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Pirate II AM -275 - Zgodovina

Pirate II AM -275 - Zgodovina


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Pirat II

(AM-275: dp. 850, 1. 184'6 ", b. 33 ', dr. 9'9", s. 15 k., Kpl.
104; a. 1 3 ", kl. Občudovanja vreden)

Drugega pirata (AM-275) so 1. julija 1943 postavili Gulf Shipbuilding Co., Chiekasaw, Ala .; izstreljen 16. decembra 1943; pod pokroviteljstvom gospe Clare L. Oliver in naročeno 16. junija 1944.

Tistega poletja je Pirate deloval v zalivu Caseo in okolici; v začetku avgusta izvedel vaje ASW z italijansko podmornico Vertice in s CTG 23.9; in pozneje v mesecu je kanal prešel iz Bostona v Provincetown. Decembra je prenesla operacije v Miami, kjer je bila naslednje štiri mesece šola za študentske častnike.

Pirat je 4. aprila 1945 prišel iz Miamija, da bi prečkal Panamski prekop, se ustavil pri San Diegu in se odpravil v službo v Pearl Harbor. Odpotovala je iz Pearl Harbourja in se z MinDiv 32 preko Eniwetoka 7. junija odpravila v pristanišče Apra, Guam. Ko so zavezniške sile končale z napadom na okinavski pirat, so poročali v zalivu Nakagusuku 26. junija. Septembra je bila minolovka na območju "Arcadia", v korejskem Jinsenu in okolici, novembra pa je delovala ob severni obali Formose.

6. novembra 1946 je ladja ob razpadu v Bremertonu, Wash, poročala ServPae decembra 1947 za napotitev v japonske vode v statusu oskrbnika, ta status pa je ohranila, naslednjih nekaj let v rezervi.

Julija 1950 je bila Pirate z MinDiv 32, ServPac, ko so jo sovražnosti v Koreji ponovno poklicale. Ponovno se je 14. avgusta 1950 v Yokosuki na Japonskem odpravila iz Saseba na službovanje v Pusan ​​v Koreji. 12. oktobra sta skupaj s Pledgeom minila tri milje od sovražnega otoka Sin-Do, ko so ladje zadele mine. Potopil se je v petih minutah in izgubil 12 mornarjev, enega pa mrtvega.

Pirat je za službo v drugi svetovni vojni prejel 4 bojne zvezde.


Analiza rimskih številk

V glasbeni teoriji Analiza rimskih številk je vrsta glasbene analize, v kateri so akordi predstavljeni z rimskimi številkami (I, II, III, IV, ...). V nekaterih primerih rimske številke označujejo stopnje lestvice same. Pogosteje pa predstavljajo akord, katerega korenina je ta stopnja lestvice. III na primer označuje bodisi tretjo stopnjo lestvice bodisi pogosteje na njej zgrajen akord. Običajno se velike rimske številke (na primer I, IV, V) uporabljajo za predstavitev glavnih akordov, medtem ko se majhne rimske številke (kot so ii, iii, vi) uporabljajo za predstavitev manjših akordov (glej spodaj Major in Minor za alternativne zapise) . Vendar pa nekateri glasbeni teoretiki uporabljajo velike rimske številke za vse akorde, ne glede na kakovost akordov. [2]

V zahodni klasični glasbi v 2000 -ih študenti glasbe in teoretiki uporabljajo analizo rimskih številk za analizo harmonije skladbe. V pop, rock, tradicionalni glasbi ter jazzu in bluesu lahko rimske številke označimo napredovanje akorda skladbe, neodvisno od ključa. Na primer, standardna dvanajst-taktna blues progresija uporablja akorde I (prvi), IV (četrti), V (peti), včasih zapisani I 7, IV 7, V 7, saj so pogosto prevladujoči sedmi akordi. V tonu C -dura je prva stopnja lestvice (tonik) C, četrta (subdominantna) je F, peta (prevladujoča) pa G. Torej so akordi I 7, IV 7 in V 7 C 7 , F 7 in G 7. Po drugi strani pa bi bili v tonu A -dura akordi I 7, IV 7 in V 7 A 7, D 7 in E 7. Rimske številke tako abstrahirajo napredovanje akordov, zaradi česar so neodvisne od ključa, zato jih je mogoče enostavno prenašati.


Pustolovska galija (1657-1698)

Adventure Galley je bila ladja zloglasnega zasebnika Williama Kidda. To je bila hibridna ladja, opremljena s kvadratnimi jadri in vesli, zato je bilo z njimi enostavno upravljati ne glede na vreme. Izstrelil se je leta 1695 in v naslednjih nekaj letih prepotoval Atlantski in Indijski ocean. William Kidd je bil zasebnik in prvotni namen njegove misije je bil zaščititi britanske ladje v Vzhodni Indiji s sledenjem piratom in francoskim ladjam. Z zakladom in zlatom, pridobljenim med misijo Kidd's#8217, naj bi se povrnili stroški ladje in opreme, vključno s 34 puškami in 23 vesli. Vendar pa Kid za to ni zbral dovolj zaklada. Posledično je tudi sam postal pirat in začel napadati zavezniške ladje. S to ladjo je Kidd zmagal nad dvema indijskim čolnoma in jih odpeljal nazaj na Madagaskar. Do začetka leta 1698 se je Adventure Galley močno poškodoval. Trup je bil pokvarjen in je puščal, ladja pa ni bila več sposobna plovbe, zato jo je Kidd opustil ob obali Madagaskarja. Brodoloma še niso našli.


Pirate Bay Merch lahko kupite na spletu

Pirate Bay se je včasih povezoval s spletno trgovino z uradnim blagom. Trgovina je prodajala kolekcijo majic, dve sta bili okolju prijazni. Žal trgovina ni več odprta, kljub temu pa lahko blago Pirate Bay kupite na spletu pri drugih prodajalcih. Samo vedite, da bo vaš denar končal izključno v žepu prodajalca, pri katerem ste kupili - Pirate Bay ne bo prejel niti centa.

Verjetno največjo zbirko blaga The Pirate Bay leta 2020 najdete na Redbubbleu, svetovnem spletnem trgu za izdelke za tiskanje na zahtevo, ki temeljijo na umetniških delih, ki so jih predložili uporabniki. Redbubble prodaja oblačila, ovitke za telefone, nalepke, stenske umetnine, opremo za dom, pisalne potrebščine in dodatke.

Načini dostopa do spletnega mesta Pirate Bay. Pridružite se piratski posadki!

Spreadshirt, nemško podjetje za e-trgovino, ki ponuja tiskanje oblačil in dodatkov na zahtevo, ima podoben inventar kot Redbubble in ponuja cenovno ugodno pošiljanje v Evropo. Omeniti velja tudi Amazon, ki ima tudi precejšen izbor prodajnih mest po vsem svetu The Pirate Bay.

