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Kaligula - konj, dejstva in cesar

Kaligula - konj, dejstva in cesar


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Tretji rimski cesar, Kaligula (uradno znan kot Gaj), je v času svojega štiriletnega vladanja (37-41 n. Št.) Dosegel podvige odpadkov in pokolov, ki jim ni uspel niti njegov zloglasni nečak Neron. Sin velikega vojskovodje se je izognil družinskim spletkam, da bi prevzel prestol, vendar so ga njegovi osebni in davčni presežki pripeljali do tega, da je bil prvi rimski cesar, ki je bil umorjen.

Kaligulino zgodnje življenje

Gaj Julij Cezar Germanik se je rodil leta 12 po Kr., Tretji sin priznanega rimskega generala Germanika in njegove žene Agripine Starejše. V otroštvu je njegova družina živela na očetovi objavi na Renu, kjer so generalove čete bodočemu cesarju dale vzdevek "Caligula", kar pomeni "mali čevelj", glede na miniaturno uniformo, v katero so ga oblekli starši.

Potem ko je Germanik umrl leta 17 n.št., je Kaligulina družina padla v naklonjenost v očeh cesarja Tiberija in močnega pretorskega gardista Sejana, ki je starejše sinove priljubljenega generala videl kot politične tekmece. Mati in bratje Caligule so bili obtoženi izdaje in vsi so umrli v zaporu ali izgnanstvu. Kaligulina babica Antonia ga je uspela zaščititi pred temi spletkami do Sejunove smrti 31. Naslednje leto se je Kaligula preselil k ostarelemu Tiberiju, ki se je veselo odrekel najslabšim navadam svojega nečaka in komentiral, da »neguje poskok v naročju Rima. . "

Tiberius je posvojil Kaligulo in njega in njegovega bratranca Gemela naredil za enakovredne dediče cesarstva. Ko je cesar leta 37 umrl, je Kaligulin pretorski zaveznik Marco poskrbel, da je bil Kaligula razglašen za edinega cesarja. Leto kasneje je Caligula ukazal usmrtiti Marca in Gemella.

Cesar Kaligula

Caligula, ko je prevzel oblast leta 37 po Kr. Toda oktobra leta 37 je huda bolezen razjezila Kaligulo, zaradi česar je preostanek svojega vladanja preživel pri raziskovanju najslabših vidikov njegove narave.

Caligula je zapravljal denar za gradbene projekte, od praktičnih (akvadukti in pristanišča) do kulturnih (gledališča in templji) do naravnost bizarnega (zahteval je na stotine rimskih trgovskih ladij, da bi zgradil 2-miljski plavajoči most čez zaliv Bauli, da bi lahko dva dni galopiraj naprej in nazaj po njem). V letih 39 in 40 je vodil vojaške akcije proti Renu in Rokavskemu prelivu, kjer se je izognil bitkam za gledališke predstave in svojim četam ukazal, naj "oropajo morje", tako da zberejo školjke v čeladah).

Tudi njegovi odnosi z drugimi posamezniki so bili burni. Njegov biograf Suetonius citira njegovo pogosto ponavljano frazo: "Ne pozabite, da imam pravico narediti karkoli z nikomer." Mučil je visoke senatorje, tako da jih je dolge kilometre tekel pred svojim vozičkom. Imel je drzne afere z ženami svojih zaveznikov in govorice so imele incestuozne odnose s svojimi sestrami.

Caligula je bil visok, bled in tako poraščen, da je omembo koze v njegovi prisotnosti naredil kot hud prekršek. Prizadeval si je poudariti svojo naravno grdobo z vadbo grozljivega izraza obraza v ogledalu. A dobesedno je potonil v razkošju, domnevno se je valjal v kupih denarja in pil dragocene bisere, raztopljene v kisu. Nadaljeval je svoje otroške igre oblačenja, oblačil se je v čudna oblačila, ženske čevlje in razkošne dodatke ter lasulje-po besedah ​​njegovega biografa Cassiusa Dioja se je "želel videti kot kaj drugega kot človek in cesar."

Kaligulin propad

Kaligulina razsipnost je rimsko zakladnico izčrpala hitreje, kot jo je lahko napolnil z davki in izsiljevanjem. Zarota, ki je nastala med pretorsko gardo, senatom in konjeniškim redom, konec januarja 41. po Kr. Kaligulo so skupaj z ženo in hčerjo prebodli častniki pretorske straže pod vodstvom Kasija Chaereje. Tako Cassius Dio ugotavlja, da je Kaligula »na podlagi dejanskih izkušenj izvedel, da ni bog«.

Senat je poskušal izkoristiti katastrofalen konec Kaliguline vladavine kot izgovor za ponovno vzpostavitev rimske republike, vendar je prestolonaslednik prevzel Claudius, imenovani dedič, potem ko je pridobil podporo pretorijanske garde. Julijsko-klavdijska dinastija bi ostala varna še 17 let, do Neronovega samomora leta 68.

Dostopajte do več sto ur zgodovinskega videa, brezplačnega za komercialne namene, s trezorjem HISTORY Vault. Začnite brezplačno preskusno različico še danes.


Kaligula

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Kaligula, po imenu Gaj Cezar, v celoti Gaj Cezar Germanik, (rojen 31. avgusta 12, ce, Antium, Lacij [Italija] - umrl 24. januarja 41, Rim), rimski cesar od 37. do 41. leta, zaporedoma po Tiberiju. Kaligula je izvedel prenos zadnje legije, ki je bila pod senatorskim prokonzulom (v Afriki), na cesarskega legata, s čimer je bil dokončan cesarjev monopol nad poveljevanjem vojske. Poročila o vladavini Kaligule s strani starih zgodovinarjev so tako pristranska do njega, da je resnice skoraj nemogoče razbrati.

Po čem je Caligula najbolj znana?

Kaligula, za katerega mnogi menijo, da je nor in nepredvidljiv tiran, je znan tudi po tem, da je zadnjo legijo pod senatorskim prokonzulom prenesel na cesarskega legata, s čimer je dokončal cesarjev monopol nad poveljevanjem vojske. Govorilo se je, da je nameraval pred smrtjo imenovati svojega konjskega konzula.

Kako je Caligula umrl?

Januarja 41, štiri mesece po vrnitvi v Rim iz Galije, je Kaligulo na Palatinskih igrah umoril Cassius Chaerea, tribun pretorijanske straže, Cornelius Sabinus in drugi. Tudi Caligulina žena in hči sta bili usmrčeni. Kot cesar ga je nasledil stric Klaudije.

Kaj je bila Caligulina zapuščina?

Po njegovem pristopu je Kaligula zapravil ogromne zneske, ki jih je Tiberij nabral v državni zakladnici, pogubil tekmece in privržence, se pretvarjal v božanskost in si postavil kipe. Čeprav je senat nadziral uničenje njegovih kipov po njegovi smrti, je Caligulina pisana ekstravaganca in brutalnost utrdila njegov sloves več kot dve tisočletji.

Rojen kot Gaj Cezar, postal je znan kot Kaligula ("Mali čevelj"), vzdevek iz otroštva, ki so mu ga podelili vojaki njegovega očeta, Germanika Cezarja, nečaka in posvojenca Tiberija. Smrt njegovega očeta leta 19 ce, njegove matere Vipsanije Agrippine leta 33 in njegovih dveh starejših bratov, Julija Cezarja Nerona leta 31 in Druza Cezarja leta 23, sta bila popularno pripisana Tiberijevim mahinacijam. Gaj in njegove tri sestre so preživele. Sprejel je očetovo ugledno ime in postal Gaj Cezar Germanik.

