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Resnična zgodovina nindže

Resnična zgodovina nindže


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Resnična zgodovina nindže: dokumentarni film o nindžarskih bojevnikih starodavne Japonske (celoten dokumentarni film).


Resnična zgodovina za najstniškimi želvami ninjami

Filmski gledalci bodo ob koncu tedna odšli Najstniške mutantske želve ninja: Izven sence, zadnja inkarnacija stripovske, igračne, risane in filmske franšize, ki je svetu predstavila četverico najstniških želv, ki ustavijo kriminal. Kot bo vedel vsak oboževalec likov, so postali mutanti, potem ko je tovornjak, ki je prevažal posodo z radioaktivno goo, kemikalije razlil na želve, ki so jih po naključju spustile v kanalizacijo v New Yorku. Tam jih je našel podgan Splinter, ki jih je izučil v veščinah boja proti nindžam, da bi lahko zaščitili nedolžne pred tolpo zlih nindž, ki jih vodi sovražnik, imenovan Shredder.

Tako so tako izmišljeni, kot jih lahko dobijo izmišljeni liki.

TIME je pojasnil, kako sta ustvarjalca zgodbe Peter Laird in Kevin Eastman prišla do koncepta, ko je leta 1990 izšel prvi film Ninja Turtles:

Neko noč leta 1983 & mdash in nihče se ne spomni, zakaj je navdihnil & mdash. Eastman je narisal humanizirano želvo, ki je nosila masko ninja in nosila rezilo katane. Zamisel o počasni želvi kot hitrem in spretnem nindži jih je razbila. Do konca večera so umetniki ustvarili štiri želve. Eastman jih je hitro krstil za Ninja želve, nato pa je Laird v absurdnem miganju na dve izmed najbolj priljubljenih tem v stripih takrat podaljšal ime v Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles …

Čeprav so bili stripi takojšen hit, Turtlemania ni dosegla velikega časa, dokler ni agent za izdajanje dovoljenj v New Yorku Mark Freedman ponudil prodajo junakov …Freedman je preklical posel s Playmates Toys, ki pa je sponzoriral prve televizijske epizode.

Toda to ne pomeni, da Ninja želve niso del resnične zgodovine in več desetletij dolge ameriške pop-kulturne zgodovine in stoletne vojaške zgodovine.

Najbolj neposredno so na želve vplivale vizije nindž v stripih Frank Miller, na primer Srček in Ronin, in s filmi, ki so od šestdesetih let 20. stoletja popularizirali figure posebej usposobljenega borilnega mojstra. Ta hollywoodska različica ninje je nastala po filmu o Jamesu Bondu iz leta 1967 Živiš samo dvakrat pravzaprav slovarji pogosto sledijo prvi priljubljeni uporabi besede ninja na zahodu do knjižne različice ustvarjalca Bonda Iana Fleminga. John Man, avtor knjige Ninja: 1.000 let bojevnika v senci,trdi, da na skupino TMNT vpliva tudi koncept ninje, ki ga je Bodi Kwouk parodiral Rožnati panter filmi. “Ta slika prevladuje nad vsem, kar vsi vedo ‘poznal ’ o ninjah, ” pravi, in večina je mit. “ Podoba ninje je človek v črnem, katerega cilj v življenju je prelomiti, vstopiti, ukrasti in ubiti, za kar je treba biti tudi strokovnjak za borilne veščine … Učitelji trdijo, da so avtoriteto in sposobnosti podedovali skozi generacije. & Rsquos smeti. ”

Zgodovinarji trdijo, da hollywoodska fantazija temelji na ljudskih pravljicah in legendah, ki se prenašajo skozi leta in ki dejansko temeljijo na resnični tradiciji na srednjeveški Japonski.

Večina navedb prvih pravih nindž sega v Japonsko iz 16. stoletja, čas državljanske vojne med poveljniki. Boji so privedli do povpraševanja po usposobljenih strokovnjakih, ki bi lahko izvajali atentate in tajne operacije, vendar verjetno v okviru normalne vojaške poveljniške verige, pravi Stephen Turnbull, gostujoči profesor japonskih študij na Mednarodni univerzi Akita na Japonskem in avtor prihodnjih knjigo Mit o ninjah. Takrat so bili običajno znani kot “shinobi, ” beseda, ki se je po besedah ​​njihovih likov pisala kot zamenljiva z besedo “ninja, ”. (Obstaja teorija, ki se je na zahodu ujela “ninja ”, ker jo je lažje reči v angleščini.)

Eden od razlogov, zakaj so si ninje morda razvile sloves, da so "specializiran dedni kult" ali "celoten nov razred borilnih mož", je morda povezan s tem, kako je bil izraz sčasoma razložen v japonskih besedilih, trdi Turnbull . “ Ko ljudje berejo stare račune, je težnja, da besedo preberejo tako, kot ti govori WHO to počne, ” razlaga, “ vendar verjamem, da vam pove, kako se nekaj dela, da karkoli se počne, se to počne#tajno. ”

Medtem ko so želve ninja morda trgale ljubkega ninja na trgu ”, kot pravi Turnbull, ima njihova popkulturna vzdržljivost morda manj opraviti s preteklostjo in bolj s sporočilom današnjih gledalcev. , vsaj tako pravi Richard Rosenbaum, avtor besedila o kulturnih študijah Dvignite lupino.


Prava zgodovina nindže - zgodovina

Naslednji esej poskuša razložiti zgodovino in razvoj ninjutsuja od antičnih časov do danes. Upam, da bom s preučevanjem različnih zgodovinskih zapisov skupaj z analizo posebne strategije boja, metod in orožja osvetlil, kaj je postalo običajno, čeprav izkrivljeno znanje. Esej ni označen v skladu z akademskimi smernicami iz tehničnih razlogov, zato morda ne bo prepričal zelo skeptičnega bralca, ki je akademsko usposobljen. Upam lahko le, da bo vsak, ki bo prebral ta esej, ostal odprt in iskal logiko v vsebini, če ne opomb.

Drug, morda neakademski vidik tega eseja je vključitev mojih osebnih izkušenj tako v Ninpo/Ninjutsu kot v sodobno vojskovanje, kot sem se naučil, vadil in (na žalost) moral izvesti. Ker moja vojaška posebnost zelo spominja na predmoderno ninjo, se mi ne zdi potrebno vzdržati osebnega sodelovanja. Nasprotno, moje primerjave med predmodernim nindžo in sodobnim bojevnikom, ki je specializiran za prikrite vojne metode, temeljijo na resničnih izkušnjah iz vojnih razmer, ne na pisnih zapisih. Kljub temu ima ta esej močan akademski vidik, ker ne gre zgolj za moje lastne misli in želje o tem, kako bi rad videl ninjutsu. Zanašam se na razpoložljive dokumentarne dokaze, ki jih zgodovinarji običajno sprejemajo kot zanesljive vire, pri tem pa upoštevam tudi, kaj ni na voljo. Z drugimi besedami, pri oblikovanju zgodovine ninjutsuja uporabljam razumno količino analize in kritičnega razmišljanja.

