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Ali sta bila Mojzes in Abraham zgodovinska osebnost?

Ali sta bila Mojzes in Abraham zgodovinska osebnost?


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Zgodovina ni moje specializirano področje. Zanima me zgodovinskost Mojzesa in Abrahama z vidika sodobne kritične znanosti. Super bi bilo, če bi navedli reference.


Kar zadeva zgodovino, so Abrahama, Jakoba in Izaka tradicionalno skupaj obravnavali kot »patriarhe«. Včasih so bili nekateri zgodovinarji, ki so resno trdili, da so živeli v patriarhalni dobi nekje okoli leta 2000 pr.

Danes je mogoče zgodbe, v katerih so vsebovane, zanesljivo umestiti tako, kot so bile zapisane v bližnji vzhodni železni dobi, ki je približno tisočletje po tem, ko so nastale. Torej so bili takrat popolnoma izumljeni ali pa je tako dolgo obstajala ustna tradicija, ki se je drastično spremenila in je vključevala elemente železne dobe (in verjetno bi se prav tako drastično spremenila v manj opaznih podrobnostih). Zato preprosto ni mogoče šteti za zgodovinske osebnosti.

Mojzes je opravil ločeno analizo, vendar je rezultat približno enak. Za besedila, ki ga omenjajo, velja, da so bili napisani šele v babilonskem izgnanstvu (konec 6. stoletja pr. N. Št.), Sam dogodek pa bi se zgodil 700 let prej. Pravih potrditvenih zapisov o tem ni iz nobenega drugega vira, jezikovni dokazi pa so najbolj skladni s tem, da so Hebrejci tesno povezani s svojimi sosedi v Levantu, ne pa z nedavnimi priseljenci od drugod.

Babilonsko izgnanstvo je bilo seveda v času velikega stresa, ko bi bila zgodba o tem, kako so skozi suženjstvo in izgnanstvo vztrajali kot usklajeno ljudstvo, v veliko pomoč, Egipčani pa zelo priročen slab človek, nad katerim se njihovi babilonski gospodarji ne bi pritoževali.

Tega ne bi smeli ublažiti niti za ioto. Težko bi našli zgodovinsko pomembnejšo zgodbo od Exodusa. Verjetno je bilo oblikovano za odpor. Robovani ljudje ga od takrat uporabljajo za navdih, udobje in odpor. To je bil redek govor Martina Lutherja Kinga, ki se nanj ni skliceval.


V nobenem primeru ni dokončnega dokaza.

Ni neodvisnega vira, ki bi dokumentiral Mojzesov obstoj poleg hebrejskih svetih besedil (stara zaveza). Poleg tega sodobna štipendija datira Knjiga eksodusa ki podrobno opisuje Mojzesovo vlogo pri osvoboditvi judovskega ljudstva iz suženjstva, ki je bila napisana v šestem stoletju pred našim štetjem, približno 600 let po izhodu iz leta 1200 pred našim štetjem. Menijo, da je bil Exodus napisan v času Babilonska diaspora (587 pr. N. Št.-539 pr. N. Št.). Poleg tega so deli Mojzesove pripovedi izrazito podobni s starejšo (babilonsko) zgodbo o drugem tisočletnem kralju, imenovano Sargon Veliki. Biti postavljen v košaro in biki pohiteti.

Vse to v celoti ne dokazuje, lahko pa za nekatere namigne na odgovor. Podoben primer bi lahko navedli proti obstoju Jezusa Kristusa, če ne bi na kratko omenili judovskega zgodovinarja Flavija Jožefa Flavija, ki je pisal približno 50 let po križanju.

Glede na to, da je Abraham živel v drugem ali prvem tisočletju pred našim štetjem, strokovnjaki v nobenem primeru niso dosegli soglasja. Glede na časovne okvire in majhne dokaze za obstoj veliko mlajših zgodovinskih osebnosti bi moralo biti pomanjkanje Abrahamovih dokazov še manj smiselno, če ne le dobrih dokazov.

Abraham: Zgodovina V začetku in sredi 20. stoletja so vodilni arheologi, kot je William F. Albright, in svetopisemski strokovnjaki, kot je Albrecht Alt, verjeli, da so patriarhi (Abraham) in matriarhi resnični posamezniki ali verjetni sestavljeni ljudje, ki so živeli v "patriarhalnem" starost ", 2. tisočletje pr. Toda v sedemdesetih letih so novi argumenti v zvezi z izraelsko preteklostjo in svetopisemskimi besedili izpodbijali ta stališča; te argumente najdemo v knjigah Thomasa L. Thompsona Zgodovina patriarhalnih pripovedi (1974) in Abrahamu Johna Van Setersa v zgodovini in tradiciji (1975). Thompson, literarni učenjak, je svoj argument oprl na arheologijo in starodavna besedila. Njegova teza se je osredotočila na pomanjkanje prepričljivih dokazov, da so patriarhi živeli v 2. tisočletju pred našim štetjem, in opozoril, kako so nekatera svetopisemska besedila odražala razmere in skrbi prvega tisočletja. Van Seters je preučil patriarhalne zgodbe in trdil, da njihova imena, družbeni milje in sporočila močno nakazujejo, da so stvarstva iz železne dobe. [11] Do začetka 21. stoletja so arheologi opustili upanje, da bodo obnovili vsak kontekst, ki bi Abrahama, Izaka ali Jakoba naredil za verodostojno zgodovinsko osebnost


Tu je nekaj zanimivih virov za Abrahamov obstoj:

  1. V Hebrejski enciklopediji [Abrahamov vnos] "Današnji raziskovalci na Abrahama gledajo kot na osebnost v resnici"
  2. Svetopisemska knjiga na strani 90 vsebuje arheološke najdbe, imenovane "potrdila Marie" z imeni, kot so "Aviram Ishmael, Jacob, Lahal.
  3. Svetopisemska enciklopedija [vnos Filona] prinaša kanaansko tradicijo moškemu, ki je svojega sina žrtvoval na oltarju in naredil obrezovanje

Poznavanje časa biblijskih dogodkov in kronologija biblijskih likov nam pomaga videti Božjo besedo v njenem zgodovinskem kontekstu. Spoznamo tudi časovni okvir njegovih starih ljudi v njihovih generacijah. Moje osnovno stališče je t.i maksimalistično meni, da je svetopisemska zgodovina pravilna, razen če arheologija jasno dokaže, da je napačna. Ta tema sledi biblijski kronologiji od Abrahama do izhoda starega Izraela iz Egipta.

Natančni datumi rojstva in smrti svetopisemskih patriarhov niso znani. Datumi rojstva Abrama/Abrahama in odhod iz Egipta so vzeti iz Martina Ansteyja Romantika biblijske kronologije, v.2, str. 7-10. Dr.Anstey rojstni dan Abrama 2117 Pr, eksodus v 1612 Pr.

Če se je Abram rodil leta 2117 pred našim štetjem v Uru, je prišel v Kanaan v starosti 75 let (Ge.12: 4-5) 2042 Pr. Pr.12: 40 LXX »Izraelovi otroci, ko so prebivali v egiptovski deželi in the zemljišča od Kanaan, je bil 430 leta. " The Masoretski besedilo izpušča »in deželo kanaansko«. Toda računi v Samaritansko peteroknjižje, Talmud in Josephus se vsi strinjata z LXX. Jožef Judovske starine 2: 15: 2 »Zapustili so Egipt 430 leta potem ko je Abraham prišel v Kanaan, toda 215 leta šele potem, ko se je Jakob odselil v Egipt. Bilo je 80. leto Mojzesa. " Oni ostal 215 let nazaj Kanaan in 215 leta v Egipt.

Razstava škrge »Gotovo je, da je to storil Izrael ne bivajo v Egiptu 430 let. " Komentar JFB »Obdobje bivanja v Egiptu je res ne več kot 215 let. " Philip Mauro Čudesa svetopisemske kronologije, str.34 "430 let se je začelo z Božjo obljubo Abramu, ki jo je dal ob vstopu v Kanaan pri 75 letih (1. Mojz. 12: 1-4)." Apostol Pavel potrjuje obdobje 430 let (Ga.3: 16-17).

Datum 1612 pred našim štetjem za eksodus, to je 430 let po letu 2042 pred našim štetjem (ko je bil Abram star 75 let).

He.11: 8-9 »Po veri [Abraham] bivali v tujini v obljubljeni deželi, kot v tuji deželi. " Ge.15: 1-7, potem ko je Abram bival v Kanaanu približno 10 let do starosti 85 let, mu je Bog obljubil sina Izaka.

Toda pred Izakom se je rodil Abramov sin Išmael, ko je bil Abram star 86 let (Pr. 16: 16), okoli leta 2031 pr.

Ge.17: 24-25 okrog (približno ali c) 2018 pr. N. Št., Abraham je obrezan pri 99. letu, Izmael pri 13. letih.

Ge.21: 5 Abraham je star 100 let, ko je obljubil sina Isaac se rodi c 2017 Pr. Ge.17: 17 Izakova mama Sara je 90 let (rojena okoli 2107 pr. N. Št.). Ishmael je star 14 let.