Sedem mesecev po pristopu je bil hudo bolan. Po tem je obnovil sodniške izdaje, pokazal veliko krutost in se ukvarjal z divjimi despotskimi muhami, npr. Poleti 39 je z čolni premostil Neapeljski zaliv od Baiae do Puteolija. Leta 38 je usmrtil Naevija Sutorija Makra, prefekta pretorske straže , kateremu je podpiral svoj pristop, in Tiberija Gemela, vnuka Tiberija, ki ga je nasledil v nasledstvu. Predlagal se je božanskosti in pokazal ekstravagantno naklonjenost do svojih sester, zlasti do Drusille, ki je bila ob njeni smrti (leta 38) posvečena Diva Drusilla, prva ženska v Rimu, ki je bila tako počaščena. Nekateri učenjaki menijo, da je nameraval vzpostaviti monarhijo helenističnega tipa po porokah brata in sestre egiptovskih Ptolomejev. Drugi so menili, da je po bolezni nor, vendar je veliko dokazov o tem sumljivih, nekateri, na primer, da je svojega konja naredil za konzula, pa niso resnični. (Glej Opomba raziskovalca: Kaligulin konj.) Morda je trpel zaradi epilepsije.

Kaligula se je oktobra 39 nepričakovano pojavil na Zgornjem Porenju in potisnil začetni upor, s katerim je bil usmrčen Drusillin vdovec M. Aemilius Lepidus in Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus, poveljnik vojske Zgornjega Porenja. Po njegovem pristopu je Kaligula hitro zapravil ogromne zneske, ki jih je Tiberius nabral v državni zakladnici. Za pridobitev prihodkov, potrebnih za financiranje njegovih ekstravaganc, se je nato zatekel k izsiljevanju uglednih rimskih državljanov in odvzemu njihovih posesti. Zgodaj leta 40 je Kaligula z vojsko odkorakal v Galijo, katere prebivalce je temeljito oropal. Svoje čete je odpeljal proti severni obali Galije kot uvod v invazijo na Britanijo, nato pa jim je ukazal, naj tam zbirajo školjke, ki jih je imenoval plen osvojenega oceana.

Kaligula je poleti 40 nadaljeval s svojimi pretenzijami do božanstva, ukazal je, da se njegov kip postavi v templju v Jeruzalemu, vendar je pod milim prepričanjem Heroda Agripe Kaligula nasprotoval temu potencialno katastrofalnemu redu. Rimsko ljudstvo se je tega norca in nepredvidljivega tirana že naveličal in proti njemu je nastalo več zarot. Januarja 41, štiri mesece po vrnitvi v Rim iz Galije, je Kaligulo na Palatinskih igrah umoril Cassius Chaerea, tribun pretorske straže, Cornelius Sabinus in drugi. Usmrčena je bila tudi Caligulina žena Caesonia in njegova hči. Kot cesar ga je nasledil stric Klaudije.

Uredniki Encyclopaedia Britannica Ta članek je nazadnje popravil in posodobil John P. Rafferty, urednik.


Najboljši prijatelj Caligule je bil konj

To se pravzaprav sliši zelo ljubko, dokler ne pomislite, da je imel Caligula svojega konja tako zelo, kot sovražil druge ljudi (o tem kasneje). Incitatus je bil Caligulin nagrajeni dirkaški konj in zanj je dobil posebno obravnavo. Če ste živeli v bližini njegove hleva, je morala celotna soseska dan pred vsako dirko molčati, da bi se Incitatus lahko skoncentriral.

Caligula je imel tega konja tako zelo rad, da ga je povabil na večerjo, popil za Incitatovo zdravje iz zlatih skodelic in ga nahranil z ovsom, narezanim z zlatimi kosmiči - Oatschläger, če hočete. Če kmetje niso presejali Incitatusovega sh*tja za brezplačno zlato, medtem ko sta on in Kaligula odšla na dirke, potem ne vem, zakaj. 2

Najbolj znana zgodba o Incitatu je, da ga je Kaligula postavil za konzula v rimskem senatu. Na žalost ni res. Zapisi pravijo, da je Caligula želel imenoval svojega konjeniškega brsta v senat, a so ga ubili, preden mu je to uspelo. Poleg tega je bila Incitatusova politična platforma prešibka za gospodarstvo. 3


Vendar je bila večina vedenja Caligula & rsquos po bolezni vse prej kot smešna. Ugled si je pridobil zaradi nemoralnosti, nasilja in izjemne krutosti. Najmanj njegov zločin je bil incest pri vseh treh njegovih sestrah. Ko je umrl njegov najljubši, Drusilla, je bil Caligula neutešen. Bil je tako nor od žalosti, da je po njeni smrti naredil smrtno kaznivo dejanje, ko se je smejal, kopel ali javno večerjal, medtem ko je trajalo obdobje žalovanja. Drusillo je celo razglasil za boginjo- izjemno čast za žensko in njeno ime dodal cesarskim prisegam.

Ali je bil ta incest sporazumen ali ne, ni znano. Vendar je bil Caligula nedvomno spolni plenilec. Njegov najljubši običaj je bil, da so pred njim paradirali gostje na večerji, da si je lahko pozneje zvečer izbral spolnega spremljevalca. Ko je bil gost na poroki Gaja Pisa in Livije Orestila, se je nevesti zaljubil. & ldquo Roke proč od žene, & rdquo Caligula je nenadoma razglasil sredi poroke. Orestilo je prisilil, da ga je odpeljal domov in jo & acirc € ˜ poročil & rsquo- le dva dni kasneje se je ločil.

Ko ni prisilil plemenitih žensk, da spijo z njim, jih je Caligula silil, naj se prodajo drugim moškim. Ker je cesarska blagajna zaradi svoje bogate porabe hitro izsušila, je moral Kaligula najti nove načine zbiranja sredstev. Ena ideja je bila, da bi palačo odprli kot bordel. Vse poročene plemkinje v Rimu- in kar nekaj mladih fantov je moralo služiti v tem cesarskem bluzu. Stranke so bile državljani, ki jih je Caligula zaokrožila po ulicah Rima in rsquosa.

Umirajoči gladiator Fedorja Bronnikova. Wikimedia Commons. Javna domena

Plemiči so se s tem poniževanjem in zlorabo sprijaznili, ker je veliko huje pričakovalo vsakogar, ki cesarju ni po godu. Kajti Kaligula bi moške mučili in usmrtili na čisto mešanico. Njegovi prvi umori so se zgodili takoj po bolezni, ko je maja 38 AD dal pretorijanskega prefekta Makra in njegovega mladega bratranca Gemela usmrtiti po izmišljenih obtožbah. Makro je domnevno pomagal Kaliguli pri njegovem vzponu na oblast z umorom Tiberija. Gemellus, čeprav je bil samo deček potencialna grožnja Kaliguli, saj je bil vnuk Tiberija in rsquosa ter bil solastnik Caligula & rsquos.

Smrt Gemela in Makra kaže, da je Kaligula trpel zaradi določene količine paranoje. Vendar je iz čiste krutosti sprožil veliko drugih smrti. Kaligula je oživil izdajo Tiberijevega vladanja kot drug način zbiranja prepotrebnega denarja. Tistim, ki so bili spoznani za krive, so zasegli posest. Če pa se ne bi ubili ali umrli v zaporu, bi se lahko veselili javne usmrtitve. Kajti Kaligula se je rad boril z obsojenimi kot gladiatorji.

Caligula je k uživanju v teh spektaklih pripomogel tudi tako, da je obsojene družine & rsquos prisilil k ogledu. Cesar je celo poslal leglo, da je enega bolnega očeta poslal na usmrtitev svojega sina. Drugi, ki je prosil za dovoljenje, da zapre oči in ne gleda, je umrl s sinom. Caligula je celo povabil očeta ene od svojih žrtev na večerjo- na dan usmrtitve svojega sina. Žalostni starš je bil prisiljen ves večer sedeti in se smejati cesarjevim šalam & ndash ali sam umreti.


