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CEBUA ARG -6 - Zgodovina

CEBUA ARG -6 - Zgodovina


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Cebu

Otok v osrednjih Filipinih.

(ARG-6: dp. 4,621; 1. 441'fi "; h 6fi 11; dr, 23 '; s. 12,5
k .; kpl. 583; a. 1 5 "; kl. Luzon)

Cebu (ARG-G) je 18. oktobra 1943 lansirala družba Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards, Inc., Baltimore, MD, pod pogodbo pomorske komisije kot Franeis Duffy; pod pokroviteljstvom gospe M. C. Bird; pridobila mornarica 27. oktobra 1943; in 16. aprila 1944 naročil kapitan G. W. Scott.

Posebno poslanstvo Cebuja je bilo zagotavljanje trgovin in usposobljenih moških za popravilo motorjev z notranjim izgorevanjem, vendar so njeni možje med vojno opravljali impresivno različne naloge, od popravil ladijskih ur do velikih del na bojnih ladjah. V Manus na Admiralitetskih otokih je prispela 10. septembra 1944. V tej veliki bazi flote je pripravila majhna plovila in večje ladje za njihovo vlogo v filipinskih operacijah, ki so večkrat na dan delale, da bi zagotovile pripravljenost ladij, ki so bistvenega pomena za uspeh napadov invazije.

V Manusu 10. novembra 1944 je bil Cebus zasidran le 800 metrov od Mount Hooda (AE -11), ko je eksplodirala ladja s strelivom, ki je Cebujeve krove zasula z nemi drobci in težkim izstrelkom. Pet njenih mož je bilo ubitih, šest pa ranjenih, vendar je hitro delo preprečilo hudo škodo na sami ladji. Svoje bistveno delo je lahko nadaljevala brez prekinitev in pripravila ladje za napade Lingayen in Iwo Jima.

Cebu je bila nameščena v Ulithiju od 22. januarja 1945 do 12. februarja, ko je plula proti zalivu San Pedro, P.I. Njeno delo se je z besno hitrostjo nadaljevalo, saj so žrtve samomorilskih napadov zahtevale takojšnja popravila. Njene storitve pri malih plovilih v Leyteju so se nadaljevale do 21. septembra, ko je do 11. marca 1946 plula na okupacijske naloge na Okinavi in ​​na Japonskem.

Cehu se je v Pearl Harbourju od 29. marca 1946 do 11. maja pripravljala za svojo vlogo pri podpiranju atomskih preskusov operacije "Crossroads" v Bikiniju in Kwajaleinu poleti 1946. V San Diego je prispela 28. septembra in je bila izključena iz rezerve v Stocktonu, Kalifornija, 30. junija 1947.

Cobu je za službo v drugi svetovni vojni prejel eno bojno zvezdo.


CEBUA ARG -6 - Zgodovina

13.910 ton
459 '2' x 28 '3 & quot x 28' 3 & quot
1 x 5 & quot/38 pištola
4 x 3 & quot/50 pištola
2 x Twin 40 mm AA
10 x 20 mm AA
Tovor 7700 dolgih ton

28. januarja 1944 jih je ameriška mornarica (USN) na podlagi posojila najela in nato pretvorila v vodilno ladjo na ladji za strelivo razreda Mount Hood (tip C2-S-AJ1) s strani podjetja Norfolk Shipbuilding & amp Dry Dock Company v Norfolku V Virginiji in na mornariškem dvorišču Norfolk. Slikano v maskirnem vzorcu Mera 32, Oblika 18F. Naročen 1. julija 1944 pri komdr. Harold A. Turner je poveljeval in imel skrajšano opremljanje in potresno križarjenje na območju zaliva Chesapeake.

Zgodovina vojne
5. avgusta 1944 je bil dodeljen ComServFor, Atlantski floti in dodeljen delovni skupini 29,6 (TG 29,6). Potem ko so ga naložili s tovorom v Norfolku, je odšel 21. avgusta 1944 in šest dni pozneje prečkal Panamski prekop ter neodvisno paril čez Pacifik prek Finschafena in nato odšel v Manus. 22. septembra 1944 je prispel v pristanišče Seeadler pri Manusu in bil dodeljen ComSoWesPac za dobavo streliva in eksploziva za vojaške ladje.

Potopi zgodovina
10. novembra 1944 ob 8:55 na sidru v pristanišču Seeadler je njen tovor eksploziva po nesreči eksplodiral v veliki eksploziji. Na krovu je bila ubita celotna posadka, razen osemnajst, ki so bili na kopnem, da bi prevzeli ladijsko pošto. Ob eksploziji je bilo privezanih in uničenih devet desantnih plovil, mehaniziranih (LCM) in pontonska barka.

Močna eksplozija je povzročila ogromno ognjeno kroglo, ki je poškodovala in žrtve na 36 drugih plovilih v sidrišču, vključno z ladjami, zasidranimi kar 2000 jardov stran. Med drugimi eksplozijami ali naplavinami so bile poškodovane druge ladje: USS Abarenda (IX-131), USS Alhena (AKA-9), USS Argonne (AS-10), USS Aries (AK-51), USS Cacapon (AO-52), USS Cebu (ARG-6), USS Kyne (DE-744), USS Lyman (DE-302), USS Mindanao (ARG-3), USS Oberrender (DE-344), USS Petrof Bay (CVE-80), USS Piedmont (AD-17), USS Potawatomi (ATF-109), SS Preserver (ARS-8), USS Saginaw Bay (CVE-82), USS Talbot (DD-114), USS Walter C. Wann (DE-412) , USS Young (DD-580), USS YF-681, USS YMS-1, USS YMS-140m USS YMS-238, USS YMS-243, USS YMS-319, USS YMS-335, USS YMS-342, USS YMS -39, USS YMS-49, USS YMS-52, USS YMS-71, USS YMS-81, USS YO-77, USS YMS 293, USS YMS 286, USS YMS 340 in USS YMS 341.

USS Mindanao (ARG-3) je bil zasidran 350 metrov stran. Vrh 82 njene posadke je umrlo v eksploziji in geleru. Ob njenem desnem delu so bili privezani štirje motorni minolovci, vključno z USS YMS 293, USS YMS 286, USS YMS 340 in USS YMS 341. Nato je fotografija reševalnih prizadevanj pokazala, da je ladja z velikimi luknjami na strani pristanišča močno poškodovana od gelerov. trup. Nato je bil v popravilu do 21. decembra 1944.

USS Cebu (ARG-6) je bil zasidran 800 metrov stran, krov pa so zadeli geleri in naplavine, ki so ubili pet posadk in ranili šest drugih. Tudi ladja je utrpela škodo.

USS Argonne (AS-10) je med iskanjem preživelih zadel 221 kosov ruševin in odkril 1300 kilogramov razbitin. V eksploziji je 327 pogrešanih 45 mrtvih in 371 ranjenih. Uradno izbrisan iz registra mornarice 11. decembra 1944.

AEN1C Michael Kunz, CASU 49 dodaja:
& quot; Bil sem na transportni ladji mornarice, ko je pokrov razstrelil. bili smo na sidru približno kilometer od mesta, kjer je bila Hood. Vsi smo tekli v zavetje in čakali približno tri minute, nato pa je na nas deževalo olje. Nikoli nam niso povedali, kaj je povzročilo eksplozijo. & Quot

Steve Nazzise dodaja:
& quotTruški transport USS Chateau Thieery (AP-31) je bil privezan in pripravljen za odhod približno 300 metrov od gore Hood, ko je eksplodirala. Bila je eden od prevozov vojakov, ki je PT čolnarje vrnil domov skupaj z drugimi četami z bojnih področij Pacifika. & Quot

Spominski
Po eksploziji niso našli ostankov posadke. Celotna posadka je bila uradno razglašena za mrtvo 10. novembra 1944. Vsi so še vedno navedeni kot pogrešani v akciji (MIA) in so spominski na ameriškem pokopališču v Manili na tablicah pogrešanih.

Brodolom
Eksplozija je uničila celotno ladjo. Največji del razbitin je bil le 10 'x 16'. Potapljači so pod vodo odkrili jarek približno 1000 'x 200' in približno 40 'globoko, ki ga je ustvaril udarni val pod vodo, ki ga je povzročila eksplozija.