Gospod je Abramu v Ge. 15: 13 rekel: »Tvoje seme bo tujce v deželi, ki ni njihova, in prizadeli jih bodo 400 leta. " Ge.21: 8-9 po Isaac je bil odstavljen, bil je posmehovali avtor: Ishmael. Če je bil Isaac v času posmeha star okoli 5 let, je bilo leto 2012 pred našim štetjem (Ishmael je bil star 19 let). Egzodus iz suženjstva v Egiptu je bil 400 leta kasneje, c 1612 pr. Bensonov komentar Ge.15: 13 »To preganjanje se je začelo s posmehom, ko se je Išmael, sin od an Egipčansko [Hagar, Pr. 16: 3], preganjal Izaka. "

To 400 -letno obdobje ni v nasprotju s 430 leti Pr 12,40.

Če se je Abram rodil okoli leta 2117 pred našim štetjem, je leta 2042 pred našim štetjem prišel v Kanaan pri 75 letih. Isaac se je rodil, ko je bil Abraham star 100 let c. Pri 60 letih je Isaac rodil dvojčka Jacob & amp Ezav (Ge.25: 26) c 1957 Pr. Ko je bil Jakob star 130 let (Ge 47,7), sta se skupaj s svojimi preselila iz Kanaana v Egipt c 1827 Pr.

Abramov prihod v Kanaan (okoli 2042 pr. N. Št.) Do Jakobovega odhoda iz Kanaana (c. 1827 pr. N. Št.) = 215 leta v Kanaan. In Jakobov prihod v Egipt (c. 1827 pr. N. Št.) Do izhoda (c. 1612 pr. N. Št.) = 215 leta v Egipt. Skupno oboje = 430 leta�–1612 pr. Glede na Septuagint, Jožef, Evzebij itd.

Sledi kronologija od Abrahama in preganjanja Izaka (c 2012 pr. N. Št.), Podrobneje:

Ge.23: 1-2 Abrahamova žena Sarah umre leta 1980 pred našim štetjem v starosti 127. Abraham je star 137 let, Izak 37, Izmael 51 let.

Ge 25: 20 Isaak se poroči z Rebeko c. 1977 pr. Izak je 40, Abraham 140, Izmael 54.

Ge.25: 25-26 Izaku je 60 let, ko so njegovi sinovi Jacob & amp Ezav sta rojena c 1957 Pr. Abraham je star 160 let, Izmael 74 let.

Ge.25: 7 Abraham umre v starosti 175 let, c. 1942 pr. Izmael ima 89 let, Izak 75, Jakob in Ezav 15 let.

Ge.26: 34 Ezav se poroči z dvema hetetskima ženama leta 1917 pr. Z Jakobom sta stara 40 let, Isaac pa 100 let.

Ge 25: 17 Izmael umre v starosti 137, c. 1894 pr. Isaac je star 123 let, Jakob in Ezav sta stara 63 let.

Ge.28: 5 Izak pošlje Jakoba v Padan-Aram v Mezopotamiji, da bi pobegnil Jakobovemu bratu Ezavu. To je bilo nekje med letoma 1900 in 1880 pr. Jakob je bil star med 57 in 77 let, Isaac od 117 do 137 let.

Pri kateri starosti je Jakob zapustil deželo Kanaan za Padan-Aram, ki je bežal iz Ezava, ni negotovo. Tam se bo Jakob poročil s svojimi prvimi sestričnami Leah in amp Rachel, hčerkama svojega strica Labana (Rebekinega brata). Jakob je služil Labanu vsaj 20 let (Ge.31: 38-41), del tega je bila cena neveste za Leah & amp Rachel (Ge.29: 16-ff). Sprva se je Jacob pogodil, da bo delal le 7 let … za Rachel (Ge.29: 18).

Jacob je delal za Labana 7 let, v zameno pa je dobil …Leah, ne Rachel! Jacob se je nato strinjal, da bo delal še 7 let za Rachel. Toda stari (biblijski) viri se razlikujejo glede tega, kdaj je Rachel dejansko postala njegova žena. Jožef op. cit. 1: 19: 7, Philo Filonova dela str.211, Opomba Pravoslavne Biblije LXX Ge.29: 27… nakazujejo, da je Rachel postala Jakobova žena po delal je celo drugo sedemletno obdobje. Toda novejša hebrejščina Masoretski besedilo Ge.29: 27-28, domnevno Knjiga Jasher 31: 12-13, Knjiga jubilejev 28: 8-9… navajajo, da je Rachel postala Jakobova žena le teden dni po Lei, prej delal je drugo 7-letno obdobje. Zgodovinski viri so različni.

Ge.35: 23-26 Jakob je imel 12 sinov (11 rojenih v Padan-Aramu). Njihovi potomci bodo postali 12 izraelskih plemen. Ge.32: 28 Bog je spremenil Jakobovo ime v Izrael.

Ge.29: 31-35 Jakob/Izraelovi prvi štirje sinovi, Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Juda …, so se rodili Lei. poglej temo "Kohathites in množica divjine (1)«Za kronologijo rodu Jakobovega tretjega sina Levija.

Ge.30: 1-8 Dan in Naftali se rodita Rahelini služabnici Bilhi (Jakobova priležnica).

Ge.30: 9-13 Gad in Ašer se nato rodita Lejini služabnici Zilpi (Jakobova druga žena priležnica).

Ge.30: 14-15 Reuben najde mandragore (afrodiziak). Je mlajši od 15 let.

Ge.30: 16-20 Leah nadaljuje z rojevanjem otrok in rodi Issacharja in Zebuluna.

Ge.30: 21 Lei se je rodila tudi hči Dinah. Nekateri menijo, da sta bila Zebulun in Dinah dvojčka (v Svetem pismu ne piše, da je Lea "spočela" Dinaino rojstvo.)

Ge.30: 22-24 Rachel končno rodi svojega prvega otroka, Jožef, c 1867 Pr. Jakob je star 90–91 let, Izak je 150. Jožefa imenujejo sin Jakobove starosti (Ge.37: 3) in Jakob ga je imel najbolj rad.

Ge.30: 25, 31: 20-21 Jakob (in njegova družina) pobegnejo iz Labana/Padan-Arama, saj so tam bili 20 let ali več.

Ge.33: 1-16 Med vrnitvijo v Kanaan Jakob na poti sreča svojega dvojčka Ezava. So v zgodnjih 90 -ih. Izaka je več kot 150. v.17-20 Jakob odpotuje v Succoth, nato pa se naseli v mestu Shechem.

Ge.38: 1-30 kmalu po tem, ko se je Jakobova družina vrnila v Kanaan leta 1865 pred našim štetjem, se je Juda poročil s Šua. Juda je imel 3 sinove …Er, Onan, Shelah. Er in Onan (zaporedno) sta se poročila s Tamar in kmalu za tem sta umrla. Nato je Juda od snahe Tamar rodila dvojčka Perez in Zerah (v. 29-30). Ko je Perez odrasel, je rodil Hezrona in Hamula, Ge.46: 12. (Ti dogodki in rojstva so se zgodili, preden so Jakob in njegovi potomci odšli v Egipt okoli leta 1827 pr. N. Št., Ko je bil Juda star vsaj 50 let.)

Ge.34: 1-31 Dinah, staro najmanj 12–13 let, vzame Šehem, Hamorjev sin. Njena starejša brata Levi in ​​Simeon, stara vsaj 18 ali 19 let, sta pobila vse moške v mestu in jih oropala. Jakob je star skoraj 100 let.

Zato mora Jakob oditi iz Sihema, Ge.35: 1-15. Odide v Betel in drugam.

Ge.35: 16-20 Rachel umre blizu Ephrath (Betlehem), medtem ko je rodila Jakobovega 12. sina, Benjamina, okoli leta 1857 pr. Jakob je star okoli 100 let, njegov sin Juda se bliža 20, Jožef blizu 10 let, Izak je blizu 160 let.

Ge.37: 1-2, 26-36 Jožefovi starejši bratje ga prodajo v suženjstvo pri 17 letih, c. 1850 pr. Jožefa odpeljejo v Egipt. Juda je star 27 let, Jakob 107, Izak 167.

Ge.35: 28-29 Isaac umre v starosti 180, c. 1837 pr. Jakob in Ezav sta stara 120 let, Juda je blizu 40 let, Jožef pa 30 let.

Ge.41: 38-46 v letu, ko je Isaac umrl, faraon naredi 30-letnega Jožefa za predsednika vlade Egipta (Jub.40: 12).

Ge.41: 47 prvih 7 let, ko je bil Jožef premier, je Egipt doživel veliko izobilja. Temu obdobju bi sledilo 7 let lakote (Ge.41: 29-30). Ge.45: 6 do takrat sta minili 2 leti lakote. Jožef je zdaj star 39 let, Jakob pa 129 let.

Ge.47: 9 Nato Jakob/Izrael, star 130 let, odide v Egipt k Jožefu c 1827 Pr. Ge.41: 46-47 & amp: 45: 6 Jožef je bil star 39-40 let. To pomeni, da se je Jožef rodil leta 1867 pred našim štetjem, ko je bil Jakob (in Ezav) star 90–91 let.