Vsebina

Gaj Julij Cezar (imenovan v čast svojega slavnega sorodnika) se je rodil 31. avgusta 12. leta v Antiumu (sodobna Anzio in Nettuno [2]), tretji od šestih preživelih otrok, ki sta se mu rodila Germanik in njegova druga sestrična Agripina starejša [3]. ], ki je bila hči Marka Vipsanija Agripe in Julije starejše, zaradi česar je bila Avgustova vnukinja. [3] Gaj je imel dva starejša brata, Nerona in Drususa, [3] pa tudi tri mlajše sestre, Agrippino mlajšo, Julijo Drusilla in Julijo Livillo. [3] [4] Bil je tudi nečak Klaudija, Germanikinega mlajšega brata in bodočega cesarja. [5]

Kot fant, star komaj dva ali tri leta, je Gaj spremljal svojega očeta, Germanika, v kampanjah na severu Germanije. [6] Vojaki so bili zabavni, da je bil Gaj oblečen v miniaturno vojaško obleko, vključno s škornji in oklepi. [6] Kmalu je dobil ljubeč vzdevek, Kaligula, kar pomeni "mali (vojaški) čevelj" v latinščini, po majhnih škornjih (caligae), ki jih je nosil. [7] Gaju pa naj bi ta vzdevek ne maral. [8]

Suetonius trdi, da je Germanika v Siriji zastrupil Tiberijev agent, ki je na Germanika gledal kot na političnega tekmeca. [9] Po očetovi smrti je Kaligula živel z mamo, dokler se njeni odnosi s Tiberijem niso poslabšali. [10] Tiberius ni dovolil, da bi se Agrippina ponovno poročila zaradi strahu, da bi bil njen mož tekmec. [11] Agrippina in Kaligulin brat Neron sta bila leta 29 izgnana zaradi obtožbe veleizdaje. [12] [13]

Najstnik Caligula je bil nato poslan k svoji prababici (in Tiberijevi materi) Liviji. [10] Po njeni smrti so ga poslali živeti pri babici Antoniji Minor. [10] Leta 30 je bil njegov brat Drusus zaprt zaradi obtožbe izdaje, njegov brat Nero pa je umrl v izgnanstvu zaradi lakote ali samomora. [13] [14] Suetonius piše, da so bili Kaligula in njegove sestre po izgonu svoje matere in bratov nič drugega kot ujetniki Tiberija pod budnim nadzorom vojakov. [15]

Leta 31 je bil Kaligula vrnjen v osebno nego Tiberija na Capriju, kjer je živel šest let. [10] Na presenečenje mnogih je Kaliguli prizanesel Tiberius. [16] Po mnenju zgodovinarjev je bil Kaligula odličen naravni igralec in je, ko je prepoznal nevarnost, skril vso zamere do Tiberija. [10] [17] Opazovalec je za Caligulo rekel: "Nikoli ni bil boljši služabnik ali slabši gospodar!" [10] [17]

Kaligula je trdil, da je nameraval ubiti Tiberija z bodalom, da bi maščeval svojo mamo in brata: ko pa je orožje prinesel v Tiberijevo spalnico, ni ubil cesarja, ampak je bodalo vrgel na tla. Menda je Tiberius to vedel, vendar si nikoli ni upal ničesar storiti. [18] Suetonius trdi, da je bil Kaligula že krut in zloben: piše, da je bil njegov namen, ko je Tiberij pripeljal Kaligulo na Kapri, omogočiti Kaliguli, da živi, ​​da bi "dokazal propad sebe in vseh ljudi in da je je vzgajal viper za rimsko ljudstvo in Faethon za svet. " [19]

Leta 33 je Tiberij dal Kaliguli častno kvestoro, ki jo je opravljal do svojega vzpona na cesarja. [20] Medtem sta Caligulina mama in njegov brat Drusus umrla v zaporu. [21] [22] Caligula je bila na kratko poročena z Junijo Claudilla leta 33, čeprav je naslednje leto umrla pri porodu. [18] Kaligula se je nekaj časa spoprijateljil s pretorijanskim prefektom Naevijem Sutoriusom Makrom, pomembnim zaveznikom. [18] Makro je Tiberiju dobro govoril o Kaliguli in poskušal zadušiti vsako slabo voljo ali sum, ki ga je cesar čutil do Kaligule. [23]

Leta 35 je bil Kaligula skupaj s Tiberijem Gemelom imenovan za skupnega dediča Tiberijeve posesti. [24]

Zgodnje vladanje Edit

Ko je Tiberij umrl 16. marca 37. leta n. Št. 37, so njegovo posestvo in naslovi principata prepustili Kaliguli in Tiberijevemu vnuku Gemelu, ki naj bi služili kot skupni dediči. Čeprav je imel Tiberij 77 let in je bil na samrti, nekateri starodavni zgodovinarji še vedno ugibajo, da je bil umorjen. [18] [25] Tacit piše, da je Makro z blazino zadušil Tiberija, da bi pospešil pristop Kaligule, na veliko veselje rimskega ljudstva [25], medtem ko je Svetonije zapisal, da je Kaligula morda ubil, čeprav tega ne beleži kateri koli drugi zgodovinar. [18] Seneka starejši in Filon, ki sta oba pisala v času Tiberijeve vladavine, pa tudi Jožef Flavija, beležijo Tiberija kot umirajočega zaradi naravne smrti. [26] Kaligula je ob podpori Makra razveljavil Tiberijevo oporoko glede Gemela zaradi norosti, sicer pa je uresničil Tiberijeve želje. [27]

Kaligulo je senat razglasil za cesarja 18. marca. [28] Sprejel je pristojnosti principata in 28. marca vstopil v Rim sredi množice, ki ga je med drugimi vzdevke označila za "našega otroka" in "našo zvezdo". [28] [29] Kaligula je opisan kot prvi cesar, ki so ga občudovali vsi v "vsem svetu, od vzhajajočega do zahajajočega sonca". [30] Kaligulo so mnogi ljubili, ker je bil ljubljeni sin priljubljenega Germanika, [29] in ker ni bil Tiberij. [31] Suetonius je dejal, da je bilo v treh mesecih javnega veselja žrtvovanih več kot 160.000 živali, ki so začele novo vladavino. [32] [33] Filon prvih sedem mesecev Kaliguline vladavine opisuje kot popolnoma blažene. [34]

Prva dejanja Caligule naj bi bila velikodušna po duhu, čeprav so bila številna politične narave. [27] Da bi pridobil podporo, je podelil bonitete vojski, vključno s pretorsko gardo, mestnimi četami in vojsko zunaj Italije. [27] Uničil je Tiberijeve izdajne dokumente, izjavil, da so sodni veleizdajniški procesi preteklost, in se spomnil tistih, ki so bili poslani v izgnanstvo. [35] Pomagal je tistim, ki jih je cesarski davčni sistem oškodoval, izgnal nekatere spolne odklone in javnosti namenil razkošna očala, vključno z gladiatorskimi igrami. [36] [37] Kaligula je zbral in prinesel kosti svoje matere in bratov ter njihove ostanke položil v Avgustov grob. [38]