Če vam v oči ne pade nobeno blago, ki ga najdete v prodaji v zgoraj omenjenih trgovinah, ga lahko vedno oblikujete sami. Pirate Bay svojih privržencev ne odvrača od uporabe njegovega imena in logotipa, zato vas nič ne ovira pri lansiranju lastne zbirke majic za pirate.


Pravi piratski otok: zgodba o Nassauu

Mesto, ki se bo kasneje imenovalo Nassau, ki je na Bahamih, so leta 1670 ustanovili britanski plemiči, ki so s seboj pripeljali britanske naseljence v Novo Providence. Zgradili so utrdbo in jo poimenovali Charles Town v čast angleškega kralja Charlesa II.

Leta 1684 je bilo mesto med napadom na Charles Town požgano, vendar je bilo leta 1695 obnovljeno pod novim guvernerjem Nicholasom Trottom in preimenovano v Nassau v čast tedanjega angleškega kralja Williama III., Ki je pripadal hiši Nassau. po katerem mesto dobi ime.

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Ko je Trott 4 leta pozneje zapustil Nassau, da bi postal vrhovni sodnik v Charlestonu v Južni Karolini, je Nassau padel v težke čase brez učinkovitega vodstva, leta 1703 pa so ga španske in francoske zavezniške sile napadle in zasedle.

Od 1703 do 1718 v koloniji ni bilo guvernerja, do leta 1713 pa so redko naseljeni Bahami postali piratsko zatočišče. Guverner Bermudov je izjavil, da je v Nassauu več kot 1.000 piratov in da jih je od 100 do 1. več kot sto prebivalcev mesta. Pirati so razglasili Nassau za piratsko republiko in se uveljavili kot guvernerji “.

Thomas Barrow se je razglasil za guvernerja New Providence ”. Številni današnji znani pirati so bili del gusarske republike Nassau, med njimi Charles Vane, Benjamin Hornigold, Calico Jack Rackham, Anne Bonny, Mary Read in Edward Teach, bolj znani kot “Blackbeard ”.

Vendar so leta 1718 Britanci poskušali znova obvladati otoke in odpraviti piratstvo v regiji ter za kraljevskega guvernerja imenovali stotnika Woodesa Rogersa. Uspešno je zatiral pirate, reformiral civilno upravo in obnovil trgovino.

Rogers je očistil Nassau in obnovil utrdbo z lastnim bogastvom, da bi premagal vse nastale težave.

Edward Teach je bil prvi izmed večjih piratov, ki so ga 21. novembra 1718 na otoku Ocracoke v Severni Karolini ujeli in ubili. Dva dni kasneje, 23. novembra, je Charles Vane zagledal veliko fregato, ko pa je dvignil Jolly Roger, je fregata odgovorila tako, da je dvignila francoskega mornariškega zastavnika in odprla ogenj.

Brigantine in šlamp Vanea sta bila premagana in ukazal je umik, toda posadka Vanea je to videla kot strahopetnost in je bil izglasovan brez poveljstva v korist Calica Jacka Rackhama. Vane in šestnajst drugih, ki so ga podpirali, vključno z njegovim prvim kolegom Robertom Dealom, so bili spravljeni v zapor.

Vane je odplul na otoke Bay in na poti ujel žolne, eni od njih je prevzel Deal. Februarja 1719 sta Vane in Deal ujela orkan in ločena Vane je bil nato brodolom na nenaseljenem otoku, ko so angleške ladje nenadoma prispele po vodo v bližini otoka, se je Vane poskušal pridružiti eni od posadk pod lažnim imenom.

Prepoznal ga je stari znanec in ga aretiral. Vaneta so odpeljali v špansko mesto na Jamajki in ga skoraj dve leti držali v zaporu. 22. marca 1721 so mu sodili zaradi piratstva, spoznali ga za krivega in ga 29. marca obesili v Gallows Pointu v Port Royalu.

Njegovo truplo so obesili v verigah v Gun Cay. Vane je izvedel, da so bili Deal in njegovi nekdanji tovariši nekaj časa prej ujeti, sojeni, obsojeni in obešeni.

Guverner Nassaua Woodes Rogers je nato poslal lovca na pirate Jonathana Barneta in nekdanjega gusara Jeana Bonadvisa v zasledovanje Calica Jacka Rackhama. Barnet je ustrezno naletel na svojo ladjo v zalivu Dry Harbour na Jamajki, oktobra 1720, medtem ko je bila njegova posadka zasidrana in pijana.

Slonet Barnet je napadel ladjo Rackham in jo zavzel po boju, ki sta ga večinoma vodili dve gusarki Mary Read in Anne Bonny, ki sta se obe borili žestoko.

Rackhama in njegovo posadko so novembra 1720 pripeljali v špansko mesto na Jamajki, kjer so jim sodili in obsodili piratstvo ter jih obsodili na obešanje. Rackhama so 18. novembra 1720 usmrtili v Port Royalu, njegovo telo pa je treslo na ogled na zelo majhnem otočku pri glavnem vhodu v Port Royal, ki je zdaj znan kot Rackham ’s Cay.

Anne Bonny in Mary Read sta trdili, da sta na sojenju, deset dni po usmrtitvi Rackhama, noseči, zato sta bili začasno zadržani za usmrtitev in zaprti v Fort Charles, dokler trditev ni dokazana.

Read je umrla v svoji celici aprila 1721, najverjetneje zaradi vročine, povezane z porodom. Ni zgodovinskih zapisov o izpustitvi Bonny in njeni usmrtitvi ali smrti, zato velja splošno prepričanje, da je bila izpuščena zaradi vpliva očetov in da je leta 1872 umrla v Charlestonu v Južni Karolini v starosti 85 let.

Mnogi od preostalih piratov, vključno s samooklicanim guvernerjem piratskih otokov Thomasom Barrowom in Benjaminom Hornigoldom, so sprejeli kraljevo pomilostitev, ki jo je leta 1717 ponudil kralj George, ki je odpustil vse pirate, ki so se predali v enem letu.


4. Jack Rackham ("Calico Jack")

Jack Rackham ali "Calico Jack". Zasluge za sliko: Javna domena

Leta 1682 se je rodil John "Jack" Rackham, bolj znan kot Calico Jack, britanski pirat, rojen v Jamajki, ki je v začetku 18. stoletja deloval v Zahodni Indiji. Čeprav mu v svoji kratki karieri ni uspelo zbrati neverjetnega bogastva ali spoštovanja, so ga njegove povezave z drugimi pirati, vključno z dvema članoma posadke, uvrstile med najbolj znane pirate vseh časov.