Končno se zdi, da bo ta esej veliko daljši, kot sem prej načrtoval. Zato sem se odločil, da ga objavim na spletnem mestu. Vsak vikend bom poskušal dodati eno temo, začenši z razdelkom o zgodovinski podobi ninjutsuja in težavah odkrivanja in oblikovanja njegove zgodovine.

Težave pri obravnavi zgodovine Ninjutsu

Sledenje izvoru Ninpo/Ninjutsu je problematično zaradi številnih razlogov, o katerih bi najprej govoril. Za poklicnega zgodovinarja gradnja zgodovine pomeni iskanje prepričljivih dokazov. Boljši kot so dokazi, močnejši bo argument. Takšne dokaze običajno najdemo v različnih dokumentih, med drugim v dnevnikih, kronikah, zgodbah, slikah, osebni korespondenci in pravnih dokumentih. V primeru ninjutsu so dokumentarni dokazi nejasni ali pa niso izvirno besedilo. To pomeni, da so zvitki in knjige tradicij ninjutsuja, v katerih ugotavljamo, da so tehnike tradicije in vojaška strategija novejše kopije prejšnjih besedil. Nimamo besedil, ki bi jih prenesli od ustanovitelja te tradicije do sedanjega naslednika. Ninjutsu v japonski zgodovini so vedno skrivaj prakticirali in prenašali znotraj homogene skupine.

Danes obstajajo tri pomembna izvirna besedila-Bansenshukai, Ninpiden in Shoninki. To so zapisi zgodnjega obdobja Edo, ki vključujejo nekaj zgodovinskih informacij, razprave o bistvu ninjutsuja, njegovih značilnostih, nekaterih njegovih edinstvenih orožjih, tehnikah infiltracije in še več. Vendar ta besedila ne vsebujejo nobenega opisa tehnik oboroževanja ali celo učnega načrta tehnik. Z drugimi besedami, besedila ne morejo datirati ali overiti večine tega, kar se danes uči kot borilne veščine ninjutsu.

Drug problem izvira iz narave japonske družbe in družbene zgodovine Japonske. Od zgodnjega sedemnajstega stoletja do sredine devetnajstega stoletja (restavracija Meiji) je bila japonska družba zaprta v togi razredni strukturi, ki je omogočala zelo malo gibanja ali pa sploh ni. To je pomenilo, da člani družbene skupine znotraj določenega družbenega razreda niso imeli druge izbire, kot da sprejmejo svoje mesto v družbi. Poleg tega je obstajala jasna razlika med vladajočim razredom-samurajem-in drugimi razredi-kmetje, obrtniki in trgovci. Tudi v vsakem razredu je obstajala določena hierarhija, po kateri so morali člani razreda opravljati svojo družbeno vlogo z malo možnosti za spremembo statusa. Ta realnost je ustvarila močne identifikacijske značilnosti za vsak družbeni razred, ki se mu je moral posameznik prilagoditi.

Zunaj teh družbenih razredov, kot jih je označila vladajoča samurajska elita, so bili brezrazredni ljudje in izobčenci, ki so bili postavljeni pod vse ostale. Ninjutsu so bile večinoma borbene veščine in metode, ki jih je izvajalo majhno število družin, ki so pripadale nižjemu razredu samurajev, kmetje in celo izobčenci, le redko pa bojevniki iz samurajske elite. Posledično je bil ninjutsu od obdobja Edo opredeljen kot drugačen od plemenitih tradicij samurajev, tisti, ki so ga prakticirali, pa so ostali v družbi običajno obravnavali kot ponižne ljudi. Z drugimi besedami, ninjutsu je bil vse prej kot skladnost z vnaprej določenimi družbenimi pravili. Kot tak ne bi mogel nikoli dobiti pečata odobritve kot priznane borilne tradicije, niti takrat, ko so ti samuraji dejansko zaposlovali bojevnike, ki so vešči ninjutsuja.

Družbeni pogoji in močna težnja po skladnosti, o kateri sem pravkar govoril, sta povzročila še en problem. Bojne metode ali orožje, ki jih samurajska elita ni izvajala, so v najboljšem primeru veljali za skrivnostne, včasih demonske, pogosto nadnaravne in vsekakor nevredne spoštovanja. Tu je spet problem, ki izhaja iz družbene skladnosti. Za samurajsko elito, ki so jo vezala pravila vedenja ter kodeks časti in etike, so bile borbene metode omejene na majhno število orožja, in sicer na lok, meč, palico, juto in sulico. To je povzročilo malo ustvarjalnosti v boju. Toda za bojevnike, razen za samuraje, tiste, ki jih njihov položaj v družbi ni omejeval, je bila ustvarjalnost nujna za zmago. Ohranili so nenavadne in inovativne bojne metode in orožje, ki so bili razviti v prejšnjih obdobjih, medtem ko so jih v obdobju Edo sistematizirali, beležili in dodajali. Zato so ninjutsu zaznali zelo negativno, in ko se je Japonska preselila v moderno obdobje, je ninjutsu postopoma izginil, medtem ko je bila njegova temna in skrivnostna podoba, ki je že postala folklora, zdaj zgodovinsko dejstvo.

Morda sta druga svetovna vojna in ameriška okupacija Japonske spremenili japonsko družbo na način, da so ljudje posmehovali ninjutsu, ne le zatreli njegovega mesta v zgodovini japonskega vojskovanja. Japonci niso bili del Yamato damashiija (japonskega duha), po katerem so si zdaj prizadevali obnoviti zaupanje in samosvojnost. Ninjutsu so postavili v majhen temni kotiček na japonskem zgodovinskem podstrešju. Nadaljnji obrat na slabše se je zgodil, ko so v šestdesetih letih na zahod uvedli ninjutsu, ki je v sedemdesetih in osemdesetih letih postal predmet nizkokakovostnih nizkoproračunskih ameriških filmov. Podoba skrivnostnega, nadčloveškega, pogosto hudičevega bojevnika je bila zdaj odprta in na ogled. Ta podoba je temeljila na nesmiselnem nerazumevanju japonske zgodovine in zlasti ninjutsuja. Poleg tega je obstajala motivacija za ustvarjanje donosnih filmov, kar je močno izkrivilo preostalo natančnost. Kot se pogosto dogaja, je javnost sprejela informacije v filmih kot natančen zgodovinski prikaz ninjutsuja.

(Spodaj fotografija Otemona iz 19. stoletja, enega glavnih vrat gradu Edo. Obisk daimya je vstopil v grad Edo skozi ta vrata. Vrata so varovali bojevniki Koga, obiskovalce iz posebnih stražarskih prostorov pa bojevniki Iga. Obe bojevniški skupini specializirano za ninjutsu)

Za sodobnega praktikanta Ninjutsua ali Ninpa izraz Ninjutsu predstavlja niz neoboroženih in orožnih tehnik iz številnih ryuh, med drugim Koto ryu, Gikan ryu, Gyokko ryu in Togakure ryu. Tehnike vključujejo različne metode boja, skakanja, skrivanja, hoje in teka, pa tudi tehnike izogibanja mečem in posebno uporabo telesa. Podobno je v arzenalu orožja različno običajno orožje, kot sta Tachi in Yari, ter nekonvencionalno orožje, kot so Shuko, Kusari fundo in skrito orožje. Vsekakor je borbena značilnost Ninjutsua, naj bo obrambna ali žaljiva, splošno sprejeta kot bistvo Ninjutsua.