Oktobra 37 je Caligula hudo zbolel ali pa se je morda zastrupil. Kmalu si je opomogel od bolezni, vendar so mnogi verjeli, da je bolezen mladega cesarja usmerila v diabolično: začel je ubijati ali izgnati tiste, ki so mu bili blizu ali pa jih je videl kot resno grožnjo. Morda ga je bolezen spominjala na njegovo smrtnost in na željo drugih, da bi napredovali na njegovo mesto. [39] Dal je usmrtiti svojega bratranca in posvojenega sina Tiberija Gemela - dejanje, ki je razjezilo Kaligulino in Gemelovo medsebojno babico Antonijo Minor. Ona naj bi storila samomor, čeprav Suetonius namiguje, da jo je Caligula dejansko zastrupil. Dal je usmrtiti tudi svojega tasta Marka Junija Silana in zeta Marka Lepidusa. Njegovemu stricu Klaudiju je bilo prizaneseno le zato, ker ga je Kaligula raje hranil kot posmeh. Njegova najljubša sestra, Julia Drusilla, je umrla pri 38 zvišani telesni temperaturi: drugi dve sestri, Livilla in Agrippina mlajša, sta bili izgnani. Sovražil je, da je bil vnuk Agripe, in je Avgusta oklevetal tako, da je ponavljal laž, da je bila njegova mati dejansko spočeta kot posledica krvavega odnosa med Avgustom in njegovo hčerko Julijo starejšo. [40]

Javna reforma Uredi

Leta 38 se je Caligula osredotočil na politične in javne reforme. Objavil je račune javnih sredstev, ki niso bili objavljeni v času vladavine Tiberija. Pomagal je tistim, ki so v požarih izgubili lastnino, odpravil nekatere davke in podelil nagrade javnosti na telovadnih prireditvah. Dovolil je nove člane v konjeniški in senatorski red. [41]

Morda najpomembneje je obnovil prakso volitev. [42] Cassius Dio je dejal, da je to dejanje "čeprav razveselilo množico, žalostilo razumne, ki so se ustavili, da bi razmislili, da bi, če bi pisarne spet padle v roke mnogih, nastale številne nesreče". [43]

Istega leta je bil Caligula kritiziran zaradi usmrtitve ljudi brez popolnih sojenj in zaradi prisilitve pretorijanskega župana Makra do samomora. Makro je cesarju padel v naklonjenost, verjetno zaradi poskusa zveze z Gemelom, ko se je izkazalo, da bi Kaligula lahko umrl zaradi vročine. [44]

Finančna kriza in lakota Edit

Po Cassiusu Diou se je leta 39 pojavila finančna kriza. [44] Suetonius začenja to krizo leta 38. [45] Kaligulina politična plačila za podporo, radodarnost in ekstravaganco so izčrpali državno blagajno. Starodavni zgodovinarji trdijo, da je Kaligula začel lažno obtoževati, globati in celo ubijati posameznike zaradi zasega njihovih posesti. [46]

Zgodovinarji opisujejo številne druge obupne ukrepe Kaligule. Da bi pridobil sredstva, je Caligula od javnosti zahteval posojanje državnega denarja. [47] Dajatve je zaračunaval za tožbe, poroke in prostitucijo. [48] ​​Caligula je na razstavah začel dražiti življenja gladiatorjev. [46] [49] Oporoke, ki so predmete prepustile Tiberiju, so bile ponovno interpretirane, tako da so predmete prepustili Kaliguli. [50] Stotniki, ki so lastnino pridobili z ropom, so bili prisiljeni predati plen državi. [50]

Sedanji in pretekli komisarji za avtoceste so bili obtoženi nesposobnosti in poneverbe ter prisiljeni vračati denar. [50] Po Suetoniju je v prvem letu Kaliguline vladavine zapravil 2,7 milijarde sestercev, ki jih je Tiberij nabral. [45] Njegov nečak Neron je zavidal in občudoval dejstvo, da je Gaj tekel skozi ogromno bogastvo, ki ga je Tiberius zapustil v tako kratkem času. [51]

Vendar pa so nekateri zgodovinarji pokazali skepticizem do velikega števila sestercij, ki sta jih navedla Suetonius in Dio. Wilkinson pravi, da Caligulina uporaba plemenitih kovin za kovanje kovancev v njegovem glavnem mestu kaže, da zakladnica najverjetneje nikoli ni padla v stečaj. [52] Vendar opozarja, da je težko ugotoviti, ali je domnevno "zapravljeno bogastvo" izhajalo samo iz zakladnice zaradi zamegljenosti "delitve med zasebnim bogastvom cesarja in njegovim dohodkom na čelu države" . " [52] Poleg tega Alston poudarja, da je Kaligulin naslednik, Klavdij, leta 41 lahko podaril 15.000 sestercij vsakemu članu pretorske straže [25], kar kaže na to, da je bila rimska zakladnica plačilno sposobna. [53]

Pojavila se je kratka lakota neznanega obsega, ki jo je morda povzročila ta finančna kriza, vendar Suetonius trdi, da je posledica Seličinega zasega javnih vagonov [46], da je bil uvoz žita prekinjen, ker je Caligula znova namenila čolne za žito za pontonski most. [54]

Gradbeništvo Edit

Kljub finančnim težavam se je Caligula v času svojega vladanja lotil številnih gradbenih projektov. Nekateri so bili v javno dobro, drugi pa zanj.

Jožef Flavije kot svoj največji prispevek opisuje Caliguline izboljšave v pristaniščih v Regiju in na Siciliji, ki omogočajo povečan uvoz žita iz Egipta. [55] Te izboljšave so bile morda odgovor na lakoto. [ potreben citat ]

Caligula je dokončal Avgustov tempelj in Pompejevo gledališče in začel amfiteater ob Saepti. [56] Razširil je cesarsko palačo. [57] Začel je akvadukte Aqua Claudia in Anio Novus, za katere je Plinij starejši menil, da so inženirska čuda. [58] Zgradil je veliko dirkališče, znano kot cirkus Gaja in Nerona in so imeli egipčanski obelisk (zdaj znan kot "vatikanski obelisk") prepeljani po morju in postavljeni sredi Rima. [59]

V Sirakuzi je popravil mestno obzidje in templje bogov. [56] Zgradil je nove ceste in jih potisnil, da so ceste v dobrem stanju. [60] Načrtoval je, da bo obnovil Polikratovo palačo na Samosu, dokončal tempelj Didimajevega Apolona v Efezu in ustanovil mesto visoko v Alpah. [56] Načrtoval je izkopati kanal skozi Korintski preliv v Grčiji in poslal glavnega stotnika, da bi pregledal delo. [56]

Leta 39 je Caligula izvedel spektakularen trik z ukazom, da se zgradi začasni plavajoči most z uporabo ladij kot pontonov, ki se raztezajo več kot dve milji od letovišča Baiae do sosednjega pristanišča Puteoli. [61] [62] Govorilo se je, da bo most tekmoval s pontonskim mostom, ki je prečkal Hellespont perzijskega kralja Kserksa. [62] Kaligula, ki ni mogel plavati, [63] je nato nadaljeval jahanje svojega najljubšega konja Incitata, ki je nosil oprsje Aleksandra Velikega. [62] To dejanje je bilo v nasprotju s napovedjo Tiberijevega vedeževalca Trazila iz Mendesa, da Kaligula "nima več možnosti, da postane cesar, kot da jaha na konju čez zaliv Baiae". [62]

Caligula je zase izdelal dve veliki ladji (ki sta jo okoli leta 1930 odkrili z dna jezera Nemi). Ladje so bile med največjimi ladjami v antičnem svetu. Manjša ladja je bila zasnovana kot tempelj, posvečen Diani. Večja ladja je bila v bistvu izdelana plavajoča palača z marmornimi tlemi in vodovodom. [64] Ladje so leta 1944 po napadu v drugi svetovni vojni zgorele skoraj nič od trupov, čeprav je veliko arheoloških zakladov ostalo nedotaknjenih v muzeju pri jezeru Nemi in v Museo Nazionale Romano (Palazzo Massimo) v Rimu. [65]