Reference
Vojni dnevnik NARA, pomorska baza Manus - november 1944
NARA USS YMS -293 & quotAmplifying Damage Report - U.S.S. YMS 293 29. november 1944 strani 1-2
Poveljstvo za zgodovino in dediščino mornarice - Mount Hood I (AE -11) 1944
Poveljstvo za zgodovino in dediščino mornarice-H-029-5: Kratka zgodovina večjih nesreč ameriške mornarice
& quot1944, Mount Hood (AE-11): 10. novembra 1944 je v pristanišču Seeadler na otoku Manus na Admiralitetskih otokih (blizu Nove Gvineje) nova ladja s strelivom Mount Hood (AE-11) spontano eksplodirala s 3.800 ton orožja na krovu in uničila ladjo in vsakega od nje več kot 300 članov posadke. Največji kos ladje je bil 16 x 10 čevljev in človeških ostankov niso našli. Vse osebje na bližnji ladji za popravilo Mindanao (ARG-3) je bilo ubitih, ladjo pa so prebili geleri, pri čemer je umrlo 82 njenih članov posadke. Dvaindvajset majhnih plovil in čolnov je bilo potopljenih. Osemnajst večjih ladij je bilo do neke mere poškodovanih, vključno s spremljevalnimi prevozniki Saginaw Bay (CV-82), Petrof Bay (CVE-80), uničevalcem in štirimi spremljevalci rušilcev. Skupaj je bilo ubitih 372 (od tega 327 pogrešanih), 371 pa ranjenih. Preiskovalna komisija ni mogla ugotoviti natančnega vzroka. Edini preživeli iz posadke Mount Hooda so bili obala 14 moških (drugo poročilo pravi 18) in še šest mož, ki so malo pred eksplozijo odšli s čolnom. Dva od teh moških so odpeljali na brig na kopno na vojno sodišče, njihove obtožbe so bile umaknjene. & Quot
USS Mount Hood (AE-11)-Eksplozija, 11. [sic 10] November 1944 preko Wayback Machine 13. november 2014
Navy Historical Center-USS Mount Hood (AE-11), 1944-1944 preko Wayback Machine 24. november 2014
Eksplozija USS Mount Hood in uradna preiskava ter računi očividcev preživelih s Wayback Machine 15. januar 2017
NavSource - USS Mount Hood (AE -11)
HullNumber - seznam posadke USS Mt. Hood (AE -11)
Ameriška komisija za bojne spomenike (ABMC) - Marvin L. Edwards
FindAGrave - S1 Marvin L Edwards (tablice pogrešanih)
FindAGrave - Marvin Lee Edwards (spominski označevalec)

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Vsebina

Ime "Cebu" izvira iz starega Cebuana: sibu ali sibo ("trgovina"), skrajšana oblika sinibuayng hingpit, „mesto za trgovanje“. Prvotno so ga uporabljali za pristanišča mesta Sugbu, starodavno ime za mesto Cebu. [5] Trgovci med 13. in 16. stoletjem nadomeščajo izvajanje imena Sebu, Sibuy, Zubu, oz Zebu, med ostalimi. [6] Sugbu ali Sugbo pa izhaja iz starega Cebuano izraza za "požgano zemljo" ali "velik ogenj". [5] [7]

Rajahnate iz Cebuja je bilo domače kraljestvo, ki je obstajalo v Cebuju pred prihodom Špancev. Ustanovil ga je Sri Lumay, znan tudi kot Rajamuda Lumaya, napol malajski, napol tamilski princ iz dinastije Chola, ki je vdrl na Sumatro v Indoneziji. Maharadža ga je poslal, da ustanovi bazo za ekspedicijske sile, da bi pokorile lokalna kraljestva, vendar se je uprl in namesto tega ustanovil svoj neodvisni rajahnat. [8]

Prihod portugalskega raziskovalca Ferdinanda Magellana leta 1521 je začel obdobje španskega raziskovanja in kolonizacije. [9] [10]

Ker je izgubil naklonjenost portugalskega kralja Manuela I. zaradi njegovega načrta, da je z jadranjem proti zahodu iz Evrope prišel na otoke začimb, je Magellan svoje storitve ponudil španskemu kralju Karlu I. (Charles V, cesar Svetega Rima). 20. septembra 1519 je Magellan vodil pet ladij s skupno 250 ljudmi iz španske utrdbe Sanlúcar de Barrameda na poti v jugovzhodno Azijo prek Amerike in Tihega oceana. Prispeli so na Filipine 16. marca 1521. Razah Kolambu, kralj Mazaue, jim je rekel, naj odplujejo proti Cebuju, kjer lahko trgujejo in pridobivajo hrano.

Ko je prišel v Cebu City, se je Magellan z Enriquejem iz Malacce kot prevajalcem spoprijateljil z Rajah Humabon Rajah ali kraljem Cebuja in domorodce prepričal, naj se povežejo s španskim Karlom I. Humabon in njegova žena sta dobila krščanska imena in se krstila kot Carlos in Juana. Santo Niño je bil podarjen domači kraljici Cebuja kot simbol miru in prijateljstva med Španci in Cebuanosom. 14. aprila je Magellan na obali Cebu postavil velik leseni križ. Nato se je krstilo okoli 700 otočanov.

Magellan je kmalu slišal za Datu Lapu-Lapu, domačega kralja na bližnjem otoku Mactan, tekmeca Rajah iz Cebuja. Domnevalo se je, da sta se Humabon in Lapu -Lapu borila za nadzor nad cvetočo trgovino na tem območju. 27. aprila se je zgodila bitka pri Mactanu, kjer so bili Španci poraženi, Magellana pa so ubili domačini Mactana [11] na otoku Mactan. Po besedah ​​italijanskega zgodovinarja in kronista Antonia Pigafette Magellanovo telo kljub prizadevanjem, da bi ga zamenjali z začimbami in dragulji, nikoli ni bilo najdeno. Magellanov drugi poveljnik, Juan Sebastián Elcano, je zasedel mesto kapetana odprave in odplul floto nazaj v Španijo in obkrožil svet.

Preživeli iz odprave Magellan so se s pripovedmi o divjem otoku v Vzhodni Indiji vrnili v Španijo. Posledično je bilo na otoke poslanih več španskih odprav, vendar so se vse končale neuspešno. Leta 1564 so španski raziskovalci pod vodstvom Miguela Lópeza de Legazpija, ki so pluli iz Mehike, prispeli leta 1565 in ustanovili kolonijo. [12] Španci so se borili s kraljem Rajah Tupas in zasedli njegova ozemlja. Španci so ustanovili naselja, trgovina je cvetela in otok preimenovali v "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús" (mesto najsvetejšega Jezusovega imena). Cebu je postal prvo evropsko naselje, ki so ga španski Cortés ustanovili na Filipinih. Leta 1595 je bil ustanovljen Universidad de San Carlos, leta 1860 pa je Cebu odprl svoja pristanišča za zunanjo trgovino. Prva tiskarna (Imprenta de Escondrillas y Cia) je bila ustanovljena leta 1873, leta 1880 pa je bila ustanovljena Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion (Visoka šola za brezmadežno spočetje) in prvo glasilo Bilten Cebu ("El Boletin de Cebú") je začel izhajati leta 1886. Leta 1898 so otok po špansko -ameriški vojni in filipinsko -ameriški vojni prepustili ZDA. Leta 1901 so Cebu za kratek čas upravljale Združene države, 24. februarja 1937 pa je postala čarterska provinca in so ga neodvisno vodili filipinski politiki.

Cebu, ki je eden najgosteje naseljenih otokov na Filipinih, je služil kot japonska baza med njihovo okupacijo v drugi svetovni vojni, ki se je začela z izkrcanjem japonskih vojakov aprila 1942. 3., 8., 82. in 85. pehotna divizija Filipinska vojska Commonwealtha je bila ponovno ustanovljena od 3. januarja 1942 do 30. junija 1946, 8. vojaški polk filipinskega vojaštva pa je bil ponovno ustanovljen od 28. oktobra 1944 do 30. junija 1946 v vojaškem generalštabu in vojaških taboriščih ter v garnizonu v mestu Cebu in Pokrajina Cebu. Protijaponske vojaške operacije so začeli v Cebuju od aprila 1942 do septembra 1945 in pomagali gverilcem Cebuana ter se borili proti japonskim cesarskim silam. Skoraj tri leta pozneje, marca 1945, so združene filipinske in ameriške sile pristale in ponovno okupirale otok med osvoboditvijo Filipinov. Gverilske skupine Cebuano, ki jih vodi Američan James M. Cushing, so zaslužne za ustanovitev "Koga Papers" [13], ki naj bi spremenila ameriške načrte za ponovni prevzem Filipinov od japonske okupacije leta 1944, tako da je pomagala združene sile ZDA in filipinske vojske Commonwealtha vstopile v Cebu leta 1945. Naslednje leto je otok leta 1946 dosegel neodvisnost od kolonialne oblasti.

Cebu je postal ključno središče upora proti Marcosovi diktaturi [14], kar se je prvič pokazalo, ko je naglo sestavljena zasedba Pusyon Bisaya premagala celotno ploščo Marcosovega Kilusang Bagong Lipunana (KBL) v regiji VII. [15] Kasneje bo Cebu odigral ključno vlogo v dneh pred revolucijo People Power leta 1986 in odstavitvijo Marcosa. Prav iz kroga Fuente Osmeña v mestu Cebu so opozicijske sile 22. februarja 1986. znova zagnale kampanjo civilne neposlušnosti proti režimu Marcos in njegovim prijateljem. Po tem je samostan karmeličanov v mestu Barangay Mabolo v mestu Cebu služil kot zatočišče za opozicijske kandidate. Aquino in Laurel prvi dan revolucije Ljudske moči, ker se še ni bilo varno vrniti v Manilo. [16]

Februarja 2012 je otok Cebu doživel posledice potresa z magnitudo 6,7 na sosednjem otoku Negros in je bil največji potres na tem območju v zadnjih 90 letih. Tresenje je pretreslo stavbe, vendar ni poročil o večjih poškodbah stavb ali izgubi življenj na samem otoku Cebu. To tresenje je povzročila prej nezabeležena napaka.