Prej se je poročil njihov brat Judah (Jakobov 4. sin) v Kanaan (ne Padan-Aram). Ge.38 Judah je bil takrat, ko so se rodili trije sinovi, star najmanj 18 let. Star je bil vsaj 34 let, ko sta se dva od teh sinov poročila in umrla. Po njihovi smrti je Juda rodil Pereza in Zeraha. Do takrat, ko se je Perez poročil in rodil 2 otroka, je bil Judah star vsaj 50 let. Z Jakobom so odšli v Egipt (Ge.46: 12). Vendar je minilo le 40 let od rojstva Judovega brata Jožefa (Jakobovega 11. sina) v Padan-Aram dokler Juda ni odšel v Egipt z Jakobom (c. 1827 pr. n. št.)! Torej je bil Juda skoraj 10 let starejši od Jožefa. Jakob je pred Judom (v Padan-Aramu) rodil 3 sinove! Bensonov komentar Ge.38: 1 »Judova poroka, ki vodi v ostalo, se je morala zgoditi že dolgo, preden so Jožefa prodali v Egipt. To poglavje je zato treba izločiti iz časovnega reda, dogodki, zabeleženi tukaj, pa so se morali zgoditi kmalu po tem, ko je Jakob prišel iz Mezopotamije v Kanaan.>

Jakobova selitev v Egipt doseže vrhunec 215 let, ki sta jih skupaj s predniki preživela v deželi Kanaan.

Zlomiti se: Ge.12: 4 Abram je star 75 let, Ge.21: 5 je star 100 let, ko se rodi Isaac …25 leta je minilo. Ge.25: 26 Isaac je star 60 let, ko sta se rodila Jakob in Ezav …60 leta več. Ge.47: 1, 9 Jakob je star 130 let, ko je z družino odšel v Egipt …130 leta več. 25 + 60 + 130 = 215 let v Kanaan.

Zdaj sledi 215-letno obdobje, v katerem so Izraelci prebivali v Egiptu do izhoda:

Ko se je Jakob v 130. letu 1827 pred našim štetjem preselil v Egipt, je Jožef star 40 let (Ge.41: 46-47, 45: 6, 47: 1, 9).

Ge.46: 1-34 navaja Jakobovo seme, ki je šlo z njim v Egipt. v.8-12 Reuben, Simeon, Levi so blizu svojih petdesetih let, Juda je star približno 50 let, Levijev sin Kohath (Jakobov vnuk) je morda star 18 let.Kohath je Mojzesdedek!) v.21-22 Benjamin mora biti star najmanj 30 let, saj ima 10 sinov! Vsi se pridružijo Jožefu v Egiptu.

Ge.47: 28 Jakob je živel 17 let v Egiptu. Jacob umre v Egiptu pri 147 letih, c 1810 Pr. Jožef je star 57 let.

Ezav je bil ubit v Kanaanu v času Jakobovega pokopa tam (Jasher 57: 64-66), tradicionalno.

Amram, sin Kohatha in oče Mojzesa & Arona, se je rodil v Egiptu nekje med letoma 1827 in 1757 pred našim štetjem (1Ch.6: 1-3).

Ge.50: 26 Jožef umre v Egiptu v starosti 110 let, c 1757 Pr, 70 let po tem, ko so se Jakob in njegova družina preselili v Egipt.

Pr.1: 8 "Vstal je novi kralj [faraon], ki ni poznal Jožefa." Jožef je bil mrtev že nekaj let.

Aaron, Amramov sin in Mojzesov starejši brat (Nu.26: 57-59), se je rodil v Egiptu okoli leta 1695 pr.

Mojzes je Rojen c 1692 Pr. P. J. Wiseman Ancient Records and the Structure of Genesis, str.99: "Rodil se je 64 let po Jožefovi smrti." Mojzes je Amramov sin in vnuk Kohatha (Kohat je z Jakobom odšel v Egipt). Mojzesov oče Amram se je rodil v Egiptu, ko je bil Jožef še živ!

Mojzes pobegne iz Egipta v Midjan v starosti 40 let (2. Mojzesova 2: 15, Dez. 7: 23-29), c. 1652 pr.

(Caleb se je rodil v Egiptu okoli leta 1651 pr. N. Št. 13,16-30, drugo leto eksodusa, z Jsh.14: 7-10.)

Mojzes je star 80 let, ko se iz Egipta vrne v Egipt, c 1612 Pr. The eksodus iz Egipta pride takrat. Pr. 7: 7 »Mojzes je bil takrat, ko so govorili s faraonom, star 80 let, Aron pa 83 let.«

Pr.12: 40 LXX »Izraelovi otroci, ko so prebivali v egiptovski deželi in the zemljišča od Kanaan, je bil 430 leta.” Zlomiti se od the 430 leta: 215 let v Kanaanu do Jakobove selitve (z Mojzesovim dedkom Kohathom) v Egipt, 70 let do Jožefove smrti, Mojzesova starost 80 let ob eksodusu in#823065 let. Tako se je Mojzes rodil skoraj 65 let po Jožefovi smrti. Mauro op. cit., str.40, "Interval med Jožefovo smrtjo in Mojzesovim rojstvom je bil 64 let." 70 + 65 + 80 = 215 leta v Egipt.

<<>: Izvirnik Ipuwer Papirus zabeležene nesreče, ki so se dogajale v starem Egiptu. V njem je Ipuwer govoril z Gospodarjem vseh, "izraz, ki se uporablja za kralja in boga ustvarjalca". Free-online-bible-study.org: „Ipuwer Papyrus je en sam papirus s staroegipčansko pesmijo, imenovano Opombe Ipuwerja. Opisuje stisko Egipta zaradi naravnih nesreč in stanje kaosa, v katerem so revni obogateli, bogati revni pa nasilje, lakota in smrt povsod. Simptom tega kaosa je objokovanje, da služabniki zapuščajo svoje suženjstvo in delujejo uporniško. Verjeten datum sestave papirusa, 1850 pr.n.št. in 1600 pr. Egyptology.org.uk »Datum za Ipuwer Papyrus ni zanesljiv. Van Seeter ga je datiral približno na konec Srednjega kraljestva (c 1600 Pr. N. Št). Večina znanstvenikov se na splošno strinja s tem zmenkom. "

Ogromen minojski izbruh vulkana Thera (danes imenovan Santorini) se je v preteklosti zgodil 120 milj vzhodno od Grčije v južnem Egejskem morju. Nekateri geologi menijo, da je bila to najmočnejša eksplozija na svetu. Spremenil je tok Sredozemskega morja. Wikipedija »Radijski ogljikovi datumi, vključno z analizo oljčne veje, zakopane pod lavo iz vulkana, so dali datum med letoma 1627 pr 1600 Pr. N. Št (95% interval zaupanja). " Živa znanost Kako je izbruh Thera spremenil svet: »Izbruh je bil tudi ohlapno povezan s svetopisemsko zgodbo o Mojzesu in odhodom iz Egipta. Učinki izbruha There in#8217 bi lahko po nekaterih teorijah razložili številne kuge, opisane v Stari zavezi, vključno z dnevi teme in onesnaževanjem rek, po nekaterih teorijah. "

Ne glede na to, ali sta papirus Ipuwer in izbruh Santorinija neposredno povezana z izraelskim odhodom iz Egipta, tukaj ne velja.>>

Evzebij (265–340 n. Št.) Je bil škof in cerkveni zgodovinar. Kronika [30]: “Vse versioni se strinjam to 505 leta se je izkazalo od Abrahama do Mojzesa in izselitev Judov iz Egipta. Izračuna se na naslednji način. Ko je bil Abraham star 75 let, se mu je prikazal Bog in rekel, da bo obljubljeno deželo dal svojim potomcem. Kajti napisano je [Ge.12: 4-5]: 'Abraham je bil star 75 let, ko je odšel iz Harana.' Abrahamu in rekel: 'Tvojim potomcem bom dal to deželo.' Tako 75 leta Abrahama plus 430 leta [od božje obljube] do izhoda Judov iz Egipta. Apostol Pavel to potrjuje [Ga.3.17-18]: „Zakon, ki je prišel 430 let pozneje, ne razveljavi zaveze, ki jo je prej ratificiral Bog, da bi obljubo razveljavil.“ Nato doda: „Bog jo je dal Abrahamu z obljubo. «Ko je bil Abraham 100 leta polnoletnosti se mu je rodil sin Isaac, 25 let po obljubi Boga. 405 leta od tega dogodka do izhoda iz Egipta. Posledično je od obljube [do izhoda] minilo 430 let. " 75 + 430 = 505 leta.

Vpisuje Abramov rojstni dan 2117 Pr� let kasneje je 1612 Pr za odhod iz Egipta.

V tej temi so starost patriarhov in zaporedje njihovega življenja v skladu s svetim pismom. Kronološki datumi so približni. Natančnih datumov za zdaj ni mogoče dokazati.

Naslednja tema na časovnici je »Kronologija: the Odhod do Samuel”.