Rackham je morda najbolj znan po svojih odnosih z žensko piratko Anne Bonny (ki jo bomo spoznali kasneje). Rackham je začel afero z Anne, ki je bila takrat žena mornarja, zaposlenega pri guvernerju Rogersu. Annin mož James je izvedel za razmerje in pripeljal Anne k guvernerju Rogersu, ki jo je odredil bičevanja po obtožbi prešuštva.

Ko je bila Rackhamova ponudba, da bi Anne kupila v "ločitvi z nakupom", strogo zavrnjena, je par pobegnil iz Nassaua. Skupaj sta pobegnila na morje in dva meseca plula po Karibih ter prevzela druge gusarske ladje. Anne je kmalu zanosila in odšla na Kubo, da bi rodila otroka.

Septembra 1720 je guverner Bahamov Woodes Rogers izdal razglas, v katerem je Rackham in njegova posadka razglašena za pirate. Po objavi naloga sta lovca na pirate in lov na glave Jonathan Barnet in Jean Bonadvis začela preganjati Rackhama.

Oktobra 1720 je Barnetov slaop napadel Rackhamovo ladjo in jo zavzel po boju, ki sta ga verjetno vodila Mary Read in Anne Bonny. Rackhama in njegovo posadko so novembra 1720 pripeljali v špansko mesto na Jamajki, kjer so jim sodili in obsodili piratstvo ter jih obsodili na obešanje.

Rackhama so 18. novembra 1720 usmrtili v Port Royalu, njegovo telo pa je treslo na ogled na zelo majhnem otočku pri glavnem vhodu v Port Royal, ki je danes znan kot Rackham's Cay.


Vsebina

Staro norveško ime sv. Olafa II je Flafr Haraldsson. V svojem življenju je bil znan kot Olaf "debel" ali "krepak" ali preprosto kot Olaf "velik" (Flafr digri Sodobna norveščina Olav digre). [7] Zaradi številnih brutalnih načinov spreobrnjenja norveškega prebivalstva so ga imenovali tudi Olaf 'Kršitelj zakona'. Na Norveškem ga danes pogosto imenujejo Olav den hellige (Bokmål Olaf Sveti) oz Heilage-Olav (Nynorsk Sveti Olaf) v čast njegovega svetnika. [8]

Olaf Haraldsson je v staro norveščini dobil ime Óláfr (etimologija: Anu- "prednik", -laibaR "dedič"). Olav je sodobni ekvivalent v norveščini, ki se je prej pogosto pisal Olaf. Njegovo ime v islandskem je Ólafur, v ferski Ólavur, v danski Olav, v švedski Olof, v finski Olavi. Olave je bil v Angliji tradicionalno črkovanje, ohranjeno v imenu srednjeveških cerkva, posvečenih njemu. Druga imena, kot so Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex in Olaf, se uporabljajo zamenljivo (glej Heimskringla Snorrija Sturlusona). Včasih ga kličejo Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae (V angleščini: "Norveški večni kralj"), poimenovanje sega v 13. stoletje. [9]

Olaf se je rodil v Ringerikeu, [10] kot sin Åste Gudbrandsdatterja in Haralda Grenskega, malega kralja v Vestfoldu [1], ki bi ga pozneje islandske sage opisale kot pravnuka prvega norveškega kralja Haralda Fairhairja. Harald Grenske je umrl, ko je bila Åsta Gudbrandsdatter noseča z Olafom. Pozneje se je poročila z Sigurdom Syrom, s katerim je imela še druge otroke, med njimi tudi Haralda Hardrada, ki je kasneje vladal kot norveški kralj. [ potreben citat ]

Številna besedila vsebujejo podatke o Olafu Haraldssonu. Najstarejša je Glælognskviða ali "Sea-Calm Poem", ki ga je sestavil Þórarinn loftunga, Islandčan. Hvali Olafa in omenja nekatere znane čudeže, ki so mu pripisani. Norveška sinoptična zgodovina omenja tudi Olafa. Ti vključujejo Napisal Nóregskonungasögum (ok. 1190), Historia Norwegiae (okoli 1160–1175) in latinsko besedilo, Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium po Teodorihu menihu (ok. 1177–1188). [11]

Islandci so tudi veliko pisali o Olafu in o njem obstaja več islandskih sag, med drugim tudi Fagrskinna (ok. 1220) in Morkinskinna (ok. 1225–1235). Heimskringla (okoli 1225), avtor Snorri Sturluson, svoje poročilo o Olafu v veliki meri opira na prejšnje Fagrskinna. The Najstarejša saga o sv. Olafu (ok. 1200) je za znanstvenike pomemben zaradi stalne uporabe skaldičnih verzov, od katerih jih veliko pripisujejo samemu Olafu. [11]

Nazadnje mnogi hagiografski viri opisujejo sv. Olafa, vendar se ti osredotočajo predvsem na čudeže, ki so mu pripisani, in jih ni mogoče uporabiti za natančno poustvarjanje njegovega življenja. Pomemben je Strast in čudeži blaženega Olafra. [12]

Olafovo življenje se pogosto uporablja v Heimskringla od c. 1225. Čeprav so njena dejstva dvomljiva, saga pripoveduje Olafova dejanja na naslednji način:

Leta 1008 je Olaf pristal na estonskem otoku Saaremaa (Osilia). Osilijci, ki so bili presenečeni, so se sprva strinjali z Olafovimi zahtevami, nato pa so med pogajanji zbrali vojsko in napadli Norvežane. Olaf je kljub temu zmagal v bitki. [13]

Rečeno je, da je Olaf skupaj s kolegom Vikingom Thorkellom Visokim leta 1011 sodeloval pri obleganju Canterburyja. [14]

Olaf je odplul na južno obalo Finske nekje leta 1008. [15] [16] [17] Potovanje se je končalo v bitki pri Herdalerju, kjer so Olaf in njegovi možje zasedli v gozdu. Olaf je izgubil veliko ljudi, a se je vrnil na svoje čolne. Svojim ladjam je ukazal odhod kljub naraščajoči nevihti. Finci so jih zasledovali in dosegli enak napredek na kopnem kot Olaf in njegovi možje na vodi. Kljub tem dogodkom so preživeli. Natančna lokacija bitke je negotova in finski ekvivalent Herdalerja ni znan. Predlagalo se je, da bi lahko bilo v Uusimai.