Oktobra 2013 je Cebu in Bohol prizadel rekordno potres z magnitudo 7,2, ki je pustil več kot 100 mrtvih in podrl nekaj stavb, vključno s 5 zgodovinskimi cerkvami. Bilo je več kot 700 popotresnih sunkov.

Cebu se nahaja vzhodno od Negrosa, zahodno od otokov Leyte in Bohol. Pokrajino sestavljajo otok Cebu in 167 manjših otokov, ki vključujejo Mactan, Bantayan, Malapascua, Olango in otoke Camotes. Toda zelo urbanizirana mesta Cebu, Lapu-Lapu in Mandaue so neodvisna mesta, ki niso pod deželnim nadzorom, vendar so pogosto združena s pokrajino za geografske in statistične namene.

Površina kopenske pokrajine je 4.944 kvadratnih kilometrov (1.909 kvadratnih milj), če pa so za geografske namene vključena neodvisna mesta, je skupna površina 5.342 kvadratnih kilometrov (2.063 kvadratnih kilometrov).

Osrednja lokacija Cebuja, bližina nenavadno eksotične turistične destinacije, neposreden dostop do raznolikih rastlinskih, živalskih in geoloških čudes na otoku ter oddaljenost od potresa in tajfuna so nekateri posebnosti Cebuja.

Otok Cebu Edit

Otok Cebu je 126. največji otok na svetu. Sam otok Cebu je dolg in ozek, sega 196 kilometrov (122 milj) od severa proti jugu in 32 kilometrov (20 milj) čez na najširši točki. [18] Ima ozke obale, apnenčaste planote in obalne ravnice. Ima tudi valovite hribe in razgibane gorske verige, ki prečkajo severno in južno dolžino otoka.

Najvišje gore Cebu so visoke več kot 1.000 metrov (3.300 čevljev). Ravne zemljišča lahko najdemo v mestu Bogo in v mestih San Remigio, Medellin in Daanbantayan v severni regiji province. [18]

Površina otoka je 4.468 kvadratnih kilometrov (1725 kvadratnih milj), [17] zaradi česar je deveti največji otok na Filipinih. Podpira več kot 3,5 milijona ljudi, od tega 2,3 milijona v Metro Cebu.

Cebu obkrožajo plaže, koralni atoli, otoki in bogata ribolovna območja.

Premog so prvič odkrili v Cebuju okoli leta 1837. Na celotnem otoku je bilo 15 lokalitet, na obeh obalah je bilo izvedeno nekaj desultarnega izkopavanja Naga pri gori Uling, vendar so bile najbolj resne operacije v Licosu in Camansiju zahodno od Compostele in Danaa. [19] Aktivno delo je prenehalo okoli leta 1895 z upori, nobena proizvodnja pa ni delovala več kot deset let. Topografska in geološka raziskava Compostele, Danaa in Carmen je bila izvedena leta 1906. [20] Premog Compostela-Danao je vseboval približno šest milijonov uporabnih ton. Tramvajske ceste, ena od Danaa do Camansija, ena od Compostele do gore Licos, so bile speljane leta 1895 skupaj z vagonsko cesto, zgrajeno leta 1877, od Cotcota do Dapdapa.

Urejanje podnebja

Podnebje Cebuja je tropsko. V Cebuju obstajata dve sezoni - suha in mokra sezona. [21] Večino leta je suho in sončno z občasnimi padavinami v mesecih od junija do decembra. Pokrajina Cebu običajno dobi tajfune enkrat letno ali nič.

Severni Cebu dobiva več padavin in tajfunov kot južni Cebu, ker ima drugačno podnebje. Tajfun Haiyan (Yolanda) je leta 2013 prizadel Severni Cebu in ubil 73 ljudi, 348 pa jih je poškodoval. Čeprav večina tajfunov prizadene samo severni del Cebuja, so mestna območja v osrednjem Cebuju včasih prizadeta, na primer, ko je tajfun Mike (Ruping), eden najhujših, ki je prizadel Cebu, leta 1990 udaril po osrednjem območju Cebuja.

Temperature v Cebuju lahko od marca do maja dosežejo največ 36 ° C (97 ° F), v gorah pa v gorah tudi do 18 ° C (64 ° F). Povprečna temperatura je okoli 24 do 34 ° C (75 do 93 ° F) in ne niha veliko, razen v mesecu maju, ki je najbolj vroč mesec. Vlažnost v Cebuju je 70-80%. [22]

Flora Edit

Cebu ima le malo preostale gozdne odeje. Preostale gozdne zaplate v Cebuju sestavljajo predvsem naslednje vrste dreves. [23]

    : Carallia brachiata in vnesene vrste Tectona grandis, Swietenia macrophylla, Gmelina arborea, in Casuarina equisetifolia : Carallia brachiata in vnesene vrste Swietenia macrophylla gozd: Ficus spp., Artocarpus blancoi, Macarang grandifolia, in Cinnamomum cebuense : Carallia brachiata : Trevesia burckii, Voacanga globosa, Schefflera actinophylla, Pouteria villamilii, in Palaquium luzoniense

Urejanje favne

Endemične vrste v Cebuju vključujejo cebujskega cvetličarja (Dicaeum quadricolor), Cebu Slender Skink (Brachymeles cebuensis) in Black Shama (Copsychus cebuensis).

Upravni oddelki Uredi

Pokrajina Cebu ima 3 neodvisna mesta (Cebu, Lapu-Lapu in Mandaue), ki niso pod deželnim nadzorom, vendar so združena s pokrajino za geografske in statistične namene, 6 sestavna mesta (Bogo, Carcar, Danao, Naga, Talisay in Toledo) in 44 občin za skupaj 53 enote.

Prebivalstvo province Cebu je leta 2015 znašalo 2.938.982 ljudi, z gostoto 590 prebivalcev na kvadratni kilometer ali 1.500 prebivalcev na kvadratno miljo. [3] Ko so neodvisna mesta-Cebu City (922.611 [26]), Lapu-Lapu (408.112 [26]) in Mandaue (362.654 [26])-vključena v geografske namene, je skupno prebivalstvo 4.632.359 ljudi, gostota prebivalstva 870 prebivalcev na kvadratni kilometer (2.300/kvadratni kilometer).

Prebivalstvo osrednjih Visayas je pretežno mlado in približno 37 odstotkov prebivalstva je mlajše od 10 let. To je zelo očitno v zelo široki bazi prebivalstvene piramide v regiji, ki prevladuje od leta 1970, vendar po padajoči stopnji. Delež gospodinjstev, mlajših od 15 let, se je v letih 1980 do 1995 zmanjšal za 2,29 odstotne točke. Nasprotno pa je bilo v istem obdobju v starostni skupini od 15 do 64 let opazno povečanje za 3,06 odstotnih točk. Prebivalstvo regije je enakomerno razporejeno med samci in samicami. Vendar se moško prebivalstvo v regiji hitreje povečuje v primerjavi z žensko populacijo. [27]

Leta 2010 je bila povprečna starost prebivalstva pokrajine 23,0 let, kar pomeni, da je bila polovica prebivalstva mlajša od 23,0 let. [2] To je višje od povprečne starosti 20,8 leta, zabeležene leta 2000.

Urejanje jezikov

Cebuanski jezik govorijo v Cebuju, pa tudi na večini območij Visayas, vključno z Boholom (kjer se govori kot Boholano), Siquijorjem, zahodnim Leyteom, Biliranom in regijo otoka Negros (zlasti v vzhodnem Negrosu), pa tudi večino provinci Mindanao.

Na otokih Camotes, zlasti v Porou, tamkajšnji ljudje govorijo svoj vizayanski jezik, imenovan Porohanon, ki ima nekaj vplivov Masbateño in Waray-Waray. Nekateri prebivalci na otokih Bantayan govorijo tudi Bantayanon, visayanski jezik, povezan s Hiligaynonom.

Uredi religijo

Večina njenega prebivalstva je rimskokatoliških [30], sledi jim približno 95% Cebuanov [ potreben citat ]. Obstajajo tudi privrženci iglesije Filipina Independiente, islama, budizma in hinduizma.