Vendar pa natančna analiza zgodovinskih zapisov, že od osmega stoletja do celo devetnajstega stoletja, kaže, da so bile temeljne narave Ninjutsuja dejansko metode infiltracije na neprijazno, pogosto sovražno ozemlje. Opisi take infiltracije običajno govorijo o generalu, ki pošlje svoje agente, da se infiltrirajo v sovražnikovo taborišče, grad ali provinco. Namen tega infiltracije je bil zbiranje informacij o sovražniku, povzročanje nereda in širjenje lažnih informacij. Včasih je bila infiltracija prvo dejanje vojaškega spopada, se pravi, da je bil agent poslan, da bi prodrl v trdnjavo, da bi odprl njena vrata od znotraj, da bi bojevnike spustil v trdnjavo. In včasih je bil namen vdora na sovražnikovo ozemlje preprosto umoriti sovražnikovega generala. Zanimivo je omeniti, da je večina opisov takšnih infiltracij le manjša tema v večji pripovedi, da se izraz & quotninjutsu & quot sploh ne pojavi in ​​da le redko dobimo opis metode infiltracije. Najpogostejša terminologija, uporabljena v vseh teh zgodovinskih zapisih, je shinobi komu in shinobi iri, ki na splošno pomenita infiltriranje brez beleženja zgodovine.

Edina izjemna izjema pri večini zapisov so tisti, ki so jih napisali bojevniki Iga in Koga o svojih metodah infiltracije. Zlasti v zbirki Bansenshukai iz več zvezkov iz sedemnajstega stoletja obstaja razlaga o metodah infiltracije v trdnjavo ali grad, skupaj s skicami. Medtem ko ti zapisi Iga in Koga vsebujejo odseke o posebnem orožju, zgodovini, filozofiji, astronomiji, topografiji in še več, je jasno, da se bistvo njihove dejavnosti osredotoča na vstop na sovražnikovo ozemlje iz razlogov, ki sem jih omenil prej. Neizogiben zaključek je, da je Ninjutsu v bistvu, vsaj s čisto zgodovinskega vidika, spretnosti, vključene v dejanje prikrite infiltracije v vojaške namene. Seveda bi se morali zdaj vprašati, kaj so vse te borbene veščine, ki jih zdaj imenujemo s takšnim zaupanjem & quot; Ninjutsu & quot?

Odgovor na to ni podan v vseh tistih zgodovinskih zapisih, na katere sem se obrnil, da bi razumel, kaj je Ninjutsu. Pravzaprav ni znanega predmodernega zgodovinskega zapisa, ki bi sistematično opisoval ali vsaj navajal naslove bojnih tehnik, ki so jih uporabljali tisti bojevniki, ki so se specializirali za infiltracijo in prikrite dejavnosti. Edini zapisi, ki jih poznam, so tisti, ki so jih predali številni strokovnjaki iz poznega obdobja Edo Takamatsu Toshitsugu, ki je nato zapise in znanje posredoval peščici učencev. Če obstajajo še drugi rodoslovji, povezani z ninjutsujem, ostanejo neznani, vendar je najverjetneje, da drugi rodoslovji niso preživeli prehoda v sodobno obdobje in da je od njih kaj ostalo le v obliki pisnih zapisov, ki so skriti. nekje-morda brez znanja lastnika o njihovi vsebini.

Končni zaključek te kratke analize je, da se Ninjutsu do sodobnega obdobja nanaša na znanje in spretnosti za vstop na sovražnikovo ozemlje in utrdbe na skrivaj ali prikrito. To je univerzalni izraz, ki velja za skupine ali posameznike, ki se ukvarjajo s prikritimi operacijami ali infiltracijo, ne glede na regionalizem, pripadnost klanom ali zgodovinsko obdobje. Po drugi strani pa je Ninjutsu, kot so ga videli po drugi svetovni vojni, sistematična zbirka bojnih veščin v skladu z ryuho in ustreznimi rodoslovji. Te ryuhe se v nasprotju z univerzalnostjo izraza Ninjutsu poistovetijo s posebnimi skupinami in klani, ki so obstajali v določenih regijah v določenih obdobjih pred moderno dobo. Vendar pa to razlikovanje med borbenimi veščinami, ki jih zdaj prepoznamo po ryuhi, in prikritimi dejavnostmi klanov ali posameznikov, ne glede na namen, ne pomeni, da smo vsi v zmoti, če tem borilnim veščinam rečemo Ninjutsu. Skozi zgodovino smo priča stalnim procesom in premikom značilnosti in opredelitev stvari. Zato bi morali na Ninjutsu gledati kot na prehod v moderno obdobje, na koncu katerega se je njegov pomen spremenil. Pomembno pa je, da ne pozabite na razliko med predmodernim in sodobnim ninjutsujem.

Kdo je bil ninja? Kdo je Ninja?

To vprašanje je še posebej trno, na katerega ni enostavnega odgovora. Podobno kot pri obravnavi izraza Ninjutsu moramo razlikovati med zgodovinskim nindžo in sodobnim izvajalcem tradicij ninjutsuja. Razlog za tako splošno razlikovanje je v tem, da so bile kulturne, družbene in vojaške spremembe iz obdobja Tokugawa v obdobje Meiji (moderno) tako velike, da ni smisla iskati postopne spremembe značilnosti nindž ta zgodovinski prehod.

Je bil prvi Ninja Yamato Takeru? Ali pa je morda to bil En-no-Gyoja, ki zdaj gleda na vas na levi strani tega odstavka? Je bil arhetipski Ninja nekdo, kot je Minamoto no Yoshitsune? Ali kakšen neznani bojevnik, ki ni nikoli prišel do zgodovinskih naslovnic? Iskanje izvora Ninjutsu ni nič drugega kot iskanje korenine borovca. Tako kot ni enega samega korena, prej pa oboževalnega širjenja številnih korenin, ne moremo identificirati niti enega posameznika, ki je "izumil" ninjutsu. Ni ustanovitelja ali pa bi ga lahko poimenovali & quotfirst & quot Ninja. Zato je najbolje iskati ninjo v različnih obdobjih in jo poskušati označiti v njenem specifičnem zgodovinskem kontekstu. Razumljivo je, da zaradi omejenega obsega tega eseja nemogoče podrobno razpravljati o značaju Nindže v vsakem obdobju. Za ponazoritev značilnosti zgodovinske ninje sem izbral znane bojevnike in menihe, ki bi jih nekateri bralci verjetno prepoznali.