Kot najstnik je Olaf odšel na Baltik, nato na Dansko in kasneje v Anglijo. Skaldična poezija kaže, da je vodil uspešen napad na morju, ki je podrl London Bridge, čeprav anglosaksonski viri tega ne potrjujejo. To je bilo mogoče leta 1014, ko so London in angleški prestol obnovili, da so lthelred the Unready in odstranili Cnuta. [18]

Olaf je to videl kot svoj poziv k združitvi Norveške v eno kraljestvo, kar je Haraldu Fairhairu v veliki meri uspelo. Na poti domov je prezimoval z normandijskim vojvodom Richardom II. Nordežani so to območje osvojili leta 881. Richard je bil tudi sam goreč kristjan, Normani pa so se tudi prej spreobrnili v krščanstvo. Pred odhodom je Olafa krstil v Rouenu [10] v predromanski katedrali Notre-Dame Richardov brat Robert Dane, nadškof v Normandiji.

Olaf se je leta 1015 vrnil na Norveško in se razglasil za kralja, pri čemer je dobil podporo petih majhnih kraljev norveških vzpetin. [19] Leta 1016 je v bitki pri Nesjaru premagal grofa Sweyna, enega od grofov Lade in doslej de facto vladar Norveške. Ob slapu Sarpsfossen v okrožju Østfold je ustanovil mesto Borg, pozneje znano kot Sarpsborg. V nekaj letih je osvojil večjo moč, kot jo je užival kateri koli njegov predhodnik na prestolu.

Olaf je uničil drobne kralje Juga, pokoril aristokracijo, uveljavil svoj suzerenitet na Orkneyjskih otokih in uspešno napadel Dansko. [19] S švedskim kraljem Olofom Skötkonungom je sklenil mir prek zvočnika Þorgnýrja in bil nekaj časa zaročen z Olofovo hčerko Ingegerd, čeprav brez Olofove odobritve. Leta 1019 se je Olaf poročil z Astrid Olofsdotter, nezakonsko hčerjo kralja Olofa in polsestro njegove nekdanje zaročenke. Zveza je rodila hčerko Wulfhild, ki se je leta 1042 poročila z Ordulfom, vojvodom Saškim.

Toda Olafov uspeh je bil kratkotrajen. Leta 1026 je izgubil bitko pri Helgeou, [ potreben citat ] in leta 1029 so norveški plemiči, ki so vreli od nezadovoljstva, podprli invazijo na danskega kralja Cnuta Velikega. Olafa so pregnali v izgnanstvo v Kijevsko Rusijo. [19] [10] Nekaj ​​časa je ostal v švedski provinci Nerike, kjer je po lokalni legendi krstil številne domačine. Leta 1029 je bil norveški regent kralja Cnuta, Jarl Håkon Eiriksson, izgubljen na morju. Olaf je izkoristil priložnost, da si znova pridobi kraljestvo, vendar je leta 1030 padel v bitki pri Stiklestadu, kjer so se proti njemu orožili nekateri njegovi podložniki iz osrednje Norveške. Natančen položaj groba svetega Olafa v Nidarosu ni znan od leta 1568 zaradi učinkov luteranskega ikonoklazma v letih 1536–37.

Kralj Cnut je, čeprav je bil moten zaradi upravljanja Anglije, pet let po Stiklestadu vladal Norveški s svojim sinom Sveinom in Sveinovo mamo Ælfgifu (znano kot Álfífa v staro nordijskih virih) kot regenti. Toda njihovo regentstvo ni bilo priljubljeno in ko je Olafov nezakonski sin Magnus ('dobri') zahteval norveški prestol, sta bila Svein in Ælfgifu prisiljena pobegniti.

Olafa tradicionalno štejejo za vodjo krščanstva na Norveškem, vendar večina znanstvenikov tega obdobja zdaj meni, da Olaf s tem procesom ni imel veliko opraviti. Olaf je s seboj pripeljal Grimkella, ki je ponavadi zaslužen za pomoč Olafu pri ustvarjanju škofovskih sedežev in nadaljnji organizaciji norveške cerkve, vendar je bil Grimkell le član Olafovega gospodinjstva in do leta c. 1100. Poleg tega Olaf in Grimkell najverjetneje nista na Norveškem uvedla novih cerkvenih zakonov, ki so bili Olafu pripisani pozneje. Olaf je najverjetneje poskušal prinesti krščanstvo v notranjost Norveške, kjer je bilo manj razširjeno. [20]

Postavljala so se tudi vprašanja o naravi Olafovega krščanstva. Sodobni zgodovinarji [ potreben citat ] se na splošno strinjam [ potreben citat ], da je bil Olaf nagnjen k nasilju in brutalnosti, in upoštevajte, da so prejšnji učenjaki pogosto zanemarjali to plat njegovega značaja. Zdi se, da je Olaf, tako kot mnogi skandinavski kralji, s krščanstvom pridobil več moči za monarhijo in centraliziral nadzor na Norveškem. Skaldični verzi, pripisani Olafu, sploh ne govorijo o krščanstvu, ampak za opis romantičnih odnosov uporabljajo poganska sklicevanja. [11] [21]

V svoji knjigi Pretvorba Skandinavije, Anders Winroth trdi, da je prišlo do "dolgega procesa asimilacije, v katerem so Skandinavci enega za drugim in sčasoma sprejeli posamezne krščanske prakse." [22] Winroth ne trdi, da Olaf ni bil kristjan, vendar trdi, da si ne moremo zamisliti nobenega Skandinavca, ki bi se popolnoma spreobrnil, kot je prikazano v kasnejših hagiografijah ali sagah. Olaf je v kasnejših virih upodobljen kot svetniška čudežno delujoča osebnost, ki je podprla ta hiter pogled na spreobrnjenje za Norveško, vendar zgodovinski Olaf ni ravnal tako, kar je razvidno zlasti iz skaldičnih verzov, ki so mu pripisani.

Olaf je hitro postal norveški zavetnik, škof Grimkell pa je kanonizacijo opravil le leto po smrti. [a] Olafov kult je združil državo in utrdil krščanje Norveške. Priznan je tudi kot zavetnik Ferskih otokov. [24] [25]

Zaradi poznejšega statusa Olafa kot norveškega zavetnika in njegovega pomena v poznejšem srednjeveškem zgodovinopisju in norveški folklori je težko oceniti zgodovinski Olafov značaj. Sodeč po golih obrisih znanih zgodovinskih dejstev, se zdi, da je bil dokaj neuspešen vladar, katerega moč je temeljila na zavezništvu z veliko močnejšim kraljem Cnutom Velikim, ki je bil pregnan v izgnanstvo, ko je prevzel svojo oblast in katerega poskus ponovnega osvajanja je bil hitro zatrt.