Prepir s senatom Edit

Leta 39 so se odnosi med Kaligulo in rimskim senatom poslabšali. [66] Predmet njunega nesoglasja ni znan. Številni dejavniki pa so ta spopad še poslabšali. Senat se je navadil vladanja brez cesarja med odhodom Tiberija na Kapri leta 26 in Kaligulinim pristopom. [67] Poleg tega so Tiberijeve izdaje odstranile številne projulijanske senatorje, kot je Asinij Gal. [67]

Kaligula je pregledal Tiberijeve zapise o izdajniških procesih in se na podlagi njihovih dejanj med temi procesi odločil, da številni senatorji niso vredni zaupanja. [66] Naročil je nov sklop preiskav in sojenj. [66] Zamenjal je konzula in dal usmrtiti več senatorjev. [68] Suetonius poroča, da so bili drugi senatorji degradirani, ker so bili prisiljeni čakati nanj in teči poleg njegovega kočije. [68]

Kmalu po premoru s senatom se je Caligula soočil s številnimi dodatnimi zarotami proti njemu. [69] Zaroto, v katero je bil vpleten njegov svak, je bilo konec 39. [69] Kmalu zatem je bil nemški guverner Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus usmrčen zaradi povezave z zaroto. [69]

Western razširitev Edit

Leta 40 je Caligula razširil Rimsko cesarstvo v Mauretanijo in naredil pomemben poskus širitve v Britanijo. (Zaradi romana Jaz, Claudius, običajno velja, da je Kaligula v tem času poskušal vojno proti Neptunu. To pa ni omenjeno v nobenem starodavnem viru.) [3] Osvajanje Britanije je bilo kasneje doseženo v času vladavine njegovega naslednika, Klaudija.

Mauretania Edit

Mauretanija je bila kraljestvo strank Rima, ki mu je vladal Ptolomej Mavretanski. Kaligula je povabil Ptolemeja v Rim in ga nato nenadoma dal usmrtiti. [70] Mauretanijo je pridružila Kaligula in jo nato razdelila na dve provinci, Mauretania Tingitana in Mauretania Caesariensis, ločeni z reko Malua. [71] Plinij trdi, da je bila delitev delo Kaligule, vendar Dio navaja, da je leta 42 prišlo do upora, ki sta ga pokorila Gaj Svetonije Paulin in Gnej Hosidij Geta, do delitve pa je prišlo šele po tem. [72] Ta zmeda bi lahko pomenila, da se je Kaligula odločil za razdelitev pokrajine, vendar je bila delitev prestavljena zaradi upora. [73] Prvi znani konjeniški guverner obeh provinc je bil Marcus Fadius Celer Flavianus, ki je bil na položaju leta 44. [73]

Podrobnosti o mavretanskih dogodkih 39–44 niso jasne. Cassius Dio je napisal celo poglavje o priključitvi Mauretanije Kaliguli, vendar je zdaj izgubljeno. [74] Kaligulina poteza je imela navidez strogo osebni politični motiv - strah in ljubosumje do njegovega bratranca Ptolemeja - in zato širitev morda ni bila posledica nujnih vojaških ali gospodarskih potreb. [75] Toda upor Tacfarinas je pokazal, kako izpostavljena je bila Afrika Proconsularis na zahodu in kako mauretanski kralji strank niso mogli zagotoviti zaščite pokrajini, zato je možno, da je bila širitev Kaligule preudaren odziv na potencialne prihodnje grožnje . [73]

Britannia Edit

Zdi se, da je bila severna kampanja proti Britaniji prekinjena. [74] To kampanjo zasmehujejo starodavni zgodovinarji s poročili o Galcih, ki so bili oblečeni v germanske plemenite ob njegovem zmagoslavju, in rimskim četam, ki so ukazovale zbiranje školjk kot "morski plen". [76] Nekaj ​​primarnih virov se ne strinja, kaj točno se je zgodilo. Sodobni zgodovinarji so poskušali razložiti ta dejanja. To potovanje na Rokavski preliv bi lahko bilo le usposabljanje in taborniško poslanstvo. [77] Misija je bila morda sprejeti predajo britanskega poglavarja Adminija. [78] "Školjke", oz conchae v latinščini je lahko metafora za kaj drugega, kot so ženske genitalije (morda so čete obiskale bordele) ali čolni (morda so ujeli več manjših britanskih čolnov). [79]

Trditve o božanskosti Edit

Ko je v Rim prišlo več kraljev strank, da bi se mu poklonili in se prepirali o svojem plemstvu, je domnevno vzkliknil po homerski liniji: [80] "Naj bo en gospodar, en kralj." [57] Leta 40 je Caligula začel izvajati zelo kontroverzne politike, ki so religijo uvedle v njegovo politično vlogo. Kaligula se je začel pojavljati v javnosti oblečen v različne bogove in polbogove, kot so Herkul, Merkur, Venera in Apolon. [81] Po poročanju naj bi se pri srečanju s politiki začel sklicevati nase kot na boga, v javnih dokumentih pa so ga občasno imenovali "Jupiter". [82] [83]

A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome. [83] The Temple of Castor and Pollux on the forum was linked directly to the imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula. [83] [84] He would appear there on occasion and present himself as a god to the public. Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods located across Rome and replaced them with his own. [85] It is said that he wished to be worshipped as Neos Helios, the "New Sun". Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on Egyptian coins. [86]

Caligula's religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio, living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome. [87] Augustus had the public worship his spirit on occasion, but Dio describes this as an extreme act that emperors generally shied away from. [87] Caligula took things a step further and had those in Rome, including senators, worship him as a tangible, living god. [88]

Eastern policy Edit

Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend, Herod Agrippa, who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in 37. [89]

The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman law and the rights of Jews in the empire.

Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. [90] In 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus. [91] According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews. [92] As a result, riots broke out in the city. [93] Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him. [94]

In 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories. [95]

Riots again erupted in Alexandria in 40 between Jews and Greeks. [96] Jews were accused of not honouring the emperor. [96] Disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia. [97] Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it. [97] In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem, [98] a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism. [99] In this context, Philo wrote that Caligula "regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his". [99]

The Governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year. [100] Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order. [96] However, Caligula issued a second order to have his statue erected in the Temple of Jerusalem. In Rome, another statue of himself, of colossal size, was made of gilt brass for the purpose. The Temple of Jerusalem was then transformed into a temple for Caligula, and it was called the Temple of Illustrious Gaius the New Jupiter. [101]

Scandals Edit

Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger, contemporaries of Caligula, describe him as an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, short-tempered, killed on a whim, and indulged in too much spending and sex. [102] He is accused of sleeping with other men's wives and bragging about it, [103] killing for mere amusement, [104] deliberately wasting money on his bridge, causing starvation, [54] and wanting a statue of himself in the Temple of Jerusalem for his worship. [98] Once, at some games at which he was presiding, he was said to have ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the audience into the arena during the intermission to be eaten by the wild beasts because there were no prisoners to be used and he was bored. [105]

While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla, and Livilla, and say he prostituted them to other men. [106] They state he sent troops on illogical military exercises, [74] [107] turned the palace into a brothel, [47] and, most famously, planned or promised to make his horse, Incitatus, a consul, [108] [109] and actually appointed him a priest. [83]

The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government. [110]

Assassination and aftermath Edit

Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the Senate, to the nobility and to the equestrian order. [111] According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula. [112] Eventually, officers within the Praetorian Guard led by Cassius Chaerea succeeded in murdering the emperor. [113] The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it. [114]

The situation had escalated when, in 40, Caligula announced to the Senate that he planned to leave Rome permanently and to move to Alexandria in Egypt, where he hoped to be worshipped as a living god. The prospect of Rome losing its emperor and thus its political power was the final straw for many. Such a move would have left both the Senate and the Praetorian Guard powerless to stop Caligula's repression and debauchery. With this in mind Chaerea convinced his fellow conspirators, who included Marcus Vinicius and Lucius Annius Vinicianus, to put their plot into action quickly.