Verjamem, da ko analiziramo, kaj vemo o teh bojevnikih, lahko vidimo, da je bil do srednjeveškega obdobja Ninja večinoma a (zgoraj: En-no-gyoja)

osamljeni bojevnik. V srednjem veku se je postopoma kopičilo bojevniške skupine in klani, ki so bili povezani z določenimi lokacijami. Z drugimi besedami, nadzorovali so ozemlje. Ninja je tako postala član skupine z vsemi posledicami, povezanimi z njo - družbena hierarhija, deljene dolžnosti in delovanje v skupinah, med drugim. V obdobju Sengoku so bili Ninja najbolj aktivni, klani pa so bili najbolj tesno organizirani, ker so morali preživeti stalne državljanske spore. Vendar se je v obdobju Tokugawe poslabšalo tesno strukturirano in organizirano klanje Nindž, s preusmeritvijo na Ninjo kot posameznega bojevnika. Pomembno je upoštevati, da skozi stoletja od antičnega obdobja do zgodnjega modernega obdobja ena vrsta nindž ni nadomestila druge, temveč je bila obstoječim dodana nova. Sčasoma so v skupino nindž vključili tiste, katerih sposobnosti so bile precej omejene, do tistih, ki so imeli visok samurajski čin in vodili vojske.

Za začetek bi rad razpravljal o tem, kar vemo o starodavnem bojevniku, Yamato Takeru (Mogočni človek iz Yamatoja). Vojaški princ starodavne Japonske, o katerem izvemo od Kojikija. Yamato Takeru je bil poslan, da prevzame nadzor nad območjem Izumo. Za dosego tega cilja se je moral boriti z Izumom Takerujem, ki je bil znan kot spreten bojevnik. Yamato Takeru je najprej izdelal lesen meč, ki je bil podoben njegovemu. Nato je Izumu Takeruju podaril pravi meč, s katerim je pokazal svoje prijateljstvo. Kasneje so se kopali v reki. Ko je prišel iz reke, je Yamato Takeru hitro nosil meč, ki ga je izročil Izumu Takeruju, tako da je imel zase pravi meč, medtem ko je Izumo Takeru ne slutil nič nenavadnega, saj sta bila oba meča popolnoma enaka, oblečena na leseni meč. Po tem je Yamato Takeru izzval Izuma Takeruja do dvojca in ga ubil.

Po tem je cesar spet poslal Yamato Takeruja, da bi pomiril deželo. Pred odhodom je Yamato Takeru od Yamato Hime no Mikoto prejel meč in vrečko. Rekla mu je, naj v nujnih primerih odpre torbo. Yamato Takeru je odpotoval proti vzhodu in prišel v Sagamu, kjer ga je guverner prevaral, da je odšel na grmovno območje, ki ga je guverner nato zažgal. Yamato Takeru, ki je bil v hudi stiski, je odprl vrečko in našel ogenj za kurjenje ognja. Zažgal je protipožar, pobegnil iz smrti in ubil guvernerja.

Zapisi Yamato Takeru, kot je zapisano v Kojiki, kažejo, da je Yamato Takeru poznaval različne taktike boja. Kritiki bodo seveda trdili, ne neupravičeno, da je Kojiki zbirka mitov, ki jih ne moremo obravnavati kot zanesljive zgodovinske vire, zato Yamato Takeruja ali zgodb, povezanih z njim, ne moremo obravnavati kot zgodovinsko dejstvo. Te vrste argumentov je težko izpodbijati, saj edini drugi pisni zapis, Nihon Shoki, ni veliko bolj zanesljiv kot Kojiki. Kljub temu, da se ne spuščamo v razpravo o zanesljivosti Kojikija, je njegov opis Yamato Takeru še vedno dragocen. Pomembno si je zapomniti, da je bil Kojiki sestavljen leta 712 n.št. in da se je opiral na prejšnje ustno izročilo in pisne dokumente. Zato ni pomembno, ali so podrobnosti o življenju Yamato Takeruja točne, kot dejstvo, da je bilo leta 712 zapisano, da je bojevnik imel znanje za uporabo nenavadno inovativnih bojnih tehnik, ki jih lahko identificiramo že zgodaj. Ninjutsu. Vsekakor lahko starodavnega "nindžo" označimo kot bojevnika, ki je vešč različnih bojnih metod, vendar še ne pozna vojaške strategije ali verskih praks.

Če se premaknem na obdobje zgodnjega srednjega veka, bi se rad osredotočil na Minamoto no Yoshitsune. V prvih letih srednjeveškega obdobja naj bi Minamoto no Yoshitsune, polbrat prvega šokuna Kamakure, obvladal vrhunske bojne sposobnosti in vojaško strategijo. Yoshitsune se je na srečanju z menihom odpadnikom Musashibo Benkei izognil Benkeijevi naginati, tako da je skočil visoko in tako uporabil tisto, kar je znano kot Hicho-jutsu. Vendar je Yoshitsune postal najbolj znan po zadnjem napadu na Ichi-no-Tani in zadnji bitki proti Heike pri Dan-no-Ura. To pomeni, da je bil Yoshitsune sposoben general, ki je znal voditi bojevanje v velikem obsegu. Kljub temu je Yoshitsune svojo zadnjo bitko izgubil z bratom Yoritomom, ki ni bil niti približno tako dober bojevnik in taktik kot Yoshitsune. Koliko je bilo Yoshitsunejevo življenje legenda in koliko je bilo resnično Yoshitsune, bo vedno ostalo odprta razprava.

V Gikeiki (oz Yoshitsune ki), veliko izvemo o življenju Yoshitsuneja, vendar je na žalost zgodovinska vrednost tega zapisa, pa naj bo še tako privlačna, & quoto rahla, da nas ne rabi zadržati. & quot (McCullough. Yoshitsune. 1966). Zato se moramo močno zanašati na Azuma Kagami in Heike Monogatari iz katerega se lahko le malo naučimo o Yoshitsunejevem osebnem življenju. Ti in drugi, manj znani zapisi kažejo, da Yoshitsune ni bil eden izmed prepoznavnih skupin bojevnikov, ki so si delili podobne veščine in znanje. Namesto tega je bil individualni bojevnik, ki se je trudil poglobljeno naučiti bojevanja. Ni se moral naučiti veliko let, ker se je Yoritomu pridružil, ko je bil še mlad, in najverjetneje je bil tisti, ki ga je učil, prebivalec gore Kurama. Vsekakor lahko vidimo razvoj od bojevnika Yamato Takeruja in meniha En-no-Gyoja do Yoshitsuneja, ki so ga učili budizma, bojnih veščin in strategije.

Zdi se, da je v naslednjih stoletjih prišlo do premika od posameznih bojevnikov, usposobljenih v Ninjutsu, do skupin bojevnikov, ki so si delili podobno znanje in interese. Ne glede na to, ali so bili uveljavljeni bojevniški rod ali pa skupina prestopnikov, nas tukaj ne bi smelo skrbeti. Pomembno je prepoznati videz skupnosti bojevnikov, ki so usposobljeni v Ninjutsuju. Te skupnosti so bile večinoma v Ki'i-no-kuni (današnja prefektura Wakayama) in v Igi (današnja prefektura Mie).