To zahteva pojasnilo statusa, ki ga je pridobil po smrti. Pomembni so trije dejavniki: poznejši mit o njegovi vlogi pri krščanstvu Norveške, različni dinastični odnosi med vladajočimi družinami in potreba po legitimizaciji v poznejšem obdobju. [26]

Pretvorba Norveške Edit

Olaf Haraldsson in Olaf Tryggvason tradicionalno veljata za gonilni sili končnega spreobrnjenja Norveške v krščanstvo. [27] Toda veliki kamniti križi in drugi krščanski simboli kažejo, da je vsaj na norveška obalna območja močno vplival krščanstvo že dolgo pred Olafovim časom, z eno izjemo, vsi norveški vladarji od Håkona Dobrega (ok. 920–961) so bili kristjani, je bil Olafov glavni nasprotnik, Cnut Veliki. Jasno je, da si je Olaf prizadeval vzpostaviti cerkveno organizacijo v širšem obsegu kot prej, med drugim z uvozom škofov iz Anglije, Normandije in Nemčije ter da je poskušal uveljaviti krščanstvo na celinskih območjih, ki so imela najmanj komunikacije z ostalo Evropo in ki so ekonomsko bolj temeljile na kmetijstvu, tako da je bila nagnjenost k ohranjanju nekdanjega kulta plodnosti močnejša kot v bolj raznolikih in obsežnih zahodnih delih Norveške.

Mnogi verjamejo, da je Olaf leta 1024 na Norveško uvedel krščansko pravo, ki temelji na kamnu Kuli, vendar je ta kamen težko razlagati. [22] Kodifikacijo krščanstva kot pravne vere Norveške je pripisal Olafu, njegova pravna ureditev za norveško cerkev pa je postala tako visoko v očeh norveškega ljudstva in duhovščine, da je ko je papež Gregor VII poskušal klerikalni celibat zavezati o duhovnikih Zahodne Evrope v letih 1074–75 so ga Norvežani v veliki meri ignorirali, saj v Olafovem zakonskem zakoniku za njihovo cerkev ni bilo govora o klerikalnem celibatu. Šele potem, ko je Norveška leta 1153 postala metropolitanska provinca s svojim nadškofom - zaradi česar je bila norveška cerkev po eni strani bolj neodvisna od svojega kralja, po drugi strani pa bolj neposredno odgovorna papežu - je kanonsko pravo pridobilo večjo pomembnost v življenju in pristojnosti norveške cerkve.

Olafova dinastija Edit

Zaradi različnih razlogov, najpomembnejšega je bil kralj Knut Veliki leta 1035, morda pa tudi nekaj nezadovoljstva med norveškimi plemiči z dansko oblastjo v letih po Olafovi smrti leta 1030, je oblast prevzel Olafov nezakonski sin s priležnico Alvhild, Magnus Dobri na Norveškem in sčasoma tudi na Danskem. Olafu so bile v času njegove vladavine posvečene številne danske cerkve, sage pa dajejo vpogled v prizadevanja mladega kralja pri spodbujanju kulta njegovega pokojnega očeta. To je postalo značilno za skandinavske monarhije. V poganskih časih so skandinavski kralji svojo pravico do vladanja izhajali iz svojih trditev o poreklu od norveškega boga Odina ali v primeru švedskih kraljev v Stari Uppsali iz Freyra. V krščanskih časih je to legitimiranje pravice dinastije do vladanja in njenega nacionalnega ugleda temeljilo na njenem poreklu od svetniškega kralja. Tako so norveški kralji spodbujali kult svetega Olafa, švedski kralji kult svetega Erika, kralji Danske pa kult svetega Kanuta, tako kot so v Angliji kralji Normana in Plantageneta spodbujali kult svetega Edvarda spovednik v Westminsterski opatiji, njihova kronaška cerkev. [28]

Saint Olaf Edit

Liturgični kult Uredi

Sigrid Undset je ugotovila, da je bil Olaf krščen v Rouenu, glavnem mestu Normandije, in predlagala, da je Olaf morda za svoje misijonarje uporabil duhovnike normanskega porekla. Normani so bili nekoliko seznanjeni s kulturo ljudi, ki so jih spreobrnili, v nekaterih primerih pa so morda razumeli jezik. Znano je, da je Olaf s seboj pripeljal iz Anglije tudi Grimkell (latinsko: Grimcillus). V času Olafove smrti je bil verjetno edini od misijonarskih škofov v državi, ki je 3. avgusta 1031 stal za prevodom in beatifikacijo Olafa. [A] Grimkell je kasneje postal prvi škof Sigtune na Švedskem.

Takrat so lokalni škofje in njihovi ljudje neko osebo prepoznali in razglasili za svetnico, uradni postopek kanonizacije prek papeške kurije pa v Olafovem primeru ni bil običajen, to se je zgodilo šele leta 1888. Toda Olaf II je umrl pred vzhodno-zahodno razkolom in strog rimski obred takrat v Skandinaviji ni bil dobro uveljavljen. Častijo ga tudi v vzhodni pravoslavni cerkvi. [29]

Grimkell je bil pozneje imenovan za škofa v škofiji Selsey na jugovzhodu Anglije. To je verjetno razlog, zakaj v Angliji najdemo prve sledi liturgičnega kulta Olafa. Pisarno ali molitveno službo za Olafa najdemo v t.i Leofrični kolektor (ok. 1050), ki ga je škof Leofric iz Exeterja v svoji zadnji oporoki oporočil katedrali v Exeterju. Zdi se, da je bil ta angleški kult kratkotrajen.

V pismu okoli leta 1070 Adam iz Bremena omenja romanje v svetišče svetega Olafa v Nidarosu, vendar je to edina trdna sled o kultu svetega Olafa na Norveškem pred sredino 12. stoletja. Takrat so ga tudi poklicali Norveški večni kralj. Leta 1152/3 je bil Nidaros ločen od Lunda kot nadškofija Nidaros. Verjetno je kakršno koli formalno ali neformalno čaščenje Olafa kot svetnika obstajalo v Nidarosu, preden je bilo to poudarjeno in formalizirano ob tej priložnosti.

Olaf se prvič pojavlja v skaldični pesmi Þórarinna loftunge Glælognskviðaali "Sea-Calm Poem" iz približno 1030–34. [30] Eno je ubijanje in metanje na goro morske kače, ki je še vidna na pečini. [31] Druga se je zgodila na dan njegove smrti, ko je slepec spet videl, potem ko si je z rokami, umazanimi z Olafovo krvjo, drgnil oči.

Besedila, uporabljena za liturgično praznovanje sv. Olafa v večjem delu srednjega veka, je verjetno sestavil ali napisal Eystein Erlendsson, drugi nadškof Nidaros (1161–1189). [b] Devet čudežev, o katerih so poročali leta Glælognskviða tvorijo jedro kataloga čudežev v tej pisarni.