According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. [115] Suetonius sees the motive in Caligula calling Chaerea derogatory names. [116] Caligula considered Chaerea effeminate because of a weak voice and for not being firm with tax collection. [117] Caligula would mock Chaerea with names like "Priapus" and "Venus". [118]

On 24 January 41, [120] Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula as he addressed an acting troupe of young men beneath the palace, during a series of games and dramatics being held for the Divine Augustus. [121] Details recorded on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea stabbed Caligula first, followed by a number of conspirators. [122] Suetonius records that Caligula's death resembled that of Julius Caesar. He states that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea respectively). [123] By the time Caligula's loyal Germanic guard responded, the Emperor was already dead. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike. [124] These wounded conspirators were treated by the physician Arcyon.

The cryptoporticus (underground corridor) beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill where this event took place was discovered by archaeologists in 2008. [125]

The senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic. [126] Chaerea tried to persuade the military to support the Senate. [127] The military, though, remained loyal to the idea of imperial monarchy. [127] Uncomfortable with lingering imperial support, the assassins sought out and killed Caligula's wife, Caesonia, and killed their young daughter, Julia Drusilla, by smashing her head against a wall. [128] They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius. After a soldier, Gratus, found Claudius hiding behind a palace curtain, he was spirited out of the city by a sympathetic faction of the Praetorian Guard [129] to their nearby camp. [130]

Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian Guard. Claudius granted a general amnesty, although he executed a few junior officers involved in the conspiracy, including Chaerea. [131] According to Suetonius, Caligula's body was placed under turf until it was burned and entombed by his sisters. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus in 410, during the Sack of Rome, the ashes in the tomb were scattered.

Historiography Edit

The facts and circumstances of Caligula's reign are mostly lost to history. Only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived – the works of Philo and Seneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius in Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators. [132]

At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula. [133] Nonetheless, these lost primary sources, along with the works of Seneca and Philo, were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Caligula written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. [134] Cluvius Rufus was a senator involved in the assassination of Caligula. [135]

Caligula's sister, Agrippina the Younger, wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula's reign, but it too is lost. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus, who conspired against him. [69] The inheritance of Nero, Agrippina's son and the future emperor, was seized by Caligula. Gaetulicus, a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they are lost.

The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligula's death. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign.

A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. In a now lost portion of his Letopis, Tacitus gave a detailed history of Caligula. Pliny the Elder's Naravna zgodovina has a few brief references to Caligula.

There are few surviving sources on Caligula and none of them paints Caligula in a favourable light. The paucity of sources has resulted in significant gaps in modern knowledge of the reign of Caligula. Little is written on the first two years of Caligula's reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania, Caligula's military actions in Britannia, and his feud with the Roman Senate. According to legend, during his military actions in Britannia Caligula grew addicted to a steady diet of European sea eels, which led to their Latin name being Coluber caligulensis. [136]

Health Edit

All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterize Caligula as insane. However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis. [137] The question of whether Caligula was insane (especially after his illness early in his reign) remains unanswered. [137]

Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca state that Caligula was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience. [95] [138] [139] Seneca states that Caligula became arrogant, angry and insulting once he became emperor and uses his personality flaws as examples his readers can learn from. [140] According to Josephus, power made Caligula incredibly conceited and led him to think he was a god. [95] Philo of Alexandria reports that Caligula became ruthless after nearly dying of an illness in the eighth month of his reign in 37. [141] Juvenal reports he was given a magic potion that drove him insane.

Suetonius said that Caligula suffered from "falling sickness", or epilepsy, when he was young. [142] [143] Modern historians have theorized that Caligula lived with a daily fear of seizures. [144] Despite swimming being a part of imperial education, Caligula could not swim. [145] Epileptics are discouraged from swimming in open waters because unexpected fits could lead to death because a timely rescue would be difficult. [146] Caligula reportedly talked to the full moon: [68] Epilepsy was long associated with the moon. [147]

Suetonius described Caligula as sickly-looking, skinny and pale: "he was tall, very pale, ill-shaped, his neck and legs very slender, his eyes and temples hollow, his brows broad and knit, his hair thin, and the crown of the head bald. The other parts of his body were much covered with hair . He was crazy both in body and mind, being subject, when a boy, to the falling sickness. When he arrived at the age of manhood he endured fatigue tolerably well. Occasionally he was liable to faintness, during which he remained incapable of any effort". [148] [149] Based on scientific reconstructions of his official painted busts, Caligula had brown hair, brown eyes, and fair skin. [150]

Some modern historians think that Caligula suffered from hyperthyroidism. [151] This diagnosis is mainly attributed to Caligula's irritability and his "stare" as described by Pliny the Elder.

Possible rediscovery of burial site Edit

On 17 January 2011, police in Nemi, Italy, announced that they believed they had discovered the site of Caligula's burial, after arresting a thief caught smuggling a statue which they believed to be of the emperor. [152] The claim has been met with scepticism by Cambridge historian Mary Beard. [153]

Quadrans celebrating the abolition of a tax in AD 38 by Caligula. [154] The obverse of the coin contains a picture of a Pileus which symbolizes the liberation of the people from the tax burden. Caption: C. CAESAR DIVI AVG. PRON[EPOS] (great-grandson of) AVG. / PON. M., TR. P. III, P. P., COS. DES. RCC. (probably Res Civium Conservatae, i.e. the interests of citizens have been preserved)

Roman gold coins excavated in Pudukottai, India, examples of Indo-Roman trade during the period. One coin of Caligula (AD 37–41), and two coins of Nero (AD 54–68). Britanski muzej. Caption: C. CAESAR AVG. PON. M., TR. POT. III, COS. III. - NERO CAESAR. AVG. IMP. - NERO CAESAR AVG. IMP.


How did a horse become an esteemed Senator?!

2000 years ago, the most powerful man in the world was the Roman Emperor Caligula and his favorite horse was Incitatus.

Caligula used to invite Incitatus to official dinners and treat him with great respect. He ordered that Incitatus be fed only with gold flakes and watered him with luxurious wine from gold poppers. Naturally, he also provided Incitatus with a fully furnished house and slaves to serve him.

Convinced that Incitatus would make a great politician, Caligula nominated him a full-fledged Roman Senator.

The Emperor also put Incitatus on the list to become consul – the highest elected political office of ancient Rome – but, unfortunately, Caligula was assassinated before this came to fruition.

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And for all of you Caligula enthusiasts, here are some facts about him:

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, known as Caligula was the emperor of Rome between 37 and 41 AD and the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula was considered a tyrant and became known for his extravagance, strangeness, and cruelty. Murdered in 41 by his bodyguards.

Caligula was born in 12 AD, the third son of Germanicus, and Agrippina – daughter of Marcus Vipsenius Agrippa of the great warlords who served Augustus, and Juliet, Augustus’s daughter.

Caligula’s father was among Roman’s beloved sons and Emperor Augustus’ personal favorite, and his mother was considered the ideal model for a Roman woman.

Things took a wrong turn on October 10, 19 AD, when Germanicus died of a disease, probably due to poisoning in the command of Emperor Tiberius.

After Agrippina accused Tiberius of not doing enough to bring her husband’s murderers to trial, Tiberius exiled her to a remote island, where she died of starvation.

Tiberius adopted Caligula’s older brothers, Nero and Drosus, and even declared them as his heirs. But when he noticed they are getting too popular and could endanger him, he accused them of betrayal and sentenced him to death.