Cebu je prestolnica katoliške vere [31], ker je prvo krščansko mesto, [32] prvo glavno mesto španske Vzhodne Indije ter rojstni kraj krščanstva in filipinske cerkve. Papež Janez Pavel II je v svoji Homiliji za družine v Cebuju (19. februar 1981) otok imenoval rojstni kraj krščanstva na Filipinih. [33]

Podoba Santo Niño de Cebú (Sveti otrok iz Cebuja), najstarejša krščanska podoba na Filipinih, je zapisana in častena v baziliki Santo Niño. Po filipinskih zgodovinskih dokumentih je kip Santo Niño (sveti otrok) ženi Raje iz Cebuja podaril portugalski raziskovalec Ferdinand Magellan. Prijateljstvo je prikazano na kulturnem dogodku Cebu, Sinulogu, kjer vsako tretjo nedeljo v januarju praznujejo ulične parade in glasni bobni pred krščansko mašo. Cebu ima rimskokatoliško nadškofijo in ima več večjih cerkva, vključno z Baziliko Minor del Santo Niño de Cebu, metropolitansko katedralo v Cebuju, župnijsko cerkev Santo Rosario, cerkev San José -Recoletos, cerkev svetega srca, nadškofijsko svetišče Matere Božje Lurdske, nacionalno Svetišče Matere Božje vladavine, nacionalno svetišče svetega Jožefa, nadškofijsko svetišče Matere Božje Guadalupske iz Cebuja, cerkev San Nicolas de Tolentino in druge krščanske cerkve ter več drugih nekatoliških cerkva, mošej in templjev.

Kongres Edit

Okrožje Predstavnik Zabava Izraz Blok
1. Eduardo R. Gullas Nacionalista [34] 1 Večina
2. Wilfredo S. Caminero NUP 3 Večina
3. Pablo John F. Garcia PDP – Laban/1-Cebu 1 Večina
4. Janice Z. Salimbangon PDP – Laban/1-Cebu 1 Večina
5. Vincent Franco D. Frasco Lakas/1-Cebu 1 Večina
6. Emmarie M. Ouano-Dizon PDP – Laban/1-Cebu 1 Večina
7. Peter John D. Calderon NPC 2 Večina

"Ceboom", kombinacija Cebu in bum, je bil uporabljen za opis gospodarskega razvoja pokrajine. S številnimi čudovitimi otoki, belimi peščenimi plažami, luksuznimi hoteli in letovišči, potapljaškimi lokacijami in znamenitostmi dediščine so veliki prihodi domačih in tujih turistov spodbudili turistično industrijo Cebuja. Cebu stalno pridobiva velik delež prihodov turistov na Filipinih in je zaradi svoje osrednje geografske lege, dostopnosti in naravnih virov postal turistična vrata v osrednje in južne Filipine. Pokrajina vsako leto gosti tudi različne nacionalne in mednarodne konference.

Približno 80% domačih in mednarodnih ladijskih prevoznikov in ladjedelnikov na Filipinih se nahaja v Cebuju. Ladjedelniška podjetja v Cebuju so izdelala nosilce za razsuti tovor do 70.000 ton nosilnosti (DWT), pa tudi dvojna trupa. Cebujeva industrija pripomore k temu, da so Filipini peta največja ladjedelniška država na svetu.

Obsežne pristaniške zmogljivosti v Cebuju in njegova bližina med azijskimi ladijskimi in letalskimi potmi so glavni dejavniki, zaradi katerih so multinacionalna podjetja ustanovila pisarne ali tovarne na glavnem otoku, pa tudi na otoku Mactan, kjer so združena v posebna znana gospodarska območja. kot Mactanova gospodarska predelovalna cona 1 (MEPZ-1) in Mactanova gospodarska predelovalna cona 2 (MEPZ-2). Zaradi rastoče industrije pohištva je bil Cebu imenovan za pohištveno prestolnico Filipinov. Drugi izvoz Cebuja vključuje: modne dodatke, kitare, kokos, kokosovo olje, posušene mango, karagenan, darila, igrače, ure, kamere, elektronske komponente in gospodinjske potrebščine.

Nepremičninska industrija je s stopnjo rasti prihodkov 18,8 odstotka v letu 2012 najhitreje rastoči sektor v Cebuju. Z močnimi gospodarskimi kazalci in visoko stopnjo zaupanja vlagateljev se na tem območju razvija več kondominijskih projektov in hipermarketov. Dodatnih 100 poslovnih in stanovanjskih stavb bi bilo dokončanih do leta 2015, do leta 2017 pa naj bi bilo dokončanih še 170 do 200 stavb. V Cebuju bo razvitih 64 novih hipermarketov. [42]

Leta 2013 se je Cebu na svetovni svetovni svetovni družbi Tholons uvrstil na osmo mesto po svetu. [43] [44] Gospodarska zbornica Cebu, organizacija podjetij Cebu, spodbuja rast in gospodarstvo mesta na področju informacijske in komunikacijske tehnologije, z namenom, da Cebu postane glavna destinacija za naložbe v IKT, programsko opremo in e-storitve v jugovzhodni Aziji. Podatki, ki jih je zbrala Nacionalna uprava za gospodarski razvoj (Neda) 7, so pokazali, da od 98 podjetij BPO in IT, ki delujejo v Cebuju, 32 ponuja glasovne operacije, 66 podjetij pa glasovne operacije. Od 95.000 zaposlenih v industriji jih je več kot polovica ali 50.000 v sektorju brez glasu. Leta 2012 se je rast prihodkov IT-BPO v Cebu povečala za 26,9 odstotka na 484 milijonov dolarjev, medtem ko je na nacionalni ravni industrija zrasla za 18,2 odstotka na 13 milijard dolarjev. [45] [46]

Gospodarstvo Cebu poganjajo tudi rudarska in kamnolomna območja v Toledu, Nagi, Alcoyu in Danau.

Cebu se lahko celo pohvali, da je hčerinsko podjetje enega vodilnih proizvajalcev drsališča na svetu. Ta drsališča je v Cebuju izdelala in izdelala družba Ice Rink Supply, ki jih pošiljajo po vsem svetu [47] in storitve zamrzovanja. [48]

Urejanje infrastrukture

Mednarodno letališče Mactan – Cebu (MCIA) na otoku Mactan služi kot glavni prehod na domače in mednarodne poti proti mestu Cebu ali drugim otokom v regiji Visayas. V zadnjih 15 letih se je mednarodni potniški promet letno povečal za 21%. Letališče je drugo najbolj obremenjeno letališče na Filipinih v potniškem in tovornem prometu. Načrt za novo razširitev letališkega terminala je v teku in naj bi po programu javno-zasebnega partnerstva filipinske vlade stal 240 milijonov dolarjev. Novi terminal bo gostil mednarodne lete, stari pa domače. [49]

Poleg tega je generalni direktor MCIAA (MCIA Authority) Nigel Paul Villarete (ki je bil prej projekt BRT) predlagal tudi vzpostavitev proge za hitri avtobusni prevoz (BRT) za prevoz potnikov na letališčih do in iz MCIAA ter različnih delov Cebuja. To bo vključeno v predlagani sistem hitrega avtobusnega tranzita (BRT), ki se načrtuje v Metro Cebu.

Pristanišče Cebu je največje ladijsko vozlišče v regiji Visayas.

Cebu Pacific Air je letalska družba v lasti družine Gokongwei iz Cebuja. 28. maja 2008 je bil Cebu Pacific imenovan za prvo letalsko družbo na svetu po rasti. Letalska družba je leta 2007 prepeljala skupaj skoraj 5,5 milijona potnikov, kar je 57,4% več kot leta 2006. [50] 6. januarja 2011 je Cebu Pacific preletel svojega 50 -milijonskega potnika (iz Manile v Peking). Letalska družba je leta 2015 dosegla 100 milijonov potnikov. [51] Cebu Pacific je začel mednarodne lete na dolge razdalje do Bližnjega vzhoda in Avstralije, let v Guam pa od prvega četrtletja 2016.

Pomembna poslovna okrožja sta poslovni park Cebu in informacijski park Cebu. To področje gosti industrije, povezane z industrijo informacijske tehnologije, kot so razvoj programske opreme, telekomunikacije, inženirski raziskovalni in razvojni centri ter zunanje izvajanje poslovnih procesov. Leta 2013 je podružnica Ayala Corporation, Ayala Land Inc., objavila, da namerava uvesti še en razvoj poslovnega parka na območju mesta Cebu, da bi optimizirala visoko uspešnost naložb v nepremičnine v Cebu. [52]

Mestni 300 hektarjev (740 hektarjev 3,0 km 2 3 000 000 m 2) melioracija tvori South Road Properties-razvoj mešane rabe južno od mesta, ki vključuje industrijo zabave, prostega časa, stanovanjske in poslovne predelave. [53] Ali je mesto SM Seaside City Cebu, osmi največji nakupovalni center na svetu (in tretji največji nakupovalni center na Filipinih), Filinvestova Citta di Mare [54] in Il Corso [55] ter Univerza na Filipinih - kampus Cebu. [56]

Mactan Oceantown korporacije Megaworld je na otoku Mactan 25-hektarski poslovni park v bližini Shangri-La's Mactan Resort and Spa. Projekt bo dom visokotehnoloških pisarn, maloprodajnega centra, stanovanjskih stolpov in vasi, prostorov za prosti čas s pročeljem na plaži. [57]

Otok Mactan je s mostom Mactan-Mandaue in mostom Marcelo Fernan povezan s celinsko Cebu.

Urejanje medijev

Cebu je dom lokalne televizijske postaje, Cebu Catholic Television Network (CCTN) [a]).