Na tej točki bi se želel premakniti neposredno v moderno obdobje (kasneje se bo dodala razprava o zgodnjem modernem obdobju). Poskus opredeliti, kdo je ninja v sodobnem obdobju (po letu 1868), je nedosegljiva zadeva. To je posledica temeljnih razlik v značilnostih sodobnega obdobja v primerjavi z zgodnjim modernim ali predmodernim obdobjem. Predvsem gre za spremembo iz vojaške v civilno oblast, prehod iz predindustrijske v industrijsko družbo in iz relativne mednarodne izolacije v državo, odprto za tuji (predvsem zahodni) vpliv. Spremembo civilne oblasti je spremljala ukinitev razrednega sistema, s čimer se je končalo sedemsto let vojaške vladavine. V tem ozadju bi morali poskušati slediti razvoju ninje.

Podobno kot borilne šole in vojaški uradi, ki so bili del ali podprti s strani šogunata in daimya, so tudi Ninja ostali brez svojih tradicionalnih delodajalcev. Poleg tega so ostali brez svoje uveljavljene vloge pokrajinskih inšpektorjev in vojakov Edo bakufu. Vendar pa so bile za razliko od borilnih šol, kot je tista, ki jo je sistematizirala hiša Yagyu in se osredotočale na organizirano ohranjanje in prenos svojih vojaških tehnik, večinoma zaposlene kot vojaki in ne kot učitelji. Posledično je propad bakufuja leta 1868 pustil samuraje in nindžo, da se sama spopadeta s sodobnostjo in brezposelnostjo. Borilne tradicije, ki so jih dobro poznali in podpirali bakufu ali vodilni bojevniki, so lahko prešli v sodobno obdobje in se z lahkoto prilagodili novi realnosti. Vendar so se ninje, ki nikoli niso ustanovile formalnih borilnih šol, ki so bile odprte za splošno prebivalstvo samurajev, morale prilagoditi na novo naloženim razmeram sodobnosti z razvojem novih spretnosti (npr. Kmetov, izvajalcev) in iskanjem novih poklicev.

V svojem zgodovinskem smislu je Ninja, podobno kot samuraj, prenehala obstajati kot družbena in vojaška skupina. Ker pa Ninja nikoli niso bili uradno priznana družbena skupina, bi lahko kot takšni ohranili svojo identiteto. Kljub temu je bil njihov obstoj preveč odvisen od splošnih družbenih in vojaških razmer, v katerih so obstajali, in vztrajati, da bi bile nindžanske družine in posamezni bojevniki po obnovi Meiji nesmiselni. Tako kot trditev, da so vojaki v sodobni japonski vojski v resnici samuraji, ni utemeljen argument, je tudi argument, da so Ninja postali sodobni vohuni. Ninja ni mogoče ločiti od njihovega zgodovinskega konteksta, ne da bi izkrivili zgodovino. Kako bomo s tem v mislih opredelili tiste, ki se učijo in izvajajo borilne tradicije, povezane s predmodernim nindžo?

Prepričljivo je, da kot ninje prepoznamo tiste, vključno z nami, ki se učijo, vadijo, poučujejo in ohranjajo te borilne tradicije. Če pa zgodovinskega Ninja ne obstaja več, ostajamo pred isto dilemo samo-identitete. Rešitev te dileme je v spoznanju, da moramo pogledati bistvo teh borilnih tradicij, ne pa njihovega zgodovinskega konteksta. To pomeni, da te borilne tradicije, ki izvirajo iz zgodovinskega Ninja, prenašajo bojne sposobnosti, ki jih je uporabljala predmoderna Ninja, prenašajo pa tudi pogled na svet, filozofijo in borbenost, ki niso vezana na zgodovinska obdobja. Zato je bolj natančno gledati na zgodovinsko ninjo kot na zamenjavo sodobnih bojevnikov, ki ohranjajo predmoderne bojne tradicije. Ali to pomeni, da je Ninja ninja, je prepuščeno lastni presoji, vsekakor pa gre za samopodobo in ne za zgodovinsko nadaljevanje.

Viri tega eseja vključujejo:

Nihon Shoki, Zoku Nihon-gi, Azuma Kagami, Taiheiki, Hojo Godai ki, Shikoku Gunki, Myozenji Gassen ki, Echigo Gunki, Asai Sandai ki, Taiko ki, in več kitajskih virov ter sekundarnih virov, in sicer Skrivnosti Ninpa avtorja velemojsterja Tanemura Shoto.


2. Nobena oseba ni ustavila mongolske invazije na Japonsko

V Duh Tsushime, Jin se upre Mongolcem in bo predvidoma odkril način, kako jih odbiti do konca igre. Človeški analog Jinu v resničnem življenju ne obstaja. Pravo mongolsko vojsko je orkan leta 1274 v Kyushuju na Japonskem preprečil, potem ko so osvojili Tsushimo. Drugi orkan naj bi leta 1281 preprečil njihov drugi poskus invazije.

Jin je poosebljenje orkana, ki so ga kasneje poimenovali & quotkamikaze & quot; pomen Božjega vetra. & Quot; Takrat je bil ta čudež pripisan bogu groma, Raijin pa je Japoncem pomagal. Večina je kamikaze od takrat zapisala kot mit, nekateri sodobni znanstveniki pa menijo, da se je to res zgodilo.

Režiser Nate Fox je lani komentiral spremembo iz orkana v človeka: & quotNaš junak ni orkan. On je moški in to spremembo pravzaprav priznavamo z njegovim mečem, ki je vklesan v vzorce nevihtnega vetra. "


Ali nindže še obstajajo? Če želite najti ninjo, morate vedeti, kaj je ninja

Nindže so bili na Japonskem vohuni in plačanci, ki so bili usposobljeni za tajno umetnost Ninjutsuja, da bi opravljali funkcijo vohunjenja in izsiljevanja. Izraz "ninja", za razliko od "samuraja", se nanaša na poklic in vlogo, saj je bil samuraj družbeni razred, v katerega se je človek rodil. Čeprav to razlikovanje tehnično pomeni, da je lahko kdorkoli ninja, večina virov navaja, da ninja prihaja iz razreda samurajev.

Umetnost Ninjutsua lahko razumemo kot (1) zbiranje obveščevalnih podatkov in (2) izvajanje strateških dejavnosti, katerih cilj je bil zmanjšati sovražnikovo vojaško moč, kar je pomenilo vohunjenje, infiltracijo, atentat in sabotažo.

Since shinobi were not the only ones who engaged in espionage, what distinguished ninja from other groups with similar skills?

According to the Shoninki, ninjas were not employed for selfish or criminal purposes. Unlike the nusubito (thieves), they aligned themselves with a political cause and warfare (i.e. in service of a feudal lord). This largely clarifies how the term “ninja” was applied to people in history.

Note: Only information that is accepted as reliable ninja history by scholars, historians and researchers have been included in this article.


Vsebina

Spying in Japan dates as far back as Prince Shōtoku (572–622). According to Shōninki, the first open usage of ninjutsu during a military campaign was in the Genpei War, when Minamoto no Kuro Yoshitsune chose warriors to serve as shinobi during a battle. This manuscript goes on to say that during the Kenmu era, Kusunoki Masashige frequently used ninjutsu. According to footnotes in this manuscript, the Genpei War lasted from 1180 to 1185, and the Kenmu Restoration occurred between 1333 and 1336. [3] [ page needed ] Ninjutsu was developed by the samurai of the Nanboku-cho period, and further refined by groups of samurai mainly from Kōka and the Iga Province of Japan in later periods.