1. Rodil bi se iz device: . Gospod sam vam bo dal znamenje: Glej, devica bo spočela in rodila Sina. & quot (Izaija 7:14)

Izpolnjeno! & quot; Jožef je šel tudi iz Galileje, iz mesta Nazareta, v Judejo, v mesto David, ki se imenuje Betlehem, ker je bil iz Davidove hiše in rodu, da bi bil vpisan pri Mariji, njegovi zaročeni ženi, ki je imela otroka. In rodila je svojega prvorojenega Sina. & quot (Luka 2: 4-7)

3. Njegova smrt bi nas odrešila greha in sodbe:& quotOn je bil ranjen zaradi naših prestopkov, odrinjen je bil zaradi naših krivic. in Gospod ima položil nanj krivdo vseh nas. Bil je zatiran in še vedno je bil prizadet Ni odprl ust. & quot (Izaija 53: 5-7)

Izpolnjeno! & quot; Kajti k temu ste bili poklicani, ker je tudi Kristus trpel zaradi nas in nam dal zgled, da sledite njegovim korakom:
'Kdor ni zagrešil greha. ki je bil, ko je bil obsojen, v zameno ni obsojal ko je trpel, ni grozil, ampak se je zavezal tistemu, ki pravično sodi, kdo je sam nosili naše grehe v svojem telesu na drevesu. & quot (1. Petrovo 2: 20-25)

4. Tisti, ki jih je prišel rešit, so ga zavrnili:Moški ga zaničujejo in zavračajo. in ga nismo cenili«(Izaija 53: 3).

Izpolnjeno! & quot "To je bila prava luč, ki daje svetlobo vsakemu človeku, ki pride na svet. Bil je v svetu in svet je bil ustvarjen po njem in svet ga ni poznal. Prišel je k sebi in Njegovi ga niso sprejeli. (Janez 1: 9)

5. Jezus, ki je bil identificiran z našimi grehi, je bil ločen od našega Svetega Boga: & quot; Moj Bog, moj Bog, zakaj si me zapustil? & quot (Psalm 22: 1).

Izpolnjeno! & quotOkoli devete ure je Jezus z visokim glasom zavpil: "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" to je: 'Moj Bog, moj Bog, zakaj si me zapustil?' & quot (Matej 27:46)

6. Soočil se bo s posmehom vladajočih oblasti:& quotVsi tisti, ki me vidijo posmeh Meni izstrelijo ustnico, zmajejo z glavo in rečejo: »Zaupal je v Gospoda, naj ga reši naj ga reši. (Psalm 22: 7-8).

Izpolnjeno! & quot. tudi veliki duhovniki, posmehovanje s pismouki in starešinami rekel: 'Druge je rešil sam, rešiti ne more. Če je kralj Izraela, naj zdaj pride s križa in mu bomo verjeli. Zaupal je v Boga naj ga reši. (Matej 27: 41-43)

7. Žeblji bi mu prebodli roke in noge: & quot; Prebodli so mi roke in noge. & quot (Psalm 22:16)

Izpolnjeno! Ko se je vstali Jezus prikazal svojim učencem, je rekel: "Zakaj ste vznemirjeni? In zakaj se v vaših srcih porajajo dvomi? Glej Moj roke in moj stopala. Ročaj z mano in poglej, kajti duh nima mesa in kosti, kot vidiš, da imam jaz. «& Quot (Luka 24: 38-39)

& quot [Osem dni kasneje se je Jezus prikazal vsem učencem] Tomažu je rekel: »Pridi prst sem in poglej v moje roke. Ne bodite neverni, ampak verjemite. ' Thomas je odgovoril in mu rekel: 'Moj Gospod in moj Bog!'
Jezus mu je rekel: »Tomaž, ker si me videl, si verjel. Blagor tistim, ki niso videli in so vendar verovali. (Janez 20:25, 27-29

8. & Quotcast veliko & quot za njegova oblačila: & quotOn razdeli moja oblačila med njimi in za Moja oblačila oni oddali žreb. & quot (Psalm 22:18)

Izpolnjeno! & quotIn ko so ga križali, so razdelil svoja oblačila, oddajanje lotov da določijo, kaj naj vsak človek vzame. & quot; Mark

9. Božja odredba in obljuba po padcu: (govori s kača) & "In jaz bom postavil sovraštvo med vami in žensko, med vašim semenom in njenim semenom vam bo razbil glavo, vi pa mu boste poškodovali peto." (1. Mojzesova 3:14)

Izpolnjeno! & quotOn je oživil vas, ki ste bili mrtvi v prestopkih in grehih, v katerih ste nekoč hodili po poteh tega sveta, po knezu moči zraka, duha, ki zdaj deluje v sinovih neposlušnosti, med katerimi smo se tudi vsi nekoč vedeli v poželenju svojega mesa, uresničevanje telesnih želja in uma in so bili po naravi otroci jeze.
& quotNo Bog, ki je bogat z usmiljenjem, zaradi svoje velike ljubezni, s katero nas je ljubil, tudi ko smo bili mrtvi zaradi prestopkov, nas je oživil skupaj s Kristusom. Kajti po milosti ste bili rešeni po veri in da to ni vaš dar, ne Božji dar, da se ne bi kdo hvalil. (Efežanom 2: 1-9)

Dokaz vstajenja

& quotZelo zgodaj zjutraj, prvi dan v tednu, so prišli do groba. Med seboj so rekli: 'Kdo nam bo odval kamen z vrat groba?' 'Ko pa so pogledali navzgor, so to videli kamen je bil odvaljenKer je bil zelo velik. Ko so vstopili v grob, so zagledali mladeniča, oblečenega v dolgo belo haljo, ki je sedel na desni strani, in bili so prestrašeni. A on jim je rekel: 'Ne vznemirjajte se. Iščete Jezusa iz Nazareta, ki je bil križan. Vstal je! Ni ga tukaj. & Quot (Marko 16: 2-6)

& quotPo tem On pojavil v drugi obliki do dveh od njih, ko so hodili in odšli na deželo. Odšli so in povedali ostalim, a jim tudi niso verjeli. Kasneje se je pojavil do enajstih. & quot (Marko 16: 12-14)

Ni presenetljivo, da mnogi dvomijo ali zanikajo Njegovo vstajenje. Na tem veličastnem dogodku počiva končna zmaga evangelija! Jezus nas je po križu odrešil (nosil zakonsko kazen za naše grehe in nas osvobodil sodbe postave). Ko nas je očistil naših grehov, bi lahko s svojim vstajenjem skupaj dvignil & quoto & quot; sam s seboj, da bi lahko sodelovali pri njegovi nebeški zmagi, tudi če mu služimo tukaj na zemlji. & Quot (Efežanom 2: 1-10) ?

1. Ogromni kamen je bil odkotan! To ni majhen čudež. Tehtajoč več kot tono, ga brez ročice skoraj ni bilo mogoče premakniti. Grobnico je medtem zapečatila in varovala skupina rimskih vojakov, ki bi se soočila z mučenjem in smrtjo, če bi zaspali ali ne bi mogli izvesti svojega poslanstva. Ti stražarji bi bili sčasoma podkupljeni, da bi širili lažna pojasnila.

& quotMary Magdalene in druga Marija sta prišli pogledat grob. In glej, bil je velik potres, ker je angel Gospodov prišel z neba in prišel ter odvrnil kamen od vrat in sedel nanj. Njegov obraz je bil kot strela, oblačila pa bela kot sneg. In stražarji so se prestrašili pred njim in postali kot mrtvi. «(Matej 28: 1-4)

& quot. nekateri stražarji so prišli v mesto in poročali vrhovnim duhovnikom vse, kar se je zgodilo. Ko so se zbrali s starešinami in se skupaj posvetovali, so vojakom dali veliko vsoto denarja in rekli: 'Povej jim:' Njegovi učenci so prišli ponoči in ga ukradli, medtem ko smo mi spali. 'In če to pride do guvernerja Ušesa, ga bomo pomirili in poskrbeli za vašo varnost. ' Zato so vzeli denar in storili, kar jim je bilo naročeno. & quot (Matej 28: 11-15)

2. Grob je bil prazen - razen pokopov: Če so učenci ukradli truplo, zakaj bi se trudili, da ga odkrijejo, preden ga skrijejo. Ne, grob je bil prazen, ker je Jezus res vstal!

3. Več kot 500 prič bi lahko potrdilo njegove nastope po vstajenju:Kot je zapisal apostol Pavel:

& quotZato, kar sem vam najprej dal, sem prejel tudi to, da je Kristus umrl za naše grehe v skladu s Svetim pismom in da je bil pokopan ter da je bil vstajen tretji dan po Svetem pismu in da se je prikazal Kefa, nato do dvanajstih. Po tem se je naenkrat prikazal več kot petsto bratom, od katerih jih večina ostane do zdaj. & quot (1. Korinčanom 15: 3-6)

6. Učenci in drugi, ki so sledili Kristusu, se bodo za oznanjevanje vstajenja soočili s preganjanjem in smrtjo: Pred križanjem so bili učenci preveč prestrašeni, da bi sploh branili svojega Gospoda. Njihov strah se po križu ni zmanjšal. Toda po vstajenju se je vse spremenilo!