Kljub temu, da imajo svoje lokalne postaje, Cebuanos raje gleda filipinska štiri prevladujoča televizijska omrežja, in sicer: ABS-CBN, People's Television Network, IBC, The 5 Network, CNN Philippines in GMA Network.

Medtem ko so na otoku prisotni nacionalni časopisi, imajo Cebu lokalne časopise v angleškem jeziku- Freeman (v okviru skupine Star), SunStar Cebu in Cebu dnevne novice (v okviru skupine Inquirer): in časopisi v cebuanskem jeziku- SunStar SuperBalita v lasti družbe SunStar in Banatske novice lasti Freeman. Vsak od lokalnih časopisov se prodaja ceneje od svojih nacionalnih kolegov.

Filipinska osnovna šola se začne od 1. do 6. razreda. Srednješolski program traja šest let, od 7. do 12. razreda, ki se ga opravi po končani osnovni šoli. Cebu velja za glavno izobraževalno središče v Visayasih. It has eleven large universities each with a number of college branches mostly throughout the capital, Cebu City, and more than a dozen other schools and universities specializing in various courses such as Medicine, Engineering, Nautical courses, Nursing, Law, Commerce, Education, Computer and IT and other professions.

The most prominent of these universities are (in alphabetical order):

Cebu is home to one fully accredited international school, Cebu International School, a K–12 school established in 1924. Cebu is considered to be a hub of medical education, with many international students coming to study medicine in Cebu's medical schools. Some of Cebu's well-known medical schools are in Cebu Doctors University and Cebu Institute of Medicine.

Attractions Edit

Cebu City is a significant cultural centre in the Philippines. The imprint of Spanish and Roman Catholic culture is evident. There are also many historically important sights all over the province.

Island in the Sky mountain resort, Balamban

Carcar Museum (formerly Carcar Dispensary), Carcar

Uredi festivale

Sinulog Festival is the largest fiesta (festival) in the Philippines. Held every third Sunday of January, it commemorates the Child Jesus (Santo Niño), the Lord and Protector of Cebu. The Sinulog is a dance ritual of pre-Hispanic indigenous origin. The dancer moves two steps forward and one step backward to the rhythmic sound of drums. This movement resembles the current (sulog) of what was then known as Cebu's Pahina River. Thus the name Sinulog.

The Sinulog Festival celebration lasts for nine days, culminating on the final day with the Sinulog Grand Parade. The day before the parade, the Fluvial Procession is held at dawn with a statue of the Santo Niño carried on a pump boat from Mandaue City to Cebu City, decked with hundreds of flowers and candles. The procession ends at the Basilica where a re-enactment of the Christianization of the Philippines on the island of Cebu is performed. In the afternoon, a more solemn procession takes place along the major streets of the city, which last for hours due to large crowds participating in the event.

When the Spaniards arrived in Cebu, the Italian chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, sailing under convoy with the Magellan expedition, offered the wooden figure of the Santo Niño as a baptismal gift to Hara Amihan, wife of Rajah Humabon who was named Juana after her baptism together with the Rajah, who was also renamed, Carlos. Juana, together with the natives, according to tradition, danced and worshipped the Santo Niño de Cebu in their indigenous Sinulog dance ritual. [ potreben citat ] The Sinulog ritual was preserved, focusing on the worship to the Santo Niño. Once the Santo Niño church was built in the 16th century, the Catholic Malay people started performing the Sinulog ritual in front of the church, the devotees offering candles and indigenous dancers shouting "Viva Pit Señor!", which means to "Trust in the Lord" [ potreben citat ] .

In the province, the festival is shared by both Cebu City and Carmen. The festival is said to have originated in Carmen and was once a localized version of the Ati-atihan Festival introduced by Jose Motos, the then rector of the Parish of St. Augustine, the town parish of Carmen, but was then changed to "Sinulog sa Carmen" after Sinulog became an established Cebuano festival. The Sinulog dance was first introduced to Cebu City by a woman named Estelita Diola, who would otherwise be referred to as "Titang Diola". Her family were skilled with the original form of the dance of Sinulog and the tradition was eventually passed on to her by her father. Because of her great contribution and propagation of the Sinulog dance of Cebu, she was referred to as the "Heritage Keeper". The original Sinulog dance and her legacy of devotion to the Child Jesus through dancing continues today even after her death and is still continued through her former students who now teach the youth of Cebu the original dance moves of Sinulog. Sinulog had since very much diversified from the original dance of Titang Diola. Today we can see the Sinulog danced everyday at the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño performed by the candle vendors. The version they perform is called "Sinug" and is only for worship and prayer to bless the candles for prayers to the Holy Child. The Sinulog Festival dance performed by contingents in the City Sports Center is still religious and devotional since dancers often include personal supplications, petitions, thanksgivings, intercessions, or any other prayers in their dance for the Child Jesus and their dance performances in street dance and ritual showdown are still centered on the Holy Child. There are mainly two types of Sinulog dances performed in the festival, namely the "Sinulog-Based Category" and the "Free Interpretation Category". The Sinulog-Based Category refers to the Sinulog dance based on the Church Sinulog performed by candle vendors while the Free Interpretation Category refers to the Sinulog dance interpreted in any way, outside Church Sinulog, for as long as it is acceptable in the festival. In recent years, the festival gained commercialization which made the festival and Cebu popular, but unfortunately lessened the religious nature of the festival. Despite the extreme commercialization of the festival, Sinulog still remains to be a religious festival for the faithful

In the 1980s and 2000s, the city authorities of Cebu added the religious feast of Santo Niño de Cebu during the Sinulog Festival to its cultural event. Despite being a religious festival and a Christian festival, Sinulog has come to be a celebration for all Cebuanos and Filipinos regardless of their faith and practices. Aside from its religious nature, Sinulog has also become renowned for its street parties. In 2012, Cebu introduced Life Dance, the biggest outdoor dance party in the Philippines. The Sinulog street parties are considered a major attraction for youth individuals but, in most cases for most people, particularly the faithful, a growing problem that threatens the religiosity and solemnity of the festival. In 2016, the festival had the worst recorded case of a stampede wherein large groups of people, both worshippers and drunken party-goers, were congested in the uptown area, with no passable exit routes and virtually no crowd control up until midnight and with one recorded case of a teenage woman losing consciousness because of cramped spaces. Due to this incident, the then Cebu City Mayor Tomas Osmeña enforced a strict liquor ban in the following festivals during his term to ensure the safety of the worshippers and spectators and to maintain the solemnity of the celebration.

Literally translates to the "Victory in Mactan", this is a historical festival reenactment of the Battle of Mactan. Celebrated canonically on the 27th of April, It depicts the events before, during, and immediately after the defeat of Portuguese Navigator Ferdinand Magellan at the hands of Lapu-lapu and his men. Usually, in the Kadaugan sa Mactan, Filipino celebrities, especially celebrities of Cebuano origin, are chosen to portray the key characters of the events of the Battle of Mactan (specifically Lapu-lapu, his wife Reyna Bulakna, and Magellan). This is typically a week-long celebration and culminates with the Rampada Festival, a stylized contemporary reenactment of the victory celebration after the battle in Mactan, incorporating Latin and ballroom dances and steps. Despite the Sinulog Festival being more popular by comparison, the Kadaugan had already been established as a festival of Cebu and its culture and history long before Sinulog was an established festival.

Literally translates to the "Celebration in Cebu", this Festival is a relatively new festival in Cebu, conceptualized in 2008. This festival was the "Brainchild" of Cebu's first female governor, Gwendolyn Garcia. This festival was a program and a major tourism endeavor initiated by the governor in order to promote Cebu as an entire province and to celebrate Cebu in its culture, faith, history, and continuous advancement. In this festival, each individual town in Cebu is encouraged to showcase a theme, a product, a festival, or something unique from their place. Despite, in itself, not being a religious festival, praise, thanksgiving, and worship to God, as well as devotion to the patron saints of each town of Cebu is also given emphasis in the festival (as hinted in the category for portable processional platforms for patron saints or Best in Andas category). Unlike the Sinulog Festival, which is limited to two major categories (Sinulog-based and Free Interpretation), Participants of Pasigarbo are given more freedom in the interpretation of the culture, faith, history, and products of their hometowns. Ever since its conception, the festival had been celebrated yearly at the Cebu International Convention Center (CICC) in Mandaue, around the date of the Provincial Charter Day of Cebu which is celebrated every 6 August, however, was ceased after 2012. This was largely due to the 2013 Bohol earthquake, which also heavily affected Cebu, as well as the lack of support from the provincial government for both the repair of the CICC and the festival itself. This was mainly because Garcia was no longer in position as governor at the time. Fortunately, the festival was recently relaunched in 2019, less than a month after Garcia's return to the provincial seat. Unlike previous celebrations, the 2019 Pasigarbo, due to the abandoned state of the CICC, was celebrated, much like the Sinulog Festival, in the Cebu City Sports Complex. As per its return, it has established itself once more as a provincial festival and a new addition to Cebu's prime festivals and significant dates, together with the Sinulog Festival and the Kadaugan sa Mactan.