Olaf je bil zelo priljubljen po vsej Skandinaviji. Njemu so bile posvečene številne cerkve na Norveškem, Švedskem in Islandiji. Njegovo prisotnost so čutili celo na Finskem in mnogi so potovali iz vsega nordijskega sveta, da bi obiskali njegovo svetišče. [33] Razen zgodnjih sledi kulta v Angliji obstajajo le razpršeni navedbe o njem zunaj nordijskega območja.

V Angliji mu je bilo posvečenih več cerkva (pogosto tudi kot Sveti Olave) ime je bilo domnevno priljubljeno pri skandinavskih priseljencih. Cerkev sv. Olave, York, je omenjena v Anglosaksonska kronika za leto 1055 [34] kot kraj pokopa njegovega ustanovitelja, grofa Siwarda. To je splošno sprejeto kot najstarejša cerkvena fundacija, ki jo je mogoče zapisati, posvečeno Olafu, in je nadaljnji dokaz kulta svetega Olafa v zgodnjih 1050 -ih v Angliji. St Olave Hart Street v Londonu je pokopališče Samuela Pepysa in njegove žene. Druga cerkev sv. Olave južno od Londonskega mostu je dobila ime Tooley Street in Unija sindikatov slabega prava St Olave, kasneje metropolitansko okrožje Bermondsey: njena delovna hiša v Rotherhitheu je postala bolnišnica St Olave, nato pa nekaj sto metrov od starega doma. Cerkev sv. Olava, ki je Norveška cerkev v Londonu. Privedlo je tudi do poimenovanja gimnazije St Olave, ki je bila ustanovljena leta 1571 in je bila na Tooley Street do leta 1968, ko se je preselila v Orpington, Kent.

Sveti Olaf je bil skupaj z materjo Božjo zavetnik kapele Varagovcev, skandinavskih bojevnikov, ki so služili kot telesna straža bizantinskega cesarja. Ta cerkev naj bi bila v bližini cerkve Hagia Irene v Carigradu. Ikona Madonna Nicopeia [35], ki je danes v baziliki svetega Marka v Benetkah, za katero naj bi tradicionalno v boj vodile bizantinske vojaške sile, naj bi bila v času miru v tej kapeli. Tako je bil sveti Olaf tudi zadnji svetnik, ki so ga tako zahodna kot vzhodna cerkev častile pred veliko razkolom.

Bazilika Sant'Ambrogio e Carlo al Corso v Rimu ima kapelo sv. Olava. Njena oltarna slika vsebuje sliko svetnika, prikazanega kot kralj mučenik, ki premaga zmaja, ki predstavlja zmago nad njegovo pogansko preteklostjo. Prvotno je bilo darilo, ki ga je leta 1893 papežu Leu XIII., Ki ga je za zlati jubilej svojega škofovskega posvečenja izročil norveški plemič in papeški komornik baron Wilhelm Wedel-Jarlsberg. Kapelo je leta 1980 obnovil in jo obnovil škof John Willem Gran, škof rimskokatoliške škofije v Oslu. [36]

V Nemčiji je bilo nekoč v Koblenzu svetišče svetega Olafa. Leta 1463 ali 1464 ga je ustanovil Heinrich Kalteisen na svojem domu upokojencev, dominikanskem samostanu v Altstadt ("Staro mesto") soseska Koblenz. Bil je nadškof Nidarosa na Norveškem od leta 1452 do 1458. Ko je leta 1464 umrl, so ga pokopali pred oltarjem svetišča. [37] However, the shrine did not last: the Dominican Monastery was secularized in 1802 and bulldozed in 1955. Only the Rokokoportal ("Rococo Portal"), built in 1754, remains to mark the spot. [38]

In the Faroe Islands, the day of St. Olaf's death is celebrated as Ólavsøka, a nation-wide holiday. [39]

Recently the pilgrimage route to Nidaros Cathedral, the site of St. Olaf's tomb, has been reinstated. The route is known as The Pilgrim's Way (Pilegrimsleden). The main route, approximately 640 km long, starts in the ancient part of Oslo and heads north, along Lake Mjosa, up the Gudbrandsdal Valley, over Dovrefjell and down the Orkdal Valley, ending at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. A Pilgrim's Office in Oslo gives advice to pilgrims, and a Pilgrim Centre in Trondheim, under the aegis of the Cathedral, awards certificates to pilgrims when they complete their journeys. However, the relics of St. Olaf are no longer in the Nidaros Cathedral. [ potreben citat ]

Folklore Edit

For centuries, Olaf figured in folk traditions as a slayer of trolls and giants, and as a protector against malicious forces. He was said to have healing power, which attracted people to his shrine, and various springs were claimed to have sprung forth where he or his body had been. [40] Around the 12th century, folk traditions and iconography of Olaf absorbed elements of the gods Thor and Freyr from Norse mythology. [41] Like Freyr, he became associated with fertility, which led to his adoption as a patron saint by farmers, fishermen, sailors and merchants of the Hanseatic League, who turned to him for good yield and protection. From Thor, he inherited the quick temper, physical strength and merits of a giant-slayer. [42]

Popular tradition also made marks in the ecclesiastical material. Early depictions of Olaf portray him as clean-shaven, but after 1200 he appears with a red beard, which may have been absorbed from Thor. The Passio a miracule beati Olavi, the official record of Olaf's miracles, contains an episode where Olaf helps a man escape from the huldrefolk, the "hidden people" of Norwegian folklore. [42]

In Normandy Edit

In Normandy, Saint Olaf represents an important figure and was chosen unofficially as the patron saint of the Normans, this term mainly designating the inhabitants of continental Normandy and of channel islands, but also on a larger scale the inhabitants of the former viking territories, namely the scandinavian countries and, even more so, Norway. This choice can be explained by the time in which Olaf lived and when the exchanges between Normandy and the Scandinavian countries were common. There were also many kinships between the inhabitants of the brand new Norman state, as illustrated by the choice of Archbishop Robert II for the baptism of Olaf.

The normand flag with a Scandinavian cross, which recalls the Scandinavian origins of Normandy, has been baptized "Cross of Saint Olav" (or "Cross of Saint Olaf") in honor of the saint.

Baptized in Rouen by the brother of a Duke of Normandy, a church in Rouen is dedicated to Saint-Olaf. [43] The Norwegian Saint-Olav Church was built in 1926, rue Duguay-Trouin, near the home of the Scandinavian sailors. The Norwegian Seamen's Mission wanted to build a Lutheran place of worship for visiting sailors.