Njegovi zvesti učenci so kljub grožnjam pogumno oznanjali evangelij, vstajenje in zmagovalno ime Jezus. Grozili so jim zapor, mučenje, kamenjanje in smrt. Kaj jih je spremenilo? Samo absolutna gotovost, da je Jezus, njihov Gospod in Kralj res vstal!

& quot. tako kot Kristus je vstal od mrtvih po Očetovi slavi, tudi mi bi morali hoditi v novosti življenja. «(Rimljanom 6: 4)

Jezus je pot - edina pot - do življenja z Bogom danes in za vedno. Vendar pa milijoni iskalcev izbirajo duhovne poti, ki vodijo v suženjstvo, razočaranje in obup. Večina išče na slepo, saj ne znajo niti brati niti slediti Božjim smerokazom. Ne vidijo brezna, ki ločuje Njegovo Pot od vseh drugih poti, niti ne bodo poiskali pomoči edinega, ki lahko premosti to vrzel.

Naš suvereni Gospod je napisal načrt za življenje, odrešenje in zmago! Njegova Beseda bo stala, ne glede na to, koliko ljudi jo zavrača. Povsem jasno dajejo vedeti, da ne obstajajo druge poti - nobene druge poti po gori -, ki bi nas lahko približale Bogu in odprle vrata v Njegovo čudovito večno kraljestvo. Samo Jezus Kristus, naš Gospod, nam lahko pokaže pot:

& quot; Jaz sem vrata. Če kdo vstopi skozi mene, bo odrešen in bo šel noter in ven in našel pašo. Tat ne pride samo zato, da bi ukradel, ubil in uničil. Prišel sem, da bi imeli življenje in da bi ga imeli v izobilju. & Quot (Janez 10: 9-10)

'Jaz sem pot, resnica in življenje. Nihče ne pride k Očetu razen po meni. «& Quot (Janez 14: 6)

Če ste resnično del njegove družine, potem poznate mir in upanje, ki ga imamo v Kristusu. In nič ni bolj pomirjujoče kot obljube, kot je ta:

& quotKdo nas bo ločil od Kristusove ljubezni? Ali bodo stiska, stiska ali preganjanje, lakota ali golota, nevarnost ali meč? . Toda v vseh teh stvareh smo več kot zmagovalci po Njemu, ki nas je ljubil. Ker sem prepričan, da nas niti smrt niti življenje, niti angeli, niti poglavarstva, niti oblasti, niti prisotne stvari niti stvari, ki prihajajo, niti višina niti globina, niti kaj drugega ustvarjenega ne bodo mogle ločiti od Božje ljubezni, ki je v Kristus Jezus, naš Gospod. "(Rimljani 8: 31-39)

Če želite spoznati našega Boga in biti del njegove družine, poglejte to stran: Kaj pomeni biti kristjan

Naslednja pričevanja ponazarjajo, kako Bog spreminja življenja in nam daje vso modrost in moč, ki nam je potrebna za veselo služenje. Upamo, da vas bodo spodbudili: Kriv kot obtožen | Živeti v božjem odpuščanju | Moj pastir

1. William F. Albright, Izraelska arheologija in vere, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1956, str. 176. Citira rabin Glenn Harris, www.gospeloutreach.net/bible.html

2. Nelson Glueck, Reke v puščavi: zgodovina Negev. Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1969, P. 176. Cited by Rabbi Glenn Harris, www.gospeloutreach.net/bible.html

4. Albright, William Foxwell. The Archaeology of Palestine. Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1960, p. 127, 128. Cited by Rabbi Glenn Harris, www.gospeloutreach.net/bible.html

5. Howard LaFay, "Ebla: Splendor of an unknown Empire," National Geographic, December 1978, pp. 735. "The people of the ancient Near East erected their cities on strategic sites with plentiful water. As a result, after destruction at the hands of pillaging armies--and to weaker cities this came as often as once a generation-- the population tended to rebuild on the ruins. Excavating a TEL is like slicing a stack of pancakes each stratum, with its embedded trove of artifacts, encapsulates history from one catastrophe to the next." (735-736, 740, 754)

8. John N. Wilford, "House of David' Inscription: Clues to a Dark Age ," New York Times, November 16, 1993. First reported by Dr. Avraham Biran, an archeologist at Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion in Jerusalem.

11. Seymour Gitin, Trude Dothan, and Joseph Naveh, " Ekron Identity Confirmed , " Archaeology, January/February 1998.

12. Free, Joseph. Archaeology and Bible History. Scripture Press, Wheaton, IL, 1969, pg. 1.


40 of the Most Influential People of All Time

The people who influenced history the most, the &ldquomovers and shakers&rdquo from ancient times until today, have one thing in common: they challenged the status quo. By and large, they were rebels who were willing to take on established norms and traditions. Keep reading to learn about some of the people who helped make the world the way it is today, for better or worse.

A drawing of Confucius by Wu Daozi, 685-758, Tang Dynasty. Wikimedia Commons/ Public Domain.

40. Confucius

Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and teacher who lived in about the fifth century BCE. His teachings formed the basis for much of Chinese thought, particularly regarding family relationships (the role of wives to husbands and children to parents), morality in government, and the promotion of justice. The system of thought that he established became known as Confucianism and is still widely practiced in modern China. In the West, his theory has become translated into a form known as Neo-Confucianism.


Abraham as a Historical Figure

Abraham&rsquos name (in contrast to [the names] Isaac, Jacob, Israel, and Joseph) appears only as a personal name in the Bible, never a tribal or local designation. Thus it seems fairly certain that he was not an eponymous ancestor. He may have been a historical individual before he became a figure of tradition and legend.

If so, however, it seems impossible to determine the period in which he lived. &ldquoAbram&rdquo at least in the form &ldquoAbiram,&rdquo is a very common type of name, known in all periods. It is especially well attested to in the late Bronze Age (1550-1200 B.C.E.), though this may be no more than a coincidence. The variants &ldquoAbram&rdquo and &ldquoAbraham&rdquo arose in different languages and dialects.

Nor can we determine whether any of the biblical stories told about Abraham has a historical basis. The claim that Abraham came to Canaan from Mesopotamia is not historically implausible. Such a journey could have taken place in more than one historical period. As we have seen, however, the insistence that the Israelites were not Canaanites in origin was so persuasive that the belief that the first patriarch came from a foreign land could have arisen as part of an ethnic boundary-marking that characterized the development of the tradition.

Still, the connections between the family of Abraham and the city of Haran in northern Mesopotamia (Eski Harran or &ldquoOld Haran&rdquo in modern Turkey) are very precise in our earliest narrative source (J. or the Yahwist). Terah, Nahor and Serug&ndashAbraham&rsquos father, grandfather and great grandfather (Genesis 11:22-26)&ndashseem to be the eponymous ancestors of towns in the basin of the Balikh River, near Haran.

All three names appear in Assyrian texts from the first half of the first millennium B.C.E. as the name of towns or ruined towns in the regions of Haran, namely Til-(sha)-Turakhi (the ruin of Turakh), Ti-Nakhiri (the ruin of Nakhir) and Sarugi. Earlier, in the second millennium B.C.E., il-Nakhiri had been an important administrative center, called Nakhuru. The patriarchal connection with this region may be rooted in historical memories of Amorite culture of the second millennium B.C.E.

Abraham is represented as the founder of religious sites in the regions of Shechem (Genesis 12:7), Bethel /Ai (Genesis 12:8, cf. 13:4), Hebron (Genesis 13:18), Mount Moriah (Genesis 22:2) and Beersheba (Genesis 21:33). As [historian] Benjamin Mazar has noted, all these sites lie within the boundaries of early Israelite settlement in Iron Age I (1200-1000 B.C.E.) These stories present Abraham as the founder of major cultic sites both in Manasseh-Ephraim and in Judah, the dominant tribes of the north and south. Here we see Abraham functioning as the founder of a common social and religious identity, uniting northern and southern tribes.

The earliest reference to Abraham may be the name of a town in the Negev listed in a victory inscription of Pharaoh Shishak I (biblical Sheshonk). The campaign occurred in about 925 B.C.E. during the reign of Rehoboam (1 Kings 14:25-26 2 Chronicles 12:2-12). A place name in the Negev section of the inscription is pa&rsquoha-q-ru-a &lsquoi-bi-ra-ma, which is best read &ldquothe fortification of Abram,&rdquo or, more simply, &ldquoFort Abram.&rdquo

The location and chronological context of this site make it plausible that the Abram after whom the site was named was the Abram of biblical tradition. Although we cannot be certain of this identification, the place name probably indicates the presence and importance of the Abram/Abraham tradition in the tenth century B.C.E.

Reprinted with permission from Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple, edited by Hershel Shanks (Biblical Archaeology Society).


5. Hedy Lamarr

Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler�tter known by her stage name Hedy Lamarr�me a big screen legend in the 1930s and &apos40s for starring in such Hollywood films as Algiers, Comrade X in Samson and Delilah. But while the Vienna-born actress was often dubbed the “most beautiful woman in the world,” she also possessed a sharp mind that she put to use as an inventor. In the 1940s, she teamed with avant-garde composer George Antheil in pioneering a new method of 𠇏requency hopping,” a technique for disguising radio transmissions by making the signal jump between different channels in a prearranged pattern. Lamarr devised her “Secret Communications System” as a potential guidance tool for Allied torpedoes in World War II, but the U.S. Navy ignored the technology after she handed over her patent in 1942. Other inventors later expanded on her groundbreaking ideas, however, and similar “spread-spectrum” systems are now used in everything from communications satellites to cellular phones.