Other Festivals Edit

This is a religious festival from Mandaue City that is in honor of the Holy Family and is greatly inspired from and is associated directly with the religious activities of the Sinulog Festival. The name of the festival is the Cebuano term for "gathering". This is because the festival celebrates the Translacion (Transfer of Relic) of the Santo Niño de Cebu and Our Lady of Guadalupe to the Archdiocesan Shrine of St. Joseph, the patron saint of Mandaue. It replaced the Mantawi Festival as the festival of Mandaue. The Festival is celebrated on the Thursday before the Sinulog Festival or the day before the Translacion which marks the start of the Triduum of the "Fiesta Señor" activities.

This is the Easter Festival of Minglanilla. It is held in honor of Jesus Christ as the "Risen Lord". It celebrates the mystery of the Resurrection of Jesus and the traditional belief of the faithful in Christ's apparition to the Blessed Virgin Mary in a private revelation in order to reveal to her that He had risen from the dead and is truly God. The festival's name is taken from the term Sugat (Cebuano) or Salubong (Filipino) which is a traditional practice during Easter Vigils wherein an image of Christ is shown before an image of the Virgin Mary that is covered in a black veil to show her mourning and sadness, which is then lifted by angels, exposing the Virgin Mary with unspeakable joy at the Resurrection of Jesus. The second part of the name is the Cebuano word for "resurrection", which is timely for the religious celebration. The Festival is centered on the life of Jesus, as well as Christian Morals and Values, with both themes being heavily incorporated in the performances of the dancers in the festival. This festival has gained Minglanilla the title as the "Easter Capital of Cebu".

The Kabkaban Festival is the local religious festival of the City of Carcar in honor of St. Catherine of Alexandria. The festival's name was the old name of Carcar, which was taken from Kabkab ("Kabkaban" for plural), the local term for the Oakleaf Fern (Aglaomorpha quercifolia). The festival celebrates Carcar, as well as the Carcaranon way of life and the town's culture, faith, and musical history. Much of the dance steps used in the Kabkaban dance were taken and inspired directly from the dance moves used in the Sinulog Festival and other Sinulog dance offerings by the Sandiego Family with their company, the "Sandiego Dance Company", headed by Val Sandiego, a native of Carcar. The ispiration from the dance company is also evident in the costumes used by the dancers of the Kabkaban Festival, as well as dancers representing Carcar in the Sinulog Festival or other festivals like the Pasigarbo sa Sugbo Festival of Festivals. The Kabkaban festival is celebrated from the 23rd until the 25th of November, in line with the feast day of the town's patron saint.

The La Torta Festival is Argao's food festival. It is in honor of St. Michael the Archangel. It replaced Argao's former festival, the "Pitlagong Festival" in 2011. It celebrates the Torta, a Cebuano Tart that is reminiscent to the Spanish Tart, but distinct in its recipe as it uses Tuba or palm wine as a rising agent instead of yeast. Because Argao is one of Cebu's Spanish Towns (the other being Liloan), dancers in the La Torta Festival wear Spanish inspired costumes that usually have a red motif to them and dance Spanish dance steps or Spanish-inspired dance steps. It is celebrated on the 28th up to the 29th of September to coincide with the feast of the archangels.

The Dagitab Festival is Naga's Christmas Festival. It is in honor of St. Francis of Assisi. The name of the festival means "electric light" which is what Naga is known for, particularly during the Holidays. During December, Naga's streets, parks, and buildings are lit with all sorts of bright lights of different colors to mark the Holiday Season. But these bright lights come at a cost, power outages. To resolve this problem, Gov. Gwen Garcia, together with the Province of Cebu, set up another electric company to supply electricity in the town. The onset of electric advancements and greater connection initiated the start of the industrialization of Naga. The industrial movement is also one of the focuses of the festival. Dancers in the Dagitab Festival wear and incorporate LED lights/lamps in their lively performances to bring the Holiday Spirit to everyone and to celebrate the advancement of the city. This festival has gained Naga the titles of being the "Christmas Capital of Cebu" and the "Industrial Hub of the South". Despite being in honor of St. Francis, whose feast day is on the 4th of October, the festival is celebrated on the 23rd of December which is two days before Christmas Day.

The Halad Inasal Festival is Talisay's food festival. It is in honor of St. Teresa of Avila. The name of the festival is taken from the Cebuano words Halad, which means offering, and Inasal, which refers to the local term for Lechon or Philippine Roasted Pig. Cebu is well known for producing Lechon Inasal and has two towns that are dedicated "Lechon Towns" with one being Talisay (the other being Carcar). The festival was formerly called simply the "Inasal Festival", but was renamed as "Halad Inasal Festival" to highlight the religiosity of the festival. In the Halad Inasal Festival, dancers and participants parade freshly roasted and crunchy Inasal in the streets of Talisay while they perform their dance offerings and bring them even while they perform their ritual showdown. It is celebrated around, but never directly on the 15th of October, the feast of St. Teresa, so as not to interfere with the religious activities of the town feast.

The Bonga Festival is the Harvest Festival of Sibonga. It is in honor of the town's two patron saints, St. Philomena and Our Lady of the Pillar. The name of the festival is the Cebuano word for "fruit". It is a festival of thanksgiving for the bountiful fruit harvest during the harvest season of the town. It is celebrated on the 12th of October, in line with the feast of the original patroness of the town, the Blessed Virgin. The festival has given the town its very own title as the "Fruit Basket of Cebu".

The Rosquillos festival is the food festival of Liloan. It is in honor of St. Ferdinand of Castille. It celebrates the Rosquillos, a Philippine ring type cookie that originated from Liloan. The cookie was conceptualized and conceived by a woman named Titay Frasco, who was the founder of Titay's, the largest chain company of Rosquillos in the Philippines. It is celebrated on the 30th of May.

This is the sea festival of Moalboal. It is in honor of St. John of Nepomuk. The name of the festival is taken from the Cebuano term for "coral reefs. It is a nature-tourism project initiated by the local government made to preserve the reefs of the town, which are viable sources of livelihood and eco-tourism. This is one of the known sea festivals in the Province of Cebu. It is celebrated on the 16th of May.

The Utanon Festival of Dalaguete, is the town's harvest festival. It is in honor of St. William the Hermit. The name of the festival is the Cebuano word for "vegetables". It is a festival about showing thanksgiving for the bountiful harvest of vegetables in the town, all year round. It is celebrated on the 10th of February. The festival has helped acknowledge the town as a producer of grain and vegetable crops, giving the town the title as the "Salad Bowl of Cebu".

The Siloy Festival is Alcoy's nature festival and eco-tourism project. It is in honor of St. Rose of Lima. The festival takes its name from the local term of the Black Shama Bird (Copsychus Cebuensis), a local species of song bird only found in Cebu, with its last stronghold in Alcoy's rainforest and woody areas. The festival is a project meant to promote awareness of the Black Shama and its endangered nature and to help preserve Cebu's endemic Shama species of birds, as well to help save Mother Earth. It is celebrated on the 23rd of August every year.

The Palawod Festival is the sea festival of Bantayan. It is in honor of Sts. Peter and Paul, who are both the town's patron saints. The festival's name means "to voyage into deep waters". This is a festival of thanksgiving for the bountiful catch and for the abundance of the sea and its bounty. It is celebrated on the 29th of the month of June to be connected with the Solemnity of Sts. Peter and Paul.

The Tostado festival is the food festival of Santander. It is in honor of St. Gabriel the Archangel. It celebrates the Tostado, a Cebuano shortbread cookie that is shaped like a flower. The local economy had been heavily boosted thanks to the Tostado cookie, which had provided job opportunities for many people. This festival also celebrates the resources of the town. It is celebrated on the 3rd Sunday of April.

This is the sea festival and town fiesta of Madridejos. It is in honor of the Immaculate Conception. The name of the festival is the Cebuano word for "fish". It celebrates the bountiful catch and the abundance of fish species and other marine life in the area. It is celebrated on the 8th of December, which is also the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

This is the weaving festival of Badian. It is in honor of St. James the Great. It celebrates the Banig, a hand-woven Philippine mat made from Pandanus leaves that is commonly sold, in the province, in Badian. It is celebrated on the 25th of the month of April.

This is the town fiesta of Toledo. It is in honor of St. John of Sahagun. The name of this festival is an amalgamation of two Cebuano words, Hinaguan, which means "fruits of labor", and Bulawan, which means "bright" or "golden". This was, historically, the old name of the town. Currently, it is the name of a river that is found in the town. Hinulawan Festival celebrates the rich culture and history of the town, as well as the golden hearts and the shining and welcoming personality of the Toledohanons. It falls on the 12th of June, which coincides with the Philippine Independence Day celebration.

