to free seven other students and a ecturer trapped in the rubble. One member of the rescue services, John Jarvis, later told how the building had imploded and that the bodies of the three girls were found sitting in armchairs completely grey from the blast.

16 Oct 1940: 5 high explosives one mile north of Bishop’s Stortford, no damage or casualties 8 high explosives in northern outskirts of Bishop’s Stortford, no damage or casualties.

18 Oct 1940: 1 high explosive south side of Bishop’s Stortford, damage to72 houses, no casualties.

21 Oct 1940: 1 oil incendiary at Bishop’s Stortford, no damage or casualties 1 high explosive at Woodside Green, Bishop’s Stortford – 2 houses and outbuildings damaged, no casualties.

28 Oct 1940: 20 high explosives south and SE of Bishop’s Stortford, damage to farm property and Haymeads Emergency Hospital and to wall of South Mill Lock on Stort Navigation – 1 man seriously injured, 5 men slightly injured.

30 Oct 1940: several high explosives north east of Bishop’s Stortford near Stansted Road, damage to telephone wires, electric cable and house, no casualties.

British civilian casualty figures for October: 6,334 killed and 8,695 seriously injured

During September and October, two German aircraft crashed in the Bishop’s Stortford area: one at Thorley Wash the other on the very edge of town, close to St Michael’s church.

The following details of the Thorley Wash crash are taken from ‘WAR-TORN SKIES – Hertforshire’ by Julian Evan-Hart.

The crash occurred at 23.40 hrs on Thursday 19 September. Whilst flying over its London target, a Heinkel He 111 is thought to have sustained damage by anti-aircraft fire. The pilot flew on, but the aircraft lost height and disintegrated in the air just before impact in marshy ground at Thorley Wash. Three crew members were killed and one was seriously injured. Preživel je. On crashing, the plane’s tail broke away and landed at Latchmore Bank, the wings and fuel tanks lay at the side of the main A11 road (now the B183), and the engines and cockpit came down near the river Stort. The bomb load was still on board when the plane crashed and up until the 1960s the tip of a propeller blade could still be seen protruding from the marsh during winter when the reeds died away.

Even now evidence of the wreckage can still be seen at the crash site, since an oily patch shows through when the field floods. The remains of the three bodies were among the first to be buried in the newly constructed cemetery at Havers, but after the war were removed and laid to rest in Saffron Walden cemetery. To this day the plot of land in which they were buried at Havers has never been used and remains a gap between between gravestones. The only reminder of the three airmen is in an entry in the Bishop’s Stortford cemetery register.

The second crash occurred on Wednesday 16 October. A general report in the H&E Observer of enemy action ‘in the Home Counties’ that week, did mention the crash but gave no details of the location. Local people, however, certainly knew where the aircraft came down. The newspaper’s report was as follows:

On Wednesday, for the second night in succession, people in a Home Counties town witnessed the end of a German raider. About 7 o’clock in the evening soon after the ‘alert’ siren had sounded, a ‘plane was heard flying very low across the town. Seconds later terrific sheets of flame lit up the whole town as the ‘plane, a Junkers 88, crashed by the side of a road, splitting into pieces. The local fire brigade attended and for over an hour flames leapt into the sky, while over-head could be heard the roar of night fighters. The crew perished with their machine, and it is known that at least three were blown to pieces. A burnt parachute was found in a nearby tree, but it is not known whether anybody had attempted to make a parachute descent. Official reports state that the bomber was brought down by anti-aircraft fire.

Julian Evan-Hart’s research has since revealed further details of the crash.

The crash occurred at 19.50 hrs on Wednesday 16 October 1940. A large explosion was seen and heard in the sky above Stortford, followed by a second explosion as a Junkers JU88A-5 crashed into the ground in the vicinity of St Michael’s church, near Great Hadham Road. The cause of the explosion in the air is unknown as no local anti-aircraft (AA) fire or sounds of attack by a night fighter were heard in the area. It appeared more likely the aircraft was hit by local AA fire some distance away and any damage later caused it to explode. Much of the debris was spread across Cable Field (now College Fields) and land bordering the Great Hadham Road. The remains of some crew members were found in a large Chestnut tree, along with shredded and partly deployed parachutes. The tree still remains, though the site of the crash has since disappeared under a housing estate built in the 1990s.