Were Moses & Abraham historical figures? - History

From What Did Moses Compose Genesis?
by Dr. David Livingston

Evangelicals agree that Moses wrote Genesis and that the first five Bible books are "The Books of Moses." But, where did Moses get the information for Genesis? He wasn't present for any of the events mentioned in it.

We should notice first that neither Jesus nor the apostles, when quoting from Genesis, mention Moses' name in connection with it. However, they do call the first five books "Moses' Law." So, we may conclude that they believed it composed by Moses, but, perhaps, he used material written by others or received it some other way.

Many evangelicals, believing in the inerrancy of Scripture, solve the problem by assuming that Moses received the entire book by direct revelation. Perhaps while on Mt. Sinai, along with the law, Moses received it by something like dictation. Or, while spending 40 years in Midian, he may have had it revealed to him over some period of time.

Other scholars, try to solve the problem a more difficult way. Difficult, because there is no evidence for it. They say Moses did not write Genesis, or even any of the Pentateuch, for that matter. It was put together by "pious" men during the time of Israel's kingdom and as late as the post-exile (post-Babylonian captivity). In order to gain credence, Moses' name was attached to it. Materials came from Babylonian and Canaanite myths and legends and from Israel's own "legends" and "oral tradition." From this viewpoint, little of it had been previously written as holy scripture, perhaps none. Thus, they would say it was a "pious fraud" used by the ruling body in Israel as a sort of religious "opiate" to pull the people together in the name of Moses.

This theory is commonly known as the "JEDP Theory." Many sharp minds both in Europe and the U.S. have devoted their lives developing the system and have written whole libraries of books based on speculation about it.

We consider this solution to the problem as unacceptable and would not even mention it except that community colleges, colleges, universities and even many seminaries now teach it as if it had some basis in fact, which it does not. (It is a situation parallel to evolutionary theory which is believed by "every capable scholar" but cannot be proven with scientific evidence.)

In contrast to the above, Meredith Kline ably says, "If Moses, in composing Genesis, was not dependent on Near Eastern literature that exhibits parallels to Genesis, neither did he ignore it. But it would seem that, where he deliberately develops the biblical account of an event so as to mirror features of the pagan version, it turns out to be for the polemical purpose of exposing and correcting the world's vain wisdom by the light of revealed theology. The elaboration of this is not possible here, but an illustrative case would be the treatment of the Babylonian epic account of creation, known (from its opening words) as Enuma Elish. Acquaintance with it is evidenced in the Genesis accounts of creation and of Babel-building, but in both passages the epic's world-view is repudiated, even ridiculed, and most effectively so at the points of obvious formal correspondence." (Kline 1970: 80).

There is a third way Moses may have received the material for Genesis. It might have come from Abraham, Jacob, Noah, and even Adam, as well as other men of God writing under the Spirit's inspiration. In other words, those who experienced the events wrote as eyewitnesses. How could the world receive more reliable documents, especially when II Peter 1:21 is taken into account? This could explain why Jesus and the apostles considered Genesis part of "Moses' Law." He compiled the writings of other men of God, but was not the original author.

Examining this third way in more detail, Meredith Kline says, "Beyond the prologue (1:1-2:3) Genesis is divided into ten sections, each introduced by a superscription embodying the formula 'elleh toledot,' 'these are the generations of . . .' The placing of the entire Genesis narrative in this genealogical framework is a clear sign that the author intended the account to be understood throughout as a real life history of individual men, begotten and begetting. This genealogical line is resumed in subsequent biblical historiography, the Genesis lists being recapitulated and carried forward until the lineage of Adam has been traced to Jesus, the second Adam." (See Luke 3:23-38 and Kline, ibid.).

Genesis Originally on Clay Tablets?

"In order to understand the significance of the Hebrew term 'toledot,' it will be necessary to examine the nature and format of cuneiform communications in the ancient world. Clay was the preferred material upon which the wedge-shaped symbols were impressed . . . The general style of a tablet furnished some indication as to its contents . . . and the material usually consisted of letters, contracts, invoices, business correspondence, genealogical tables, etc. It was normal practice. . . for single communications of this kind to commence with some sort of title, followed by the body of the text, and then a colophon, which would sometimes contain, among other things, a hint as to the identity of the scribe, or owner of the tablet and the date when the tablet was written . . . The title was normally taken from the opening words of the tablet . . . This practice . . . also occurs in the Hebrew Bible. . . ." (p. 543-4.)

  • Tablet 1: Genesis 1:1 - 2:4. The origins of the cosmos
  • Tablet 2: Genesis 2:5 - 5:2. The origins of mankind
  • Tablet 3: Genesis 5:3 - 6:9a. The histories of Noah
  • Tablet 4: Genesis 6:9b - 10:1. The histories of the sons of Noah
  • Tablet 5: Genesis 10:2 - 11:10a. The histories of Shem
  • Tablet 6: Genesis 11:10b - 11:27a. The histories of Terah
  • Tablet 7: Genesis 11:27b - 25:12. The histories of Ishmael
  • Tablet 8: Genesis 25:13 - 25:19a. The histories of Isaac
  • Tablet 9: Genesis 25:19b - 36:1. The histories of Esau
  • Tablet 10: Genesis 36:2 - 36:9. The histories of Esau
  • Tablet 11: Genesis 36:10 - 37:2. The histories of Jacob

"Colophon" : Key to Source Documents

Probably the principle use of the "colophon" was in filing the document. When libraries of tablets are found, there are usually hundreds or thousands of them. And it is clear they were stored on shelves. Problem: How do you find the tablet you want? Answer: just treat them like we do books today. On the spine at the edge, or end, there was a summary of the tablet's contents-- a "colophon" ("finishing line").

Now, if the ten or eleven sections of Genesis were originally separate documents, each would have had a "colophon" at the end describing at least the owner and contents of the document. These "colophons" in our Hebrew Bibles today would then consist of the phrase which speaks of the "toledots".

Thus, in connection with the Genesis "toledot," ". . . the principal facts concerning the individual involved have been recorded before the incidence of the phrase in question, and that they are not recorded after its occurrence . . . This peculiarity has been a source of perplexity and embarrassment to the vast majority of Bible critics who assume it introduces new material -- and thus does not make sense . . . ." (Harrison 1969: 545.)

Tablet with colophon, written in the time of Abraham.
Abraham Had Written Scripture

Abraham had written laws of Jehovah which he kept: Genesis 26:5 says he kept, among other things, Jehovah's statutes ("chuqqim") and laws ("torah"). A "chuqqim" is a written commandment, usually inscribed in stone (BDB,1962: 350:d). The word "chuqqim" comes from a root meaning to engrave, and hence denotes permanent and prescribed rules of conduct . . . (NBC 1930: 201.). These are not some other country's laws and statutes they are Jehovah's own, and thus, we maintain, would be separate documents, themselves the Word of God.

"Abraham came from a country where the knowledge of writing and reading was common and from an important city mentioned in the code of Hammurabi . . . In that country traditions of the creation and the flood were preserved, which have much in common with those in Genesis. That is the very country also in which Genesis places the site of the Garden of Eden and where the confusion of tongues is said to have occurred. There, if anywhere, the remains of an original revelation concerning creation and an accurate story of the flood would be handed down. What could be more natural than that Abraham carried such records and genealogies with him from the banks of the Euphrates to the land of Canaan? 'Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac' (Genesis 25:5). Perhaps those priceless records were among his possessions. If so, they went down with Jacob into Egypt and formed the basis of Genesis 1-11 as written by Moses." (Raven 1910: 131-2.)

The main point Raven makes is that the Genesis sources were written down. The revelation of God was not committed to slipshod oral transmission for hundreds of years. The evidence that these were written documents is that whatever period or place they speak of fits into the culture and language of that place and time.

Or, another possibility is that the manuscripts were kept by the Kenites. When Moses was with the nomad-priest, Jethro, who loved Jehovah and served Him (Exodus 18:9-11), he may have received the records from which to compose Genesis. Jethro is called a "priest" (Exodus 2:15, 3:1). He could be none other than a nomad-priest of Jehovah, even as Melchizedek apparently was also a priest of Jehovah (although not a nomad). (The Kenites lived in the Negev, see: Judges 1:16.) That the Bible authors used other sources, not depending entirely on direct revelations from God, is clear from the list below:

  • Joshua 8:9. Described land "in a book"
  • II Samuel 1-18. "Book of Jasher" (also mentioned in Joshua 10:13)
  • I Kings 11:41. "Book of the Acts of Solomon"
  • I Kings 14:19. "Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel"
  • I Kings 14:29. "Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah"
  • I Chronicles 27:74. "Chronicles of King David"
  • II Chronicles 12-15. "Book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the Seer Concerning Genealogies"
  • II Chronicles 20:34. "Book of Jehu, the son of Hanani - mentioned in the Book of the Kings of Israel"

DeWitt, D.
1977 "The Generations of Genesis." Bible and Spade (Spring Issue) pp.33-48.