Poor lonely Caligula lived in constant danger and it was only due to his natural cunning that he managed to survive Tiberius and the turmoil in Rome. He was a born actor and naturally understood how to act in danger while his immediate family members were murdered.

While some say it was his harsh childhood that drove him insane, modern research suggests he suffered from meningitis. This is supported by the known fact that he took mental callous turnaround after surviving an obscure illness on October 37.

In any case, as mentioned above, history was written by his rivals. The same ones who ordered his assassination.

And for all of you Caligula enthusiasts, here are some facts about him:

Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, known as Caligula was the emperor of Rome between 37 and 41 AD and the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula was considered a tyrant and became known for his extravagance, strangeness, and cruelty. Murdered in 41 by his bodyguards.

Caligula was born in 12 AD, the third son of Germanicus, and Agrippina – daughter of Marcus Vipsenius Agrippa of the great warlords who served Augustus, and Juliet, Augustus’s daughter.

Caligula’s father was among Roman’s beloved sons and Emperor Augustus’ personal favorite, and his mother was considered the ideal model for a Roman woman.

Things took a wrong turn on October 10, 19 AD, when Germanicus died of a disease, probably due to poisoning in the command of Emperor Tiberius.

After Agrippina accused Tiberius of not doing enough to bring her husband’s murderers to trial, Tiberius exiled her to a remote island, where she died of starvation.

Tiberius adopted Caligula’s older brothers, Nero and Drosus, and even declared them as his heirs. But when he noticed they are getting too popular and could endanger him, he accused them of betrayal and sentenced him to death.

Poor lonely Caligula lived in constant danger and it was only due to his natural cunning that he managed to survive Tiberius and the turmoil in Rome. He was a born actor and naturally understood how to act in danger while his immediate family members were murdered.

While some say it was his harsh childhood that drove him insane, modern research suggests he suffered from meningitis. This is supported by the known fact that he took mental callous turnaround after surviving an obscure illness on October 37.

In any case, as mentioned above, history was written by his rivals. The same ones who ordered his assassination.


Suetonius&rsquos account of Caligula was written decades after the emperor&rsquos death during the reign of Hadrian, and some of its details do seem to have been deliberately shaped to suit Suetonius&rsquos picture of Caligula as a deranged lunatic. For instance, his account of Caligula&rsquos aborted invasion of Britain ignores the fact that the Roman word for seashells &ldquoMusculi&rdquo was also a soldier&rsquos slang for an engineer&rsquos hut. This means that instead of ordering his troops to gather seashells, Caligula could have been commanding them to clear the beach of military installations.

However, other details have been proven correct. The discovery of Caligula&rsquos palace in 2003 confirms that it was indeed remodeled to join with the Temple of Castor and Pollux. Supports have also been discovered that prove a bridge was constructed from the palace over the forum to join the Capitoline temple. So, given that the events described in the sources broadly correspond with the facts, how do we assess Caligula: mad or bad?

Caligula Depositing the Ashes of his Mother and Brother in the Tomb of his Ancestors by Eustache Le Sueur. Wikimedia Commons. Javna domena

Before his illness, Caligula seems to have been sane enough. He certainly navigated the tricky period after the deaths of his mother and brothers with a particular skill. Tiberius had brought the eighteen-year-old Caligula to live with him on Capri. For the next six years, Caligula walked through a minefield of intrigue. He sidestepped attempts by Tiberius&rsquos courtiers to trick him to speak against the emperor. Nor did he show any emotion over his family&rsquos deaths. This indicates a certain intelligence, self-restraint and a well-developed survival instinct. So perhaps Caligula&rsquos illness did weaken him mentally.

As crazy and cruel as Caligula&rsquos post-illness behavior was, a method can be detected beyond his madness one that speaks of a young ruler desperate to establish his authority. For by declaring himself a living god, tearing up whole streets of Rome for his own convenience to connect the palace to its temples, Caligula was acting like no emperor before him. He no longer wished to be seen merely as an emperor, a first amongst equals. He needed to set himself above all others-without taking the hated title of King. To do this effectively, Caligula had to erode the standing of the Senate. For although he had been happy enough to rule with them before his illness, his incapacity had shown all of Rome the Senate could govern without him.

Caligula set about this task without restraint because his illness, pressure or the corrupting nature of power had eroded his self-control. However, his intention remained clear. Caligula wanted to debase his rivals by emphasizing their weakness in the face of his power. So he humiliated senators, making them run for miles besides his chariot or serve as slaves at his dinners. He also terrified them. Once at a dinner party, the emperor suddenly burst into laughter. &ldquoIt occurred to me that I have only to give one nod and your throats will be cut on the spot, &rdquo Caligula replied when asked what the joke was. Seen in this light, the incident with Incitatus takes on a different perspective. It is not the action of an utterly insane man, but of a despot who was telling his government, that really, they were no more effective than a pampered pet.


Family Tragedy

At the time of Gaius&apos birth, the rule of Augustus was coming to an end. Augustus&apos health was failing and, in need of naming a successor, he appointed his stepson Tiberius, a brooding, unpopular leader, to his former position. His choice, however, came with one caveat: Knowing that the public would not be pleased by his decision, he compelled Tiberius to adopt Germanicus as his son, and name him his heir.

On August 19, in the year 14 A.D., Augustus died. Tiberius quickly assumed power and, just as quickly, dispatched Germanicus to Rome&aposs eastern provinces for a diplomatic mission. There, he fell ill and soon died, which invited theories to swell up that linked Tiberius to his political rival&aposs death.

Agrippina the Elder fanned the flames. She publicly blamed Tiberius for her husband&aposs death and craved revenge. Tiberius struck back. He imprisoned Agrippina the Elder on a remote island, where she starved to death. The emperor then imprisoned her two older sons, one of whom killed himself the other starved to death.

Because of his young age, Caligula was spared and forced to live with his great-grandmother, Livia, Augustus&apos wife. It was during this time that Caligula, who was a teenager at the time, is believed to have committed incest with his sister, Drusilla.

In the year 31, Caligula was summoned by Tiberius to the island of Capri, where he was adopted by the man presumed to be his father&aposs killer and treated like a pampered prisoner. Forced to suppress his anger and show Tiberius respect, despite his hatred for him, Caligula was likely mentally traumatized by the situation, according to many historians. Instead, Caligula took his emotions out on others. He delighted in watching torture and executions, and spent his nights in orgies of gluttony and passion. Even the unstable Tiberius could see that Caligula was unhinged. "I am nursing a viper for the Roman people," he said.


Caligula

Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus was the third son of Germanicus (nephew of Tiberius) and Agrippina the elder and was born at Antium in AD 12.

It was during his stay with his parents on the German frontier, when he was between two and four, that his miniature versions of military sandals (caligae), caused the soldiers to call him Caligula, ‘little sandal’. It was a nickname which remained with him for the rest of his life.

When he was in his late teens his mother and elder brothers were arrested and died horribly due to the plotting of the praetorian prefect Sejanus. No doubt the horrendous demise of his closest relatives must have had a profound effect on the young Caligula.

Attempting to rid himself of Gaius, Sejanus, under the belief that he may be a potential successor, went too far and was alas arrested and put to death by orders of emperor Tiberius in AD 31.

In the same year Caligula was invested as a priest. From AD 32 onwards he lived on the island of Capreae (Capri) in the emperor’s lush residence and was appointed joint heir with Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the younger. Though by that time Tiberius was in old age and, with Gemellus still a child, it was obvious that it would be Caligula who would truly inherit the power for himself.

By AD 33 he was made quaestor, though was given no further administrative training at all.