A bone from Saint Olaf's arm is kept as a relic in the crypt of Rouen Cathedral. [44]

In 2014 the city and the diocese of Rouen celebrated the millennium of the baptism of Saint Olav with the Norwegian representatives of the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway. [45]

In Normandy, July 29 is the occasion of local cultural festivals which generally highlight the Norse heritage of Normandy. In some Norman parishes, Mass is celebrated on this day in honor of the saint and to mark the historical links that unite Normandy and Scandinavia. [46]


Vsebina

The indigenous peoples of Sicily, long absorbed into the population, were tribes known to ancient Greek writers as the Elymians, the Sicani and the Siculi or Sicels (from which the island derives its name). Of these, the last was clearly the latest to arrive and was related to other Italic peoples of southern Italy, such as the Italoi of Calabria, the Oenotrians, Chones, and Leuterni (or Leutarni), the Opicans, and the Ausones. It is possible, however, that the Sicani were originally an Iberian tribe. The Elymi, too, may have distant origins from outside Italy, in the Aegean Sea area. The recent discoveries of dolmens dating to the second half of the third millennium BC, seem to open up new horizons on the composite cultural panorama of primitive Sicily.

It is a well-known fact that this region went through quite an intricate prehistory, so much so that it is difficult to move about amongst the muddle of peoples that have followed each other. The impact of two influences, however, remains clear: the Europeans coming from the North-West – for example, the Proto-Celtic peoples of Beaker culture (bearers of the dolmens culture, recently discovered in this island and dating back to the neolithic Bronze Age), and the Mediterranean influence with a clear oriental matrix. [5] Complex urban settlements become increasingly evident from around 1300 BC.

From the 11th century BC, Phoenicians begin to settle in western Sicily, having already started colonies on the nearby parts of North Africa. Within a century, we find major Phoenician settlements at Soloeis (Solunto), present day Palermo and Motya (an island near present-day Marsala). As Phoenician Carthage grew in power, these settlements came under its direct control.

Greek period Edit

Sicily was colonized by Greeks in the 8th century BC. Initially, this was restricted to the eastern and southern parts of the island. The most important colony was established at Syracuse in 734 BC. Other important Greek colonies were Gela, Akragas, Selinunte, Himera, Kamarina and Zancle or Messene (modern-day Messina, not to be confused with the ancient city of Messene in Messenia, Greece). These city-states were an important part of classical Greek civilization, which included Sicily as part of Magna Graecia – both Empedocles and Archimedes were from Sicily.

These Greek city-states enjoyed long periods of democratic government, but in times of social stress, in particular, with constant warring against Carthage, tyrants occasionally usurped the leadership. The more famous include: Gelo, Hiero I, Dionysius the Elder and Dionysius the Younger.

As the Greek and Phoenician communities grew more populous and more powerful, the Sicels and Sicanians were pushed further into the centre of the island. By the 3rd century BC, Syracuse was the most populous Greek city in the world. Sicilian politics was intertwined with politics in Greece itself, leading Athens, for example, to mount the disastrous Sicilian Expedition in 415 BC during the Peloponnesian War.

In Greek mythology, the goddess Athena threw Mount Aitna onto the island of Sicily and upon either the gigante Enceladus or Typhon during the giants' war against the gods. [6]

The Greeks came into conflict with the Punic trading communities, by now effectively protectorates of Carthage, with its capital on the African mainland not far from the southwest corner of the island. Palermo was a Carthaginian city, founded in the 8th century BC, named Zis or Sis ("Panormos" to the Greeks). Hundreds of Phoenician and Carthaginian grave sites have been found in a necropolis over a large area of Palermo, now built over, south of the Norman palace, where the Norman kings had a vast park.

In the far west, Lilybaeum (now Marsala) was never thoroughly Hellenized. In the First and Second Sicilian Wars, Carthage was in control of all but the eastern part of Sicily, which was dominated by Syracuse. However, the dividing line between the Carthaginian west and the Greek east moved backwards and forwards frequently in the ensuing centuries.

Punic Wars Edit

The constant warfare between Carthage and the Greek city-states eventually opened the door to an emerging third power. In the 3rd century BC, the Messanan Crisis motivated the intervention of the Roman Republic into Sicilian affairs, and led to the First Punic War between Rome and Carthage. [7] The Carthaginians sent forces to Hiero II, the military leader of the Greek city-states. The Romans fought for the Mamertines of Messina and, Rome and Carthage declared war on each other for the control of Sicily. This led to a war based mainly on the water, which served as an advantage to the Carthaginians, as they were led by Hamilcar, a general who earned his surname Barca (meaning lightning) due to his fast attacks on Roman supply lines. Romans attempted to hide the weakness in their navy by using large moveable planks to invade enemy ships and forcing hand to hand combat, but they still struggled due to the lack of a talented general. Hamilcar and his mercenaries struggled to receive additional aid and reinforcements, as the Carthaginian government hoarded their wealth due to greed and belief that Hamilcar could win on his own. [8] His victory at Drepana in 249 BC was his last, as he was forced to withdraw. In 241 BC, after the Romans adapted better to battle at sea, the Carthaginians surrendered. By the end of the war in (242 BC), and with the death of Hiero II, all of Sicily except Syracuse was in Roman hands, becoming Rome's first province outside of the Italian peninsula.

Hamilcar died in combat in 228 BC, and following the death of his son Hasdrubal, his third son Hannibal took control of the military. He followed a more aggressive path, laying siege to Saguntum, a city allied to Rome. This action started the second war, in which Hannibal took many early victories in Northern Italy. However, like his farther in the first war, a lack of reinforcements and support from the Carthaginians put his forces at a disadvantage. Additionally, Roman general Scipio realized that attacking Carthage itself would force Hannibal to recall his troops. Following the loss at the Battle of Zama in 202, Hannibal pushed the senate to surrender. The success of the Carthaginians during most of the Second Punic War encouraged many of the Sicilian cities to revolt against Roman rule. Rome sent troops to put down the rebellions (it was during the siege of Syracuse that Archimedes was killed). Carthage briefly took control of parts of Sicily, but in the end was driven off. Many Carthaginian sympathizers were killed - in 210 BC the Roman consul M. Valerius told the Roman Senate that "no Carthaginian remains in Sicily". [8]

The Third and final war was the shortest of the three, being the most one sided as well. Carthage waged war against Numidia, an ancient kingdom located modern day Algeria, and upon losing had to pay additional war debts. The Roman Senate expected to be asked for permission, and decided that Carthage posed too much of a threat. After the Carthaginians refused to dismantle the city in 149 BC, the Third Punic War began. The conflict lasted only three years, as the city was besieged during the entire conflict until the city fell and was sacked by the Romans. The power of the Roman Empire expanded largely due to these three wars, and allowed for a prolonged control of Sicily, an incredibly important piece to the Roman empire for hundreds of years. [9]

Roman Period Edit

For the next 600 years, Sicily was a province of the Roman Republic and later Empire. It was something of a rural backwater, important chiefly for its grain fields, which were a mainstay of the food supply for the city of Rome until the annexation of Egypt after the Battle of Actium largely did away with that role. The empire made little effort to Romanize the region, which remained largely Greek. One notable event of this period was the notorious misgovernment of Verres, as recorded by Cicero in 70 BC in his oration, In Verrem. Another was the Sicilian revolt under Sextus Pompeius, which liberated the island from Roman rule for a brief period.