Guthre, D., (Ed.)
1970 The New Bible Commentary.

Harrison, R .K.,
1969 Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Morris, H.,
1976 The Genesis Record. Grand Rapids: Baker.

Raven, J. H.,
1910 Old Testament Introduction. New York: Revell.

Wiseman, P .J.,
1977 Clues to Creation in Genesis. London: Marshall, Morgan, and Scott.


Were Moses & Abraham historical figures? - History

Clothing in the Time of Abraham

Ancient Clothing About 1800 B.C.

This is how a man or a patriarch would have dressed in ancient times about the time of Abraham which was around 1800 BC. From inside to out he wore an under garment which was bound by a girdle.

Over this he wore a coat or outer garment, sometimes called a vesture. Around the head was the head cloth which was a scarf wrapped around the head. He also wore sandals and carried a tall staff.

"Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours."
- Genesis 37:3

"And he said, What pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him."
- Genesis 38:18

"Thou shalt make thee fringes upon the four quarters of thy vesture, wherewith thou coverest thyself."
- Deut 22:12

"And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God. And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean."
- Revelation 19:13-14

A Covering for Every Age

The clothing of the ancients can help us ponder the gift of God s covering. We can be thankful that we don t have to wear that rough itchy & sweltering clothing of our forbearers. We can wear blue jeans, dresses, shirts and blouses made with a myriad of comfortable materials. But clothing itself points back to our initial deep-rooted problem with God. Every other creature has a covering that comes naturally, but we must cover ourselves. Zakaj?

Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves. Gen. 3:7

Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the LORD God as he was walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from the LORD God among the trees of the garden. But the LORD God called to the man, "Where are you?" Gen 3:8,9

He answered, "I heard you in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked so I hid. And he said, "Who told you that you were naked? Gen. 3:10,11

Our first fore-parents sinned and their nature changed. They lost their sense of being covered. No longer at one with God in peace and innocence they became self-aware and felt shame. Then they did what we all do when we are ashamed: cover and hide. They experienced the cold chill of all time, a complete and horrifying sense of disconnection from God, and from each other, a sense of isolation, & impending doom. They lost a very special covering, the covering of God s presence, His light, and His surrounding glory. They felt exposed. They needed to be covered.

God immediately reaches out. He initiates. He calls. He seeks out the lost. He presses through the isolating shame.

He instructs by questions.

2) Who told you that you were naked?

He lets them know He is not going to leave them in their strong preference to be alone. He lets them know that their shame is not His creation. He gives them the strong truth of their condition, and something else, something brand new: the grace of clothing.

The LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife and clothed them. Gen. 3:21

The Lord exchanged their fig leaves, with clothing born of sacrifice. Innocent animals died to re-cover Adam and Eve. An innocent Eternal Son would die to re-cover mankind in God s glory.

To this day we still hide, and He still calls. We hide behind our gifts, possessions and & presented identities. For those who can hear His call, and are willing to come out from the bushes and exchange their fig leaves for His covering in the sacrifice of Christ, He has new clothing planned.

After this I looked and there before me was a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and in front of the Lamb. They were wearing white robes and were holding palm branches in their hands. Rev. 7:9

Every generation has its clothing, all pointing back to our lost clothing of glory, our provided covering in God s self sacrifice, and our final redemption when we will be clothed in the righteousness of God forever.


The Bible mentions a lot regarding Clothing:

Isaiah 23:18 - And her merchandise and her hire shall be holiness to the LORD: it shall not be treasured nor laid up for her merchandise shall be for them that dwell before the LORD, to eat sufficiently, and for durable clothing.

Jeremiah 10:9 - Silver spread into plates is brought from Tarshish, and gold from Uphaz, the work of the workman, and of the hands of the founder: blue and purple [is] their clothing: they [are] all the work of cunning [men].

Acts 10:30 - And Cornelius said, Four days ago I was fasting until this hour and at the ninth hour I prayed in my house, and, behold, a man stood before me in bright clothing,

Isaiah 3:6 - When a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, [saying], Thou hast clothing, be thou our ruler, and [let] this ruin [be] under thy hand:

James 2:3 - And ye have respect to him that weareth the gay clothing, and say unto him, Sit thou here in a good place and say to the poor, Stand thou there, or sit here under my footstool:

Matthew 11:8 - But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft [clothing] are in kings' houses.

Mark 12:38 - And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and [love] salutations in the marketplaces,

Isaiah 59:17 - For he put on righteousness as a breastplate, and an helmet of salvation upon his head and he put on the garments of vengeance [for] clothing, and was clad with zeal as a cloke.

Psalms 35:13 - But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing [was] sackcloth: I humbled my soul with fasting and my prayer returned into mine own bosom.

Job 22:6 - For thou hast taken a pledge from thy brother for nought, and stripped the naked of their clothing.

Isaiah 3:7 - In that day shall he swear, saying, I will not be an healer for in my house [is] neither bread nor clothing: make me not a ruler of the people.

Matthew 7:15 - Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.

Psalms 45:13 - The king's daughter [is] all glorious within: her clothing [is] of wrought gold.

Proverbs 31:22 - She maketh herself coverings of tapestry her clothing [is] silk and purple.

Job 24:7 - They cause the naked to lodge without clothing, that [they have] no covering in the cold.

Proverbs 27:26 - The lambs [are] for thy clothing, and the goats [are] the price of the field.

Proverbs 31:25 - Strength and honour [are] her clothing and she shall rejoice in time to come.

Job 24:10 - They cause [him] to go naked without clothing, and they take away the sheaf [from] the hungry


Exodus and the True History of Moses

I t’s high season for movies that are based on historical figures–Selma in Unbroken are among the most prominent this year. For many believers, add to that list Ridley Scott’s new take on the story of Moses and Egypt’s Pharaoh, Exodus: Gods and Kings, which arrives in theaters Friday &mdash even though, as my colleague Elizabeth Dias has pointed out, the movie doesn’t exactly stick closely to the Bible’s telling.

In 1974, TIME devoted a cover story to the question of whether there was any evidence that the biblical tale is in fact based in fact. Though the headline proclaims that “The Believers Gain” and though several biblical details had by then been confirmed with archaeology, those who hoped for historical evidence of Exodus’ truth would be disappointed by what the story reported:

Even very conservative Bible experts will now agree that the crossing of the Red Sea in Exodus can be too literally construed. Study shows that the Israelites apparently crossed the Sea of Reeds, a series of shallow lakes that once lay where the Suez Canal now runs. The high wind noted in Exodus could have made the lakes more easily fordable on foot&mdashbut not by the Egyptian chariots.

About two decades later, in 1995, the magazine revisited the topic of biblical facts, in light of several discoveries, which had confirmed that King David really lived and that the prophet Jeremiah did too. The article contained one archaeological hint that something Exodus-like might have once happened, perhaps some time between 1500 BCE and 1200 BCE &mdash a silver-plated bronze calf had been found in 1990 near the Gaza Strip, which some scholars thought was a reference to the golden calf of the Bible &mdash but in general, no proof of Moses’ existence had yet been discovered:

…even scholars who believe they really happened admit that there’s no proof whatsoever that the Exodus took place. No record of this monumental event appears in Egyptian chronicles of the time, and Israeli archaeologists combing the Sinai during intense searches from 1967 to 1982–years when Israel occupied the peninsula–didn’t find a single piece of evidence backing the Israelites’ supposed 40-year sojourn in the desert.

The story involves so many miracles–plagues, the parting of the Red Sea, manna from heaven, the giving of the Ten Commandments–that some critics feel the whole story has the flavor of pure myth. A massive exodus that led to the drowning of Pharaoh’s army, says Father Anthony Axe, Bible lecturer at Jerusalem’s Ecole Biblique, would have reverberated politically and economically through the entire region. And considering that artifacts from as far back as the late Stone Age have turned up in the Sinai, it is perplexing that no evidence of the Israelites’ passage has been found. William Dever, a University of Arizona archaeologist, flatly calls Moses a mythical figure. Some scholars even insist the story was a political fabrication, invented to unite the disparate tribes living in Canaan through a falsified heroic past.

Still, others defended the story: perhaps the Egyptians wiped their defeat from their historical record perhaps the archaeologists were looking in the wrong place. As Ishaan Tharoor has noted over at the Washington Post, some scholarship has suggested that perhaps a Moses-like figure did live, but that he wasn’t Moses-Moses he could have been Egyptian, for example.

As TIME noted almost exactly 40 years ago, that may not matter in the end. After all, those who think Moses once lived “never needed such corroboration” &mdash and those who already plan to see Exodus likely feel the same way.

Read the 1974 cover story here, in the TIME Vault:How True Is the Bible?

Read the 1995 cover story here, in the TIME Vault:Is the Bible Fact or Fiction?


The Ancient Egyptian View of Abraham

Some wondering about the Book of Abraham might ask how likely it would have been for the ancient Egyptians to have known anything about the biblical figure Abraham. In fact, evidence survives today indicating that stories about Abraham were known to the ancient Egyptians as early as the time of the composition of the Joseph Smith Papyri (ca. 300–30 BC).