Throughout history, the shinobi were assassins, scouts, and spies who were hired mostly by territorial lords known as daimyō. Despite being able to assassinate in stealth, the primary role was as spies and scouts. Shinobi are mainly noted for their use of stealth and deception. They would use this to avoid direct confrontation if possible, which enabled them to escape large groups of opposition.

Many different schools (ryū) have taught their unique versions of ninjutsu. An example of these is the Togakure-ryū, which claims to have been developed after a defeated samurai warrior called Daisuke Togakure escaped to the region of Iga. He later came in contact with the warrior-monk Kain Doshi, who taught him a new way of viewing life and the means of survival (ninjutsu). [2] : 18–21

Ninjutsu was developed as a collection of fundamental survivalist techniques in the warring state of feudal Japan. The ninja used their art to ensure their survival in a time of violent political turmoil. Ninjutsu included methods of gathering information and techniques of non-detection, avoidance, and misdirection. Ninjutsu involved training in freerunning, disguise, escape, concealment, archery, and medicine. Skills relating to espionage and assassination were highly useful to warring factions in feudal Japan. At some point, the skills of espionage became known collectively as ninjutsu, and the people who specialized in these tasks were called shinobi no mono.


The True Story Of How The Ninja Turtles Became A Rock Band

30 years ago, the first TMNT movie debuted. Not long after, the unthinkable happened: The Ninja Turtles became a rock band. Here's how it happened.

on May 19, 2021 at 10:10PM PDT

It was August 1990, and there was no more popular franchise than the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. The comic book that two creators--Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird--created as a joke and printed in their garage had spawned a hit animated series and, now, a blockbuster movie. Following a March 30 release, the first Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles movie went on to earn over $202 million at the box office. The sky was seemingly the limit on what could be done with this property. Then the next step for the franchise was revealed: The Ninja Turtles were becoming a band and going on a live stage tour that would eventually take them around the world, pitting them nightly against their archnemesis The Shredder and his gang of Foot Clan thugs in an attempt to save rock and roll.

It was unlike anything that had ever been done before. This wasn't a Broadway musical about a cartoon character like Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark or a touring show akin to Disney on Ice. This was a concert with a storyline. On the surface, the move to give the characters instruments, release an album, and go on a concert tour heavily sponsored by Pizza Hut seemed like a quick cash grab a chance for the creators of the Ninja Turtles and a company that serves up their dish of choice--there's a song on the album called "Pizza Power," after all--to capitalize on the mainstream popularity the property was enjoying. The real story behind the Coming Out of Their Shells tour, though, is very different.

In reality, this entire endeavor was born out of a desire two "punky little kids" had to change musical theater. "I started out as a musical theater performer in New York, working as a dancer and a singer in musical theater and industrials," Bob Bejan, who co-wrote the album and wrote and produced the live show, told GameSpot. At the time, though--the mid-1980s--Broadway musicals were a lot different than they are in 2020, and Bejan had the first-person experience to know it after performing in revivals of both West Side Story and Grease. "There really [was] not, other than like Andrew Lloyd Webber musicals, a lot of rock and roll in the theater like it is now," he said.

"I wanted to be more than a dancer, and just a performer. And I always thought I had an aspiration for a bigger creative vision," Bejan remembered. "I wrote a musical, and I had this very strong point of view that popular music was something that Broadway needed."

It's with that musical--a play called Strides--that he first met Godfrey Nelson. Nelson, like Bejan, was working to make a name for himself in New York City. "I started there in the late '70s with a band," he said. "I went to school for scoring and classical composition, so I was always pushing to do different things."

While Strides might not have been a smash hit, it launched a creative partnership that saw Bejan and Nelson find success as freelance composers and musicians. Eventually, though, they wanted to create their own, rather than a corporation. They just needed to figure out what that thing they created was going to be. Thankfully, in 1989, they found their path forward.

"A lot of our friends were having kids and talking about kind of how miserable it was to go to Sesame Street on Ice. No disrespect to Sesame Street, you know what I mean? But it's not exactly super compelling for the adults that are chaperoning the kids," Bejan recalled.

He continued, "Somebody had given me a copy of the first [graphic] novel of the [Teenage Mutant Ninja] Turtles. And I was like, 'This would be awesome.' And we just literally spent a couple of sessions kind of brainstorming, and then we wrote four songs right away. It just came very easily."

Of course, simply writing the songs didn't amount to much when they're based on an established property that they didn't have the licensing rights to actually use. Still, they knew they had something special. Continuing on their quest to figure out how the Ninja Turtles would work as a musical, Bejan wrote a treatment for the show's story and the duo plotted their next step.

"We literally cold-called Eastman and Laird and just went, 'Hey, we've got an idea. Can we pitch it to you?'" Bejan admitted. Then in January 1990, two months before the movie debuted in theaters, the two traveled to North Hampton, Massachusetts for their first meeting with the two men that created the Turtles.

"Bob and I drove up there and told them the concept we had and played them the songs and they said, 'Wow, this is great. Let's do it,'" Nelson said. Little did he or Bejan know that seven months later, their musical would be debuting onstage at New York's Radio City Music Hall.

Before that they had to secure the rights. "We were going to have this deal. Surge Licensing, who did all the licensing for the Turtles, told us it was going to be $50,000 for the licensing rights," Bejan said. "And we didn't have that much money laying around."

Thankfully, a solution presented itself. "I read an article in the Wall Street Journal [about] Steven Leber, who was going to ultimately be my partner on the producing side," he remembered. "But I read the Wall Street Journal [that] he was bringing the Moscow Circus to Broadway and to the United States, and I literally cold-called him."

One call and a short meeting later, Bejan secured the funding from Leber--as well as a seasoned producing partner to help bring their vision to life. "He wrote a check for $50,000 [and] we signed the licensing rights and got the rights to all live touring, music, video exploitation, merchandising," he said. "It was unbelievable."

After celebratory drinks the entire situation only got more unbelievable. "It was a f***ing gas," Bejan said with a laugh. They had their demos, they had the rights to make the show, and they had a producing partner. What they didn't have, however, was the budget to produce a massive stage show and tour, let alone record a full album.

Thankfully, they had an idea about how to get their hands on that too. What do the Ninja Turtles love more than anything? Pizza, of course.

"We called up the heads of marketing of Pizza Hut, Little Caesars, and Domino's and said, 'We have the rights to do this show, we want to come and talk to you about it,'" Bejan said. By this point, the movie had now released and suddenly the popularity of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles had shot through the roof. So, together, Bejan and Nelson traveled the country, meeting with the marketing departments of the three pizza chains. 10 days later, the duo struck a deal with Pizza Hut.

"They bought three million records upfront and them buying it before we'd even really done the master recordings. They brought them on the demos. They bought three million records at $3 apiece," Bejan explained. That gave Bejan and Nelson $9 million to record their album and produce the show. And that's not all. Bejan added, "They also committed to, at that time, an astronomical $20 million advertising campaign and that they would do a broadcast primetime television commercial."