Originally called the "Sadsad Festival", this is the local festival of Oslob. Like the Isda Festival, It is in honor of the Immaculate Conception. The name of the festival is the Cebuano term for the act of "dipping". The name of the festival is a reference to the etymology of the name of the town wherein two Spanish soldiers mistakenly identified the town after asking a couple who, due to misinterpretation, thought they were referring to what they were doing. The couple did not understand that the soldiers were asking for the name of the town and simply thought they were referring to the boiled bananas they were dipping in salted vinegar so all they could utter was "Toslob". The soldiers seemingly also misheard them and thought they said "Oslob". Ever since then, the town was referred to by that name which the Spanish Soldiers heard. The Toslob festival is a celebration of thanksgiving for the graces received as a town community. It is celebrated on the 8th of December, which is also the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

This is the harvest festival of Pinamungajan. It is in honor of St. Monica. The name of the festival came from the Cebuano word, Pinamuhuan, which means "a worker's share of the harvest". It is a celebration of thanksgiving for the bountiful harvest in the town. It is celebrated on the 27th of August.

This is the town fiesta of Asturias. It is in honor of St. Roch. The name of the festival comes from the Cebuano word which refers to the combination of cultures of different people. The festival's name was taken from the old name of the town, which was Naghalin. The town was called "Naghalin" because it was a place where migrants settled and formed a neighborhood. The neighborhood soon flourished into a community and a town of Cebu. This festival is a celebration of thanksgiving for the graces received by the town and the community. It is celebrated on the 16th of August.

Panagsogod Sarok Tagbo Tubod Katubhan Putting Baybay Lingaw-sadya Garbo Karansa Soli-soli Kinsan Binuyocan/Buyoc Humba Haladaya Bahandi Lapyahan Hinatdan Dinagat Pintos Tuba (Festival) Budbod Kabog Sinanggiyaw Cassava (Festival) Kawayan Dagayday Pamugsay


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Cebu Back in the Days

Once a flourishing fishing and trading village, the island was already engaged with China, Malaysia, Japan, India, Burma and other civilizations in Asia. Although knowledgeable in ways of trading, these people lived in stilt houses made of bamboo, wood and nipa. Their way of living also included having tattoos on their bodies, used gold jewelry, silk clothing, and coloring of the lips. Even with all these customs, their livelihood was peaceful and simple.

Places in the Philippines including Cebu have experienced more than one colonization hundreds of years later the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on the shores of Cebu in 1521. But even before the arrival of Spanish conquistadors, the island was a home to people of Malay origin. It was formerly called by different names like Subgu, Zebu, Sebu, and Sibuy.

After the death of Magellan at the hands of warrior chief Lapu-Lapu, the arrival of the Spaniard Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565 brought Cebu and eventually the whole country to the hands of Spain and Catholicism. Even after the 300 long era of the Spanish colonizers, they have imprinted their culture and religion in the history of the Philippines forever.


Cebu City

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Cebu City, city, Cebu Island, south-central Philippines. Located on Cebu Island’s eastern coast, it is protected by offshore Mactan Island and by the inland Cordillera Central. It is one of the country’s largest cities and is a bustling port. Its harbour is provided by the sheltered strait between Mactan Island and the coast.

The country’s oldest settlement, it is also one of its most historic and retains much of the flavour of its long Spanish heritage. A thriving port occupied the site when Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese navigator and explorer, landed there on April 7, 1521. He sealed a blood compact with Humabon, the chief of Cebu, but was killed later by Chief Lapulapu of nearby Mactan Island. On April 27, 1565, Miguel López de Legazpi and the friar Andrés de Urdaneta arrived on Cebu and founded the first Spanish settlement and Catholic mission in the Philippine archipelago. For six years, until Legazpi’s removal to Manila, Cebu was the Spanish colonial capital. It remained the primary Spanish bastion in the southern part of the Philippines.

The cultural and commercial core of the central Visayan region, Cebu was opened to foreign trade in 1860. It was chartered as a city in 1936. Although it imports few foreign goods, it is the main collection centre for such interisland commodities as copra, abaca, sugar, timber, and fish. Cebu is a major point of passenger traffic by air and sea and is served by an international airport across the harbour on Mactan Island.

Many Manila-based industrial and commercial firms maintain branches in Cebu City. Warehousing and assembly plants for wholesale trade are important to the economy. Textiles, footwear, processed foods, vegetable oil, furniture, and chemicals are leading products. Other manufactures include cosmetics, candles, pearl and aquamarine jewelry, and sistas (guitars and ukuleles), the latter primarily made on Mactan Island. The city is easily accessible from all points on Cebu Island. A coastal railway reaches from Cebu City north to Danao and south to Carcar, and highways cross the nearby Cordillera Central. During World War II, the city was almost destroyed by the Japanese in May 1942, but the port was left intact. The city was subsequently rebuilt and enlarged. Its layout follows the configuration of the shoreline, with the main business district adjoining the port area. Urban residents are concentrated nearby, and population influx has contributed to a housing shortage. Suburbs are located to the north and south along the coastal plain.

Cebu City is a Roman Catholic archbishopric and is a centre of education. It is the site of five major universities: the University of San Carlos (1595), Cebu Institute of Technology (1946), Southwestern University (1946), University of the Southern Philippines (1927), and University of the Visayas (1919). The ruins of the Spanish Fort San Pedro are near the harbour. Pop. (2010) 866,171 (2015) 922,611.

Uredniki Encyclopaedia Britannica Ta članek je nazadnje popravil in posodobil urednik Michael Ray.


Stone Age Facts

Early in the Stone Age, humans lived in small, nomadic groups. During much of this period, the Earth was in an Ice Age𠅊 period of colder global temperatures and glacial expansion.

Mastodons, saber-toothed cats, giant ground sloths and other megafauna roamed. Stone Age humans hunted large mammals, including wooly mammoths, giant bison and deer. They used stone tools to cut, pound, and crush—making them better at extracting meat and other nutrients from animals and plants than their earlier ancestors.

About 14,000 years ago, Earth entered a warming period. Many of the large Ice Age animals went extinct. In the Fertile Crescent, a boomerang-shaped region bounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea and on the east by the Persian Gulf, wild wheat and barley became plentiful as it got warmer.

Some humans started to build permanent houses in the region. They gave up the nomadic lifestyle of their Ice Age ancestors to begin farming.

Human artifacts in the Americas begin showing up from around this time, too. Experts aren’t exactly sure who these first Americans were or where they came from, though there’s some evidence these Stone Age people may have followed a footbridge between Asia and North America, which became submerged as glaciers melted at the end of the last Ice Age.


Amphibious Landings in South Vietnam

The fleet provided direct support to the campaign in South Vietnam with its long-established Amphibious Ready Group and Special Landing Force (ARG/SLF). The powerful, versatile, and mobile formation capable of striking along the length of the South Vietnamese littoral and far inland.

Initially, the ARG usually consisted of three or four ships, including an amphibious assault ship (LPH), a dock landing ship (LSD), an attack transport (APA) or an amphibious transport dock (LPD), and a tank landing ship (LST). Other amphibious vessels often augmented this force. The Marine SLF was composed of a medium helicopter squadron equipped with 24 UH-34s and embarked in the LPH. An infantry battalion landing team, reinforced with artillery, armor, engineer, and other support units, comprised the ground combat element. These men and their equipment were divided among the ships, enabling landings on shore by helicopter, by the force's 41 organic tracked landing vehicles (LVT), or by both methods.

The fleet provided additional assistance for amphibious operations, including carrier air cover, naval gunfire support, supply by the Logistic Support Force (Task Force 73), and medical support by hospital ships Repose (AH 16) and Sanctuary (AH 17) positioned close offshore. Naval personnel also served in Marine units as medical corpsmen, chaplains, and spotters, the latter in 1st Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company detachments. Furthermore, underwater demolition team, SEAL, beachmaster, and special communications beach jumper units supported operations on shore.

At various times during the war, transport submarines Perch (APSS 313), Tunny (APSS 282), and Grayback (LPSS 574) carried Navy underwater demolition teams, SEALs, and South Vietnamese marines to points off prospective landing beaches. Once there, the naval special warfare men silently exited the boats, swam or rowed rubber rafts through the surf, and carried out vital reconnaissance or other special operations ashore.

The Seventh Fleet's Commander Amphibious Task Force (Commander Task Force 76) exercised operational control of the ARG (Task Group 76.5) and the SLF (Task Group 79.5) at sea. With the deployment of another ARG/SLF, assigned the designations 76.4 and 79.4, respectively, to the South China Sea in April 1967, the amphibious flotilla was divided into ARG/SLF Alpha and ARG/SLF Bravo.

A battalion of the 9th Marines was one of the first units to land in Vietnam following the decision to commit Marine forces against the Viet Cong. On 8 March 1965, BLT (Battalion Landing Team) 3/9, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Charles E. McPartllin, Jr., landed in Da Nang in central Vietnam as part of the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade. Although clearly communicating that the Marines had arrived, the landing was an administrative landing in friendly territory, rather than an assault landing on an enemy-held beach.

Following the landing on 8 March 1965 of Marine forces at Danang, which marked the beginning of a new era in America's Southeast Asian involvement, naval leaders awaited additional amphibious shipping and prepared plans for employing the ARG/SLF against the enemy. In the interim, the task group protected Qui Nhon until Army units arrived, and covered the landing in II Corps of the Army's 1st Cavalry Division.