Caligula was very tall, with spindly legs and a thin neck. His eyes and temples were sunken and his forehead broad and glowering. His hair was thin and he was bald on top, though he had a hairy body (during his reign it was a crime punishable by death to look down on him as he passed by, or to mention a goat in his presence).

There were rumours surrounding the death of Tiberius. It is very likely that the 77 year-old emperor did simply die of old age.

But one account tells of how Tiberius was thought to have died. Caligula drew the imperial signet ring from his finger and was greeted as emperor by the crowd. Then however news reached the would-be emperor that Tiberius had recovered and was requesting food be brought to him.

Caligula, terrified at any revenge by the emperor returned from the dead, froze on the spot. But Naevius Cordus Sertorius Macro, commander of the praetorians, rushed inside and smothered Tiberius with a cushion, suffocating him.

In any case, with the support of Macro, Caligula was immediately hailed as princeps (‘first citizen’) by the senate (AD 37). No sooner did he get back to Rome the senate bestowed upon him all the powers of imperial office, and – declaring Tiberius’ will invalid – the child Gemellus was not granted his claim to the joint reign.

But it was above all the army which, very loyal to the house of Germanicus, sought to see Caligula as sole ruler.

Caligula quietly dropped an initial request for the deification of the deeply unpopular Tiberius. All around there was much rejoicing at the investment of a new emperor after the dark later years of his predecessor.

Caligula abolished Tiberius’ gruesome treason trials, paid generous bequests to the people of Rome and an especially handsome bonus to the praetorian guard.

There is an amusing anecdote surrounding Caligula’s accession to the throne. For he had a pontoon bridge built leading across the sea from Baiae to Puzzuoli a stretch of water two and a half miles long. The bridge was even covered with earth.

With the bridge in place, Caligula then, in the attire of a Thracian gladiator, mounted a horse a rode across it. Once at one end, he got off his horse and returned on a chariot drawn by two horses. These crossings are said to have lasted for two days.

The historian Suetonius explains that this bizarre behaviour was down to a prediction made by an astrologer called Trasyllus to emperor Tiberius, that ‘Caligula had no more chance of becoming emperor than of crossing the bay of Baiae on horseback’.

Then, only six months later (October AD 37), Caligula fell very ill. His popularity was such that his illness caused great concern throughout the entire empire.

But, when Caligula recovered, he was no longer the same man. Rome soon found itself living in a nightmare. According to the historian Suetonius, Caligula since childhood suffered from epilepsy, known in Roman times as the ‘parliamentary disease’, since it was regarded as an especially bad omen if anyone had a fit while public business was being conducted – Caligula’s very distant cousin, Julius Caesar, also suffered occasional attacks.

This, or some other cause, violently affected his mental state, and he became totally irrational, with delusions not only of grandeur but also of divinity. He now suffered from a chronic inability to sleep, managing only few hours of sleep a night, and then suffering from horrendous nightmares. Often he would wander through the palace waiting for daylight.

Caligula had four wives, three of them during his reign as emperor and he was said to have committed incest with each of his three sisters in turn.

In AD 38 Caligula put to death without trial his principal supporter, the praetorian prefect Macro. The young Tiberius Gemellus suffered the same fate.

Marcus Junius Silanus, the father of the first of Caligula’s wives was compelled to commit suicide. Caligula became ever more unbalanced. Seeing the emperor ordering an altar to be built to himself was worrying to Romans.

But to propose that statues of himself should be erected in synagogues was more than merely worrying. Caligula’s excesses knew no bounds, and he introduced heavy taxation to help pay for his personal expenditure. He also created a new tax on prostitutes and is said to have opened a brothel in a wing of the imperial palace.

All these occurrences naturally alarmed the senate. By now there was no doubt that the emperor of the civilized world was in fact a dangerous madman.

Confirming their worst fears, in AD 39 Caligula announced the revival of the treason trials, the bloodthirsty trials which had given an air of terror to the latter years of Tiberius’ reign.

Caligula also kept his favourite racehorse, Incitatus, inside the palace in a stable box of carved ivory, dressed in purple blankets and collars of precious stones. Dinner guests were invited to the palace in the horse’s name. And the horse, too, was invited to dine with the emperor. Caligula was even said to have considered making the horse consul.

Rumours of disloyalty began to reach an ever more deranged emperor. In the light of this a recently retired governor of Pannonia was ordered to commit suicide.

Then Caligula considered plans to revive the expansionist campaigns of his father Germanicus across the Rhine. But before he left Rome he learnt that the army commander of Upper Germany, Cnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was conspiring to have him assassinated.

In spite of this Caligula in September AD 39 set out for Germany, accompanied by a strong detachment of the praetorian guard and his sisters Julia Agrippina, Julia Livilla and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (widower of Caligula’s dead sister Julia Drusilla).

Soon after he had arrived in Germany not only Gaetulicus but also Lepidus were put to death. Julia Agrippina and Julia Livilla were banished and their property seized by the emperor.

The following winter Caligula spent along the Rhine and in Gaul. Neither his planned German campaign nor a proposed military expedition to Britain ever took place. Though there are reports of his soldiers being ordered to gather shells on the shore as trophies for Caligula’s ‘conquest of the sea’.
Meanwhile, a terrified senate granted him all kind of honours for his imaginary victories.

It comes as no surprise then that at least three further conspiracies were soon launched against Caligula’s life. Were some foiled, then alas one succeeded.

Caligula’s suspicion that his joint praetorian prefects, Marcus Arrecinus Clemens and his unknown colleague, were planning his assassination prompted them, in order to avoid their execution, to join a part of senators in a plot.

The conspirators found a willing assassin in the praetorian officer Cassius Chaerea, whom Caligula had openly mocked at court for his effeminacy.

In 24 January AD 41 Cassius Chaerea, together with two military colleagues fell upon the emperor in a corridor of his palace.

Some of his German personal guards rushed to his aid but came too late. Several praetorians then swept through the palace seeking to kill any surviving relatives. Caligula’s fourth wife Caesonia was stabbed to death, her baby daughter’s skull smashed against a wall.

The scene was truly a gruesome one, but it freed Rome from the insane rule of a tyrant.


What The Facts About Caligula Can Teach Us Today

Stephen Dando-Collins reported that he found numerous similarities between Caligula and Donald Trump. Though the former was 24 when he was anointed and the latter 70, the historian has observed several parallels in their behaviors.

New York Public Library Claudius crouches behind a curtain as Caligula lies assassinated before him. He does not know yet he’s about to be named the new emperor.

“If a Roman wanted to honor someone on meeting them, or ingratiate themselves with them, they gave the other person the upper hand in the handshake — deliberately offering their right hand palm up, so that the other person had the dominant position, palm down,” Dando-Collins wrote.

“In observing the meetings of President Trump with world leaders over the past two years, I noticed that he yields the upper hand to some. But he gives a straight up and down handshake to others — mostly female leaders such as Theresa May and Angela Merkel. And who is the person Mr. Trump most often yields the upper hand to? Russian President Vladimir Putin.”

When asked whether Richard Nixon or Dick Cheney would be apter leaders, the author disagreed and provided some context regarding the two figures.

“There are no real parallels between Richard Nixon and Caligula other than the fact that both were corrupted by power. Dick Cheney can be compared to Sejanus, head of the Praetorian Guard under Caligula’s predecessor Tiberius. Sejanus manipulated the emperor and virtually ran the empire from his subordinate position. In the end, Tiberius was tipped off by Caligula’s grandmother that Sejanus was planning to overthrow him, and Sejanus was executed — whereas Cheney the puppet master and pliable George W. Bush both went into comfortable retirement.”

“The primary lesson,” Dando-Collins concluded, “despite massive advances in knowledge and technology, human nature has not changed in two thousand years.”


Poglej si posnetek: Kaligula (Junij 2022).