With such a large deal in place, the scope of the project immediately changed. "The original concept actually was that the Turtles were a garage band. It was right when grunge was coming out and that kind of stuff was going on, and that's the original concept was they had this band down in the sewers, and they are coming out of their shells basically," Nelson remembered. "The budgets quadrupled. Everything just went nuts. And it takes a lot of people to put something like that together, it's a huge undertaking."

That undertaking included recording in both New York and Los Angeles, as well as working with producer Keith Forsey, who recorded Billy Idol's early albums and co-wrote Simple Minds' "Don't You Forget About Me," otherwise known as that song from The Breakfast Club everybody knows. In the end, they had an album full of songs by the Ninja Turtles--plus one by Master Splinter, one by April O'Neil, and a rap track performed by Shredder that doesn't appear on the album but was part of the stage show.

What's more, Bejan and Nelson were able to immortalize themselves through the album. "I was Splinter and Bob was Michelangelo," Nelson revealed. They also lent their voices during promotional appearances on the radio. "We'd have all the Turtles and myself as Splinter in the same room, doing these interviews and it was a lot of fun," he remembered.

Once the album was complete, with a launch date approaching, Bejan and Leber set out to ready the Turtles for their musical debut and a live pay-per-view broadcast from Radio City Music Hall. Part of that process included promoting the tour. In addition to the aforementioned radio interviews, the Turtles were also booked into one of their highest-profile appearances ever: The Oprah Winfrey Show.

The entire episode revolved around the Turtles and their musical efforts. Now the appearance is most remembered for what can definitely be interpreted as suggestive adult humor about relations between April and the Turtles. In reality, between interviews and performances, the episode plays like an hour-long commercial for the tour.

"When you think about the fact that we convinced Oprah Winfrey to do an entire hour like that," Bejan said. "Like, that's wild. Because it wasn't like she was a nobody, she was huge by then already."

Additionally, a VHS tape was released that documented the making of the tour, presenting the Ninja Turtles as real and going inside of their musical process. The goal was to present everything as realistically as possible when dealing with mutant turtles playing musical instruments. "Everything about what we did, all the press kits and everything never broke [character]. Which is pretty wild," Bejan said.

From there, it was time for the Turtles to take the stage. While the making-of video and most of the promotional material centered on the band playing Radio City Music Hall, that actually wasn't where the tour originated. First, they had to go through the arduous process of live technical rehearsals.

"We had done two out of town cities before [Radio City], because what's wild is that show was all [audio] track and we had audio-animatronic heads. You take notes on the timing of what you build in as the estimated pauses for either laughs or applause, and kids yelling back," Bejan explained.

One massive change came out of those rehearsals, ahead of the show's New York City launch. If you've seen the making-of video or remember the backstage cutaways during the concert itself, you might remember very different costuming for the turtles. Initially, the costume design was followed closely to what was seen in the movies, with some embellishments--Michaelangelo and Leonardo had additions to their masks, glitter was added here and there. By the time they took the stage at Radio City Music Hall, though, the turtles all wore bedazzled denim vests, with sweaters tied around their waist. It was, quite honestly, the most early-'90s look imaginable.

However, as Bejan revealed, there was a reason for the last-minute change. "[There's] a night very early on in the tour before we got to Radio City, that's known amongst everybody that's involved with the show, as 'Shell Night.' You know, kind of as a take on Hell Night," he said.

He continued, "Originally, the neoprene costumes were built kind of at the level of articulation of the film almost. More articulated in the joints of course, cause we wanted them to dance. But they had full-blown rubber shells that were part of the costumes and the first evening performance [rehearsal] they had kind of done it without the heads on and all the suits and everybody thought it was going to be okay."

However, when the first full-costume performance took place, two of the turtle actors passed out halfway through the show. "[They were] just over overheating inside the suits," Bejan explained. "And so then we had to go through this kind of radical redesign phase of like, 'How could you sustain a two-hour performance if you have dancing and moving, and not kill these people?'"

The answer was to replace the heavy shells with the vest/sweater combination, which Bejan thought would serve another purpose. "We're obviously trying to kind of respond to the criticism that we knew we could get, which is like, 'Where the hell are the shells if they're really turtles?'" he said. A potentially unintended outcome was that the new design gave the show--and its turtle stars--a unique feel that set it apart from previous incarnations of the franchise.

Once the costumes were set, it was on to New York City. The third show of the tour's residency at Radio City Music Hall was the one broadcast on pay-per-view, which also saw some changes from how the show was originally intended.

"The night before, we're doing a run-through and final dress rehearsal, in front of the fire marshals, with all the [pyrotechnics] and everything," Bejan recalled. Part of the pyrotechnics saw sewer lids shoot off the stage, revealing elevators in the floor the turtles would appear through.

"That rehearsal in front of the fire marshals, there was too [many] fireworks in one of them and the sewer lid catches on fire and goes through the ceiling where the big red Radio City Music Hall curtain is. And the fringe of it starts to catch fire," he said. "That was a very auspicious right before opening."

Once the level of pyrotechnics was adjusted, the show went on. Bejan and his cast and crew presented the show in front of the theater's audience for two nights, before going live on pay-per-view for night three. "You can't overstate how amazing it is. In any kind of performance moment, if you've got that gene, it's logical," he explained. "The bonus of it is it's something that you had a part in or played a role in crafting or making. It's deeply resonant, you know? I mean, it's really fun. And to be able to be fortunate enough to do that kind of stuff, which, if you're not thankful for it, and if that's not the best of it then something's not working right."

Still, he realizes just how unlikely it is that any of this could have happened. "What a lucky break," he said. "I mean it's crazy. I mean it's absolutely nuts."

Case in point, to promote the tour's arrival in New York City, the Ninja Turtles sang the National Anthem at a New York Yankees game. "I got to stand in the dugout of the New York Yankees, at Yankee Stadium, next to Don Mattingly when he was still playing and sing the National Anthem while controlling a Turtle standing on the pitcher's mound, pretending to sing the National Anthem," Bejan said. That's f***ing crazy!" He's not wrong.

And yet, somehow, the experience only got bigger from there. Ultimately, Coming Out of Their Shells toured the United States over multiple legs, and there were even two international touring companies--Latin America and Europe. What's more, there was even a followup tour, the less-remembered Getting Down in Your Town.

The only downside to the live show was that Nelson never saw the show in person. He stepped away from the project after completion of the album and had moved on--physically--by the time the show debuted at Radio City Music Hall. "I wasn't in New York at the time, I was working on a project in Minneapolis on another show," he revealed. "And it did come to Minneapolis, but when it came to Minneapolis, I was back in New York."

He continued, "All my friends and my wife and everything, they all went to the opening. But I didn't see it. It's really weird."

Now, 30 years later, memories of this strange slice of Ninja Turtle history are alive and well. There's even a group of fans that cosplay as the band to perform at conventions, using the original costumes. "They did a comic-con in New Orleans," Bejan said. "They got the heads to work and everything, so we sent them original master two-track versions of those songs and they'll do performances."