The earliest documented appearance of the biblical story of Abraham in ancient Egypt dates to the third century BC. It was at this time when the Old Testament (or Hebrew Bible) was translated into Greek in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. This translation is commonly called the Septuagint. 1

In addition to the biblical text, extra-biblical stories about Abraham circulated in Egypt during this time. For example:

    • “During the reign of Ptolemy I, Hecateus of Abdera traveled to Thebes and learned stories about Abraham from Egyptian priests he wrote these stories in a book called On Abraham and the Egyptians. This work is now unfortunately lost, but Clement of Alexandria, a second-century AD Egyptian Christian, quoted a short passage from it in which the worship of idols is condemned.” 2
    • “The writer Eupolemus, who lived under Egyptian rule in Palestine in the second century BC, recounts how Abraham lived in Heliopolis (On) and taught astronomy and other sciences to the Egyptian priests. In connection with Abraham, Eupolemus seems to think that the Egyptians descended from Canaan.” 3
    • “In the first century BC, the Egyptian Jew Artapanus wrote an account of Abraham teaching astronomy to the Egyptian Pharaoh.” 4
    • “Philo, a first-century AD Egyptian Jew, claimed that Abraham studied astronomy, the motion of the stars, meteorology, and mathematics, and used his reasoning on these subjects to understand God.” 5
    • “The Testament of Abraham describes Abraham’s tour of the next life before he dies. Scholars think that this work was written by an Egyptian Jew around the first century AD. It is notable for its reinterpretation of the Egyptian judgment scene in a Jewish fashion. This text was read liturgically the Sunday before Christmas during the Egyptian month of Khoiak.” 6
    • “[A] fragmentary text from Egypt about Abraham describes how the king (the word used is pharaoh) tries to sacrifice Abraham, but Abraham is delivered by an angel of the Lord. Abraham later teaches the members of the royal court about the true God using astronomy.” 7

    An additional significant body of evidence for the Egyptian view of Abraham comes from a collection of texts commonly called the Greek Magical Papyri or the Theban Magical Library. This corpus of texts from the ancient Egyptian city of Thebes preserves “a variety of magical spells and formulae, hymns and rituals. The extant texts are mainly from the second century B.C. to the fifth century A.D.” 8 Significantly, numerous biblical names and figures are used in these texts alongside native Egyptian and Greek names and figures. 9 The name for this common ancient phenomenon is syncretism, where elements of different religions or traditions were harmonized together into a new synthetic religious paradigm. In some important ways the religion practiced by the Egyptians during the time of the Joseph Smith Papyri was a highly syncretic one.

    Why were biblical figures syncretized with Egyptian religious or magical practices? We cannot know entirely for sure, but one very plausible reason is that “Israelite religious beliefs and stories had a number of things to offer the Egyptians. . . . Israelite religion could offer the Egyptians stories associated with sanctity and sacred space, amulets, angels, a personal relationship with deity, and a god who acted in history.” 10 Whatever the exact reason might be,

    A noncomprehensive list of nondivine names [in these texts] includes Abimelech, Abraham, Adam, Ammon, Aziel, Dardanos, David, Emmanuel, Gabriel, Gomorrah, Isaac, Israel, Jacob, Jeremiah, Jerusalem, Judah, Lot, Lot’s wife, Michael, Moses, Solomon, and even Osiris-Michael. Names for the Israelite deity include Adonai, Adonai Sabaoth (as well as just Sabaoth, which is more common), Elohim, El, God of the Hebrews, Yaho (the abbreviated version of Jehovah that was often employed by Jews in Egypt), and blessed Lord God of Abraham, along with many variations and combinations of these names and titles that undoubtedly refer to the Hebrew God, such as “He who drew back the Jordan River,” or referencing “the God who drove the winds at the Red Sea and met someone at the foot of the Holy Mount to reveal his great name.” 11

    Abraham and Moses were two popular figures used by these Egyptian priests in their magical practices. 12 They were so popular, in fact, that an early Egyptian Christian writer named Origen even registered his outrage that his pagan neighbors were invoking “the God of Abraham” without properly knowing who Abraham really was. 13

    From the evidence of the Greek Magical Papyri we can conclude that “a group of priests from Thebes possessed, read, understood, and employed biblical and extra-biblical texts, most especially texts about Abraham and Moses.” 14 This evidence, along with the other evidence for a knowledge of Abraham circulating in ancient Egypt, bolsters confidence in the Book of Abraham’s authenticity by providing it a plausible ancient Egyptian historical and literary context. 15

    Further Reading

    John Gee, “The Egyptian View of Abraham,” in An Introduction to the Book of Abraham (Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2017), 49–55.

    Kerry Muhlestein, “The Religious and Cultural Background of Joseph Smith Papyrus I,” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 22, no. 1 (2013): 20–33.

    Kerry Muhlestein, “Abraham, Isaac, and Osiris-Michael: The Use of Biblical Figures in Egyptian Religion,” in Achievements and Problems of Modern Egyptology, ed. Galina A. Belova (Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, 2012), 246–259.

    John Gee, “Abracadabra, Isaac, and Jacob,” FARMS Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 1 (1995): 19–85.

    Opombe

    1 John Gee, An Introduction to the Book of Abraham (Salt Lake City and Provo, UT: Deseret Book and Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2017), 51.

    2 Gee, An Introduction to the Book of Abraham, 53 cf. Clement, Stromata 5.14. The authorship of this source is disputed amongst modern scholars, with some insisting the texts attributed to Hecataeus are pseudepigraphical. For a discussion, see Bezalel Bar-Kochva, The Image of the Jews in Greek Literature: The Hellenistic Period (Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2010), 90–135.

    3 Gee, An Introduction to the Book of Abraham, 53 cf. R. Doran, “Pseudo-Eupolemus,” in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. James H. Charlesworth (New York, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1985), 2:881. As with the works attributed to Hecateus, the authorship of the texts attributed to Eupolemus remains disputed. See Ben Zion Wacholder, “Pseudo-Eupolemus’ Two Greek Fragments on the Life of Abraham,” Hebrew Union College Annual 34 (1963): 83–113. Regardless of these texts’ true authorship, they nevertheless do preserve accounts about Abraham circulating in ancient Egypt (and the broader Jewish world of Antiquity) that parallel the Book of Abraham.

    4 Gee, An Introduction to the Book of Abraham, 53 J. J. Collins, “Artapanus,” in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2:897.

    5 Gee, An Introduction to the Book of Abraham, 53 cf. Philo, “On Abraham,” in The Works of Philo: Complete and Unabridged, trans. C. D. Yonge (Peabody, MA.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1993), 417.

    6 Gee, An Introduction to the Book of Abraham, 53 cf. Dale C. Allison, The Testament of Abraham (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2003) Jared Ludlow, “Appropriation of Egyptian Judgment in the Testament of Abraham?” in Evolving Egypt: Innovation, Appropriation, and Reinterpretation in Ancient Egypt, ed. Kerry Muhlestein (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2012), 99–103.

    7 Gee, An Introduction to the Book of Abraham, 53 cf. the Coptic homily translated and discussed in John Gee, “An Egyptian View of Abraham,” in Bountiful Harvest: Essays in Honor of S. Kent Brown, ed. Andrew C. Skinner, D. Morgan Davis, and Carl Griffin (Provo, UT: Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship, 2011), 137–156. Additional extra-biblical texts and traditions about Abraham can be accessed in John A. Tvedtnes, Brian M. Hauglid, and John Gee, eds., Traditions About the Early Life of Abraham (Provo, UT: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 2001).

    8 Hans Dieter Betz, “Introduction,” in The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, ed. Hans Dieter Betz (Chicago, IL.: University of Chicago Press, 1986), xli.

    9 Kerry Muhlestein, “Abraham, Isaac, and Osiris-Michael: The Use of Biblical Figures in Egyptian Religion,” in Achievements and Problems of Modern Egyptology, ed. Galina A. Belova (Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, 2012), 246–259.

    10 Kerry Muhlestein, “The Religious and Cultural Background of Joseph Smith Papyrus I,” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 22, no. 1 (2013): 26.

    11 Muhlestein, “The Religious and Cultural Background of Joseph Smith Papyrus I,” 23.

    12 Spells from this corpus that invoke Abraham (or Abraam) can be read in Betz, The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, 8, 125, 164, 171, 191, 194, 262, 276, 300, 310.

    13 Muhlestein, “The Religious and Cultural Background of Joseph Smith Papyrus I,” 26, citing Origen, Contra Celsum 1.22. The spells Origen may have had in mind include one for “driving out demons” that includes the line, “Hail, God of Abraham hail, God of Isaac hail, God of Jacob” (PGM IV.1235), in Betz, The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, 62 or one that reads “I conjure you all by the god of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that you obey my authority completely (PGM XXXV.15), in Betz, The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, 268.

    14 Muhlestein, “The Religious and Cultural Background of Joseph Smith Papyrus I,” 30.

    15 See the extensive discussion in John Gee, “Abracadabra, Isaac, and Jacob,” FARMS Review of Books on the Book of Mormon 7, no. 1 (1995): 19–85.


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