By the end of Oktober, as the weather worsened, the Germans finally realised that the RAF couldn’t be defeated. Hitler postponed his invasion of Britain indefinitely, turning his attention to Russia instead. The Battle of Britain was over but the bombing of London and other major cities continued until 11 May 1941, as did random bombing and enemy attacks by lone marauding German aircraft, locally.

ARP report for 8 Nov 1940 records: 25 high explosives at Woodside Green, two miles west of Bishop’s Stortford, no damage or casualties.

Also that month the H&E Observer reported ‘Dogfight Over Town After Daylight Raid’. No specific detail was given but we can assume the ‘town’ was Bishop&rsquos Stortford. The report told how a hospital in the Home Counties was the victim of a lone bomber who came out of low clouds from the direction of London. Prior to releasing 10 high explosive bombs, the plane sustained damage from an attacking patrolling fighter aircraft. Nine of the bombs fell in an adjoining field, while the tenth demolished part of a new hutment that was being erected. Several workmen received light injuries, including one who was temporarily buried in the ditch he was digging. His friend who was standing within a few feet of where the bomb exploded wasn’t even scratched but was more concerned about his lunch, which had been buried under a pile of debris. Hospital staff who had rushed to their aid, stood bemused as the workman let out a volley of expletives at the loss of his sandwiches.

Not reported in the paper was the crash of a Hawker Hurricane in Bishop&rsquos Stortford on 24 November, though whether caused by accident or enemy action is unkown (by me).

Since the start of war, evacuees had increased the town’s population by 50 percent, with 2,700 extra people arriving since July of 1940. This raised concern that not enough public shelters were available for the town’s growing population, though complaints were counteracted by the publics indifference to air raids. Despite the danger a great many people didn&rsquot bother to take cover during daytime warnings, leaving shelters almost empty. This lack of concern was also shown by the town&rsquos *cinema goers. The slide caption &lsquoThe Air Raid Siren has just been sounded, the show will continue for those wishing to stay&rsquo became an all to familiar interference and most people continued to watch the film they had paid to see.

*Matinees for children at special charges were introduced on Thursdays and Saturdays and later in 1940 on Wednesday afternoons also. One of the most popular films shown in 1940 was &lsquoThe Wizard of Oz.&rsquo

Nighttime air raid warnings were a little different, many people taking cover in shelters and then sleeping in them all night. This included entire families from London who travelled here by train or by car – a practice that had been going on since the start of the Blitz in September. Another issue was the disgusting state that shelters were left in after the public had used them, and vandalism to fittings.

Despite all this, seven public shelters were now to have sleeping accommodation while no fewer than 108 extra communal shelters were to be built at a cost of not less than £16,000. The argument against surface shelters continued though, one council members suggesting that an underground shelter be built at South Lawn in South Street to accommodate people living in that densely populated area. When it was pointed out that the sub soil in Stortford wasn’t suitable for the construction of such a shelter, it was then suggested that unemployed miners should be hired to excavate the site. Needless to say, deep shelters were finally ruled out.

British civilian casualty figures for November: 4,588 killed, 6,202 injured

There were no public shelters in Thorley but each household had its own shelter, be it Anderson or Morrison. The problem was, the town&rsquos air-raid siren couldn&rsquot always be heard at Thorley Park so residents suggested that Featherby&rsquos in London Road sounded their factory hooter whenever a raid was imminent. Whether or not this option was in place by 8 December is unknown but at 5.40 that evening, Stortford&rsquos air-raid alert sounded and not until thirteen-and-a-half-hours later was the all-clear given.

Local ARP report for 9 December 1940: 1 high explosive 550 yards north of the station at Bishop’s Stortford, no damage or casualties.

Christmas Day was celebrated as normal but Boxing Day Bank Holiday was officially cancelled. The night of 29/30 December saw the most devastating raids to date on London’s East End and docks.

British civilian casualties figures for December: 3,793 killed, 5,244 injured


Poglej si posnetek: War and Peace HD film 2 - Natasha Rostova historical, directed by Sergey Bondarchuk, 1967 (Maj 2022).