Unfortunately, thus far, that's as far as a full-on revival of the project has ever gotten. Still, given 2020 is the 30th anniversary of the tour--as well as the first movie--all hope isn't lost. In fact, according to Nelson, the interest is there. "It's kind of weird, people have tossed around the idea of doing another tour," he said. "People have talked to us a little bit about doing something, but there hasn't been any firm approach."

In the meantime, the duo have done some licensing of the music--which they own--including a vinyl single of the songs "Pizza Power" and "Tubin'," which was released for Record Store Day 2019.

And all these years later, they're still creating together. "We're actually in the midst of another project right now, together," Nelson revealed. "It's a theater piece, but it's another big undertaking."

Still, while they may be working on something new, their piece of the Teenage Mutant Turtles legacy is set in stone. Whether it's eventually revisited or not, there's no taking away the time they took the characters on a world tour and sold three million albums while doing so.

"The thing is, we were punky little kids, you know? I was 28 years old. And to be around something that had that much popular culture impact and be in the whirlwind of it, it's just kind of an incredible gift to be given," Bejan said. "It was amazing."


You Don’t Know the Ninja: 8 New Revelations About the Shadow Warrior

Hiroo Onoda, a former intelligence officer in Japan's imperial army, hid in the Philippine jungle for 30 years.

What do you think our most major misconception about the ninja is?
I had thought they would be assassins or would-be killers, but I was surprised that they had a spiritual dimension and that shugendo was an important part of the training. Even now, the experts in ninjitsu tell you that right-mindedness was a prime element of their training.

Did ninja have special weapons?
In the many weapons that are displayed in the ninja museums, first there was an awful lot of adapted farm equipment, and secondly none of it’s authentic. It was all made long after the ninja became redundant.

What about the tales of ninja as magicians?
There was a folk tradition of magical belief that if you write certain things, certain statements on bits of paper and put them in the right place in a room, then magical things would happen. But these are in the manuals which come after the event.

You write about a Japanese WW II-era spy, Hiroo Onoda, who hid in the Philippines for 30 years. Why is he, in your view, the last of the ninja?
It was wondering about him and how he survived there which told me there was a tradition in Japan, which is exactly the opposite of the sort of xenophobic militarism that we associate with Japan in the Second World War. There was a spy school that taught an extraordinary degree of liberalism and generosity and non-xenophobia. The idea being that the Japanese would bring freedom to the peoples of Asia — of course, it turned out to be exactly the opposite after Pearl Harbor. But this different tradition was preserved by the Nakano Spy School and by Hiroo Onoda himself, who is still alive. Other people would dispute this, but I’d say he’s the last of the ninja.


What Martial Arts did Shinobi Train In?

Is there anything different or special about the martial arts used by the shinobi? What do records like the Shoninki, Bansenshukai and Shinobi Hiden say?

None of the historical records has instructions on fighting techniques. No universal or specific ninja martial arts system have been specified.

For instance, the Bansenshukai mentions that ninja should train in swordsmanship, but provide no specific instructions or school where this would be taught.

This makes sense since many ninja were from the bushi class (samurai, ashigaru and jizamurai). They would already have some form of martial arts training in both unarmed and weapon combat.

Unarmed and weaponized ninja martial arts

Of course, jujutsu would be the generic hand-to-hand combat system in Sengoku and Edo period.

But what about weapons?

Samurai (in speaking about them as a group) were trained in archery, spear fighting, Naginatajutsu and even matchlock rifles, to name some weapons. Depending on their clan, job specification, politics, region and other complex factors, they might be trained in any of the mentioned weapons.

Even then, sword encounters were more common and the Bansenshukai’s advice would indicate that swordsmanship was a staple.

The typical shinobi’s martial arts training

Therefore, the typical shinobi would have trained in some variant of jujutsu, kenjutsu (swordsmanship) and iai (sword-drawing strikes).

This is, of course, a generalisation. Complex factors in clan, politics, geographic region and more, would determine what martial arts a shinobi/bushi would train in.

For example, if they were involved in capturing criminals, they would have knowledge of quick rope-binding (a subset of hojojutsu – hayanawa).

Since ninja martial arts might just be regular samurai martial arts, the many koryu bujutsu (Japanese classical martial arts traceable to Edo era and before) would be what you are looking for. Additional details will be included in the next article.

Note: Modern traditional Jujutsu might be known as one generic martial art. But in Sengoku and Edo era, each clan might have their own version of jujutsu. The same can be said of any Japanese martial art that survives till today.


Ninja

Ninja ( E ) were a type of warrior who specialized in unconventional warfare such as infiltration, sabotage and assassination during the age of the samurai. Another way of calling them is "shinobi", meaning "those who act in stealth". Ninja employed deception and forgery tactics to take opponents out by surprise. Due to their unorthodox methods which contradicted the way of the warrior (bushido), the ninja were not credited with the same honor as the samurai.

Ninja Experiences
Kyoto Samurai & Ninja Museum with Experience
Interactive history museum in Kyoto with various ninja experiences. Experiences include: Ninja training, ninja show, ninja blow gun, ninja stars and ninja lessons. Service hours: 10:30

The diverse range of skills practiced by the ninja is called ninjutsu - the art of stealth - and includes training in armed combat, weapon techniques, military strategy, meteorology, geometry and breathing synthesis. Ninjutsu was passed down through generations within families or directly from teacher to a selected one or few disciples. This secrecy in part explains why little factual information exists about the ninja, giving rise to lots of stereotyping of them both within and outside of Japan.

Zgodovina

As early as the 11th century, the inhabitants of Iga and Koka gained a reputation for their skills in unconventional warfare. Close to the political center Kyoto, yet distinctly remote due to their rugged terrains, Iga and Koka presented an ideal hideout location for refugees, bandits and losing parties of battles. Many ninja families lived here within autonomously governed communities, developing their martial skills for self defense.

During the age of the warring states in the 15th and 16th centuries, many warlords would hire the ninja of Iga and Koka as mercenaries for their set of unique skills in facilitating the conquest of castles and victories in battles. These were the heydays of the ninja.

Once peace was established in the 17th century, the ninja were mainly employed by the Tokugawa Shogunate to spy on the various regional lords and to guard Edo Castle. During these times, the ninja became greatly romanticized in popular culture, such as kabuki, which led to inaccuracies in the common perception of them. The stereotypes were subsequently exported to the West and further developed to entertain audiences there.

Where to appreciate the ninja today

The best places to appreciate the ninja today are Iga and Koka, the traditional heartlands of the ninja, and Togakushi in Nagano, home of the Togakure school of ninja. These respective regions offer some actual buildings used by the ninja in the past and/or museums which house previously used tools and weapons, thus retaining some level of authenticity.

Other ninja attractions include those found at theme parks and are relatively more commercialized. Ninja scenarios are recreated and ninja shows are staged according to popular conceptions for entertainment. Ninja mansions are a feature at many ninja locations. They are houses built with trapdoors and secret passages, forming mazes which visitors have to find their way through.


Poglej si posnetek: Ninja Želve2003 S01 E01SLOsinh (Junij 2022).