During this preparation, the U.S. command took advantage of good intelligence to launch Operation Starlite, perhaps the greatest amphibious success of the war. Discovering that the 1st Viet Cong Regiment planned to attack the Marine enclave at Chu Lai from a coastal village 12 miles to the south, General Westmoreland directed the III Marine Amphibious Force, the chief Marine command in South Vietnam, to preempt the assault and destroy the 1,500-man enemy unit. Between 18 and 25 August, a cruiser and two destroyers poured accurate naval gunfire on the enemy concentration as the Seventh Fleet Amphibious Ready Group landed Marine units on the beach. Other elements were helicoptered inland from Iwo Jima (LPH 2) and Chu Lai. By the end of the week-long battle, the 1st Viet Cong Regiment was pushed up to the sea by three Marine and two South Vietnamese battalions and then pounded by air and naval gunfire. At the cost of 45 Marines killed and 203 wounded, the allied force inflicted 623 casualties on the enemy unit, putting it out of action for some time.

Seeking to complete the destruction of the Viet Cong unit that had withdrawn further south to the Batangan Peninsula, in September U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine, and South Vietnamese forces, including Coastal Force elements, conducted Operation Piranha. Learning from the costly Starlite setback, however, the Communists now avoided pitched battles on the coast and evaded the allied search. Although 178 enemy soldiers were reported killed, contact was light throughout the action.

By the end of September 1965, U.S. leaders were prepared to initiate an amphibious campaign against Communist forces along the entire South Vietnamese coast. COMUSMACV and fleet commanders planned a series of ARG/SLF raids, designated Dagger Thrust, in support of the Market Time antiinfiltration effort against Viet Cong bases, supply points, and small units. The first three raids were carried out in rapid succession between 25 September and 1 October as the force struck at target areas near Vung Mu, Ben Goi, and Tam Quan in II Corps, but without finding any significant sign of the enemy. On 30 November the Navy-Marine team first struck at a suspected Viet Cong infiltration base on Cape Ke Ga southwest of Phan Thiet and then at Phu Thu in northern II Corps on 5 and 6 December. Neither strike was successful. The program was hampered by dated intelligence, some enemy foreknowledge of U.S. intentions, and prolonged preparations.

The focus on destroying the enemy's main force units also continued as naval amphibious forces conducted operations Blue Marlin I and II near Tam Ky and Hoi An in November. Again, the results were negligible. Then from 9 to 19 December, III Marine Amphibious Force units and the fleet's ARG/SLF combined with South Vietnamese troops to strike at their old nemesis, the 1st Viet Cong Regiment, again up to strength and located in the hills west of Chu Lai. Although the three Marine and three South Vietnamese battalions killed 407 and captured 33 of the enemy and seized over 100 weapons and 60 tons of ammunition, the cost was very high. Ambushes and other tactics left 181 South Vietnamese troops killed or missing and 141 wounded. The Marines suffered 45 dead and 218 wounded.

In Double Eagle, the largest amphibious operation to date in South Vietnam, the ARG/SLF forces joined Marine and South Vietnamese units in a lengthy sweep for enemy regiments near Quang Ngai City and Tam Ky in I Corps. From 28 January to 1 March 1966, the allied force searched for Viet Cong units, but the enemy's good intelligence network enabled him to avoid significant contact.

Again in March and April the allies mounted a multiunit effort to find and destroy Communist forces. In Operation Jackstay, which lasted from 26 March to 7 April, the Navy-Marine ARG/SLF combined with other U.S. and South Vietnamese units to attack the Viet Cong in the Rung Sat swamp that surrounded the vital shipping channel to Saigon. Although most enemy units evaded the search, the allies, at least temporarily, disrupted operations in the Viet Cong base area.

Following the unproductive Operation Osage in April and May 1966, U.S. leaders concluded that the growing allied strength in coastal areas would keep the enemy from concentrating large units there in the future. Thus, amphibious raids and sweeps along the shore were no longer considered valid tactics. From June through September, in a series of operations labelled Deckhouse, the ARG/SLF joined Army or III Marine Amphibious Force troops in lengthy multibattalion combat actions inland. Still, the results were disappointing for the Navy-Marine team as the enemy, except during Deckhouse IV, declined to stand and fight.

Beginning in October 1966, the growing menace from North Vietnamese Army (NVA) units moving south through the DMZ drew the ARG/SLF to the northernmost reaches of the Republic of Vietnam. Before the end of the year Vice Admiral John J. Hyland, Commander Seventh Fleet, temporarily established an additional amphibious task group positioned just offshore for quick reaction. While Deckhouse V was undertaken during the early part of 1967 in the Mekong Delta, the year's other 24 amphibious operations took place in I Corps. Further, most ARG/SLF combat actions were in support of the Marine stand against the fierce thrusts of the North Vietnamese Army at Dong Ha, Con Thien, and Quang Tri City and in the DMZ itself.

The amphibious force, permanently augmented by another ARG/SLF after April 1967, was often used to extend the allied flank at sea, block Communist movements, land troops in the enemy's rear, or reinforce front-line units. Troops deployed by helicopter or amphibious craft, cruisers, and destroyers provided this ready, mobile, and powerful assistance. Noteworthy actions included landings in the southern half of the DMZ in May and operations in August and September to prevent the Communists from disrupting South Vietnam's national elections. While the ARG/SLF accounted for over 3,000 enemy killed during the year, the force's support enabled other allied units to inflict even greater damage on the North Vietnamese Army.

During January 1968, the ARG/SLF Marines carried out four heliborne operations ashore in I Corps. The enemy's massive Tet Offensive, launched on the 30th, soon demanded the suspension of amphibious landings and long-term commitment ashore of the fleet's Marine forces. During the next four months, the ships of both ARGs served as havens for the Navy's riverine combat and logistic craft deployed to the area for the emergency. This sea- based support was crucial to the eventual allied military success in the northern reaches of South Vietnam. From June to the end of the year, the amphibious task forces took part in nine I Corps operations that decimated Communist forces fighting to hold Hue and the surrounding region.


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CEBU – A Glimpse of Its Past

The name Cebu came from the word “SEBU” meaning animal fat. Long before the coming of the Spaniards, it was a fishing village ruled by Rajah Humabon.

Cebu metamorphosed in more ways than one, but always for the better. From a sleepy fishing village to a fledging trading port in 1521, from the first Spanish settlement named Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus in 1575 to a municipality in 1901, Cebu finally became a chartered city on February 24, 1937. Being the first and oldest city in the country antedating Manila by 7 years, having the oldest schooland oldest street and being the cradle of Christianity in the Far East (i.e. Magellan’s cross planted in Cebu as a symbol of natives embracing the Christian faith), Cebu is replete with historical firsts.

Miguel Lopez de Legazpi then urged men to construct the oldest and smallest fort in the country: Fort San Pedro. As Spain intensified its colonization efforts, indignant islanders showed opposition by way of intermittent attacks against the colonizers. The rebellion paved the way to the construction of Fort San Pedro, a Spanish military stronghold.

However, the fort fell to the hands of the native Cebuanos when Americans commanded by Commodore George Dewey vanguished the Spanish fleet in December 1898 in the Battle of Manila Bay. With the American reign in full force in 1901, then Senate Pro Tempore and late President Sergio Osmeña, Sr., and then Congressman and Majority Floor Leader in the House of Representatives, the late Senator Manuel Briones vigorously lobbied for Philippine Independence.

The streets of Tres de Abril and V. Rama were the sites of a fierce battle on April 3, 1898 when General Leon Kilat of Bacong, Negros Oriental spearheaded the revolution against Spanish colonialism. The Spaniards sought refuge at the Fort San Pedro and three days of relentless attacks would have spelled victory for the rebels were it not for the propitious arrival of the Spanish armada.

February 24, 1937 was a milestone in Cebuano history as Cebu City was granted the charter by virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 58 enacted by Congress on October 20, 1936. The late Senator Vicente Rama, formerly representative of Cebu’s 3 rd district was instrumental as author and sponsor of the bill. It was at that time that Secretary of Interior and Local Government Elpidio Quirino appointed the mayor and board members of Cebu City in his capacity as representative of Manuel Quezon.

Shortly after the landing of the Japanese army in Cebu City on April 10, 1942, the entire province became the principal Japanese base due to its strategic location and substantial population. Cebu finally saw the light of freedom in March 1945 when American liberation forces landed in Talisay town. Liberation came in full circle in March 1946 and to restore law and order, a civil government dubbed as Philippine Civil Affairs Unit (PCAU) was established in the city.

In April 1965, the entire Christian world focused its attention on Cebu City, considered as the cradle of Christianity in the Far East as it played host to the 400 th Anniversary of Christianity in the Philippines. The celebration highlighted the contributions of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and Fray Andres de Urdaneta in proselytizing Christianity by way of establishing a Spanish settlement in the province. In a country where Catholics predominate, the conferment of the San Agustin Church to the title Basilica Minore del Santo Niño proved to be a momentous occasion as Rome sent its representative Papal Legate, His Eminence Ildefonso Cardinal Antonuitte.


Poglej si posnetek: Argentina Golpistas 1955, 1976 (Maj 2022).