A lasting legacy of the Roman occupation, in economic and agricultural terms, was the establishment of the large landed estates, often owned by distant Roman nobles (the latifundia).

Despite its largely neglected status, Sicily was able to make a contribution to Roman culture through the historian Diodorus Siculus and the poet Calpurnius Siculus. The most famous archeological remains of this period are the mosaics of a nobleman's villa in present-day Piazza Armerina. An inscription from Hadrian's reign lauds the emperor as "The Restorer of Sicily", although it is not known what he did to earn this accolade.

It was also during this period that we find one of the first Christian communities in Sicily. Amongst the earliest Christian martyrs were the Sicilians Saint Agatha of Catania and Saint Lucy of Syracuse.

Germanic and Byzantine period Edit

As the Roman Empire was falling apart, a tribe of Franks conquered Syracuse in 280 AD subsequently a Germanic tribe known as the Vandals took Sicily in 440 AD under the rule of their king Genseric. The Vandals had entered the Empire crossing the Rhine the last night of 406 with three other tribes. They were in Gaul until October 409 when they entered Spain where they remained until 429 crossing over to North Africa. The Romans, unable to defeat them, ceded two Mauretanian provinces and the western half of Numidia in 435. However, in October 439 they seized the rest of the Roman provinces, inserting themselves as an important power in western Europe. [10] After the sacking of Rome in 455 the Vandals seized Corsica and Sardinia which they kept until the end of their kingdom in 533. In 476 Odoacer gained most of Sicily for the payment of tribute to the Vandals. [11] In 491 Theodoric gained control over the entire island after repulsing a Vandal invasion and seizing their remaining outpost Lilybaeum on the western tip of the island. [12]

The Gothic War took place between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. Sicily was the first part of Italy to be taken under general Belisarius who was commissioned by Eastern Emperor Justinian I. [13] Sicily was used as a base for the Byzantines to conquer the rest of Italy, with Naples, Rome, Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna falling within five years. [14] However, a new Ostrogoth king, Totila, drove down the Italian peninsula, plundering and conquering Sicily in 550. Totila, in turn, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Taginae by the Byzantine general Narses in 552. [14]

When Ravenna fell to the Lombards in the middle of the 6th century, Syracuse became Byzantium's main western outpost. Latin was gradually supplanted by Greek as the national language and the Greek rites of the Eastern Church were adopted. [15]

The Byzantine Emperor Constans II decided to move from the capital Constantinople to Syracuse in Sicily in 663, the following year he launched an assault from Sicily against the Lombard Duchy of Benevento, which then occupied most of Southern Italy. [16] The rumours that the capital of the empire was to be moved to Syracuse, along with small raids probably cost Constans his life as he was assassinated in 668. [16] His son Constantine IV succeeded him, a brief usurpation in Sicily by Mizizios being quickly suppressed by the new emperor.

From the late 7th century, Sicily joined with Calabria to form the Byzantine Theme of Sicily. [17]

Muslim period Edit

In 826, Euphemius, the commander of the Byzantine fleet of Sicily, forced a nun to marry him. Emperor Michael II caught wind of the matter and ordered that general Constantine [ potrebno pojasnilo ] end the marriage and cut off Euphemius' nose. Euphemius rose up, killed Constantine and then occupied Syracuse he in turn was defeated and driven out to North Africa. [18]

There, Euphemius requested the help of Ziyadat Allah, the Aghlabid Emir of Tunisia, in regaining the island an Islamic army of Arabs, Berbers, Cretan Saracens and Persians was sent. [18] The conquest was a see-saw affair the local population resisted fiercely and the Arabs suffered considerable dissension and infighting among themselves. It took over a century to complete the conquest (although practically complete by 902, the last Byzantine strongholds held out until 965). [18]

Throughout this reign, continued revolts by Byzantine Sicilians happened, especially in the east, and part of the lands were even re-occupied before being quashed. Agricultural items, such as oranges, lemons, pistachio and sugar cane, were brought to Sicily, [10] the native Christians were allowed nominal freedom of religion with jaziya (tax on non-Muslims, imposed by Muslim rulers) to their rulers for the right to practise their own religion privately. However, the Emirate of Sicily began to fragment as inner-dynasty related quarrels took place between the Muslim regime. [18]

By the 11th century, mainland southern Italian powers were hiring ferocious Norman mercenaries, who were Christian descendants of the Vikings it was the Normans under Roger I who conquered Sicily from the Muslims. [18] After taking Apulia and Calabria, he occupied Messina with an army of 700 knights. In 1068, Robert Guiscard and his men defeated the Muslims at Misilmeri but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to Sicily being completely in Norman control by 1091. [19]

Many historians have recently argued that the Norman conquest of Islamic Sicily (1060–91) was the start of the Crusades. [20] [21]

Viking Age Edit

In 860, according to an account by the Norman monk Dudo of Saint-Quentin, a Viking fleet, probably under Björn Ironside and Hastein, landed in Sicily, conquering it. [22]

Many Norsemen fought as mercenaries in Southern Italy, including the Varangian Guard led by Harald Hardrada, who later became king of Norway, who conquered Sicily between 1038 and 1040, with the help of Norman mercenaries, under William de Hauteville, who won his nickname Iron Arm by defeating the emir of Syracuse in single combat, and a Lombard contingent, led by Arduin. [23] [24] The Varangians were first used as mercenaries in Italy against the Arabs in 936. [25] Runestones were raised in Sweden in memory of warriors who died in Langbarðaland (Land of the Lombards), the Old Norse name for southern Italy. [26]

Later, several Anglo-Danish and Norwegian nobles participated in the Norman conquest of southern Italy, like Edgar the Ætheling, who left England in 1086, [27] and Jarl Erling Skakke, who won his nickname ("Skakke", meaning bent head) after a battle against Arabs in Sicily. [28] On the other hand, many Anglo-Danish rebels fleeing William the Conqueror, joined the Byzantines in their struggle against the Robert Guiscard, duke of Apulia, in Southern Italy. [29]

Norman period (1091–1194) Edit

Palermo continued on as the capital under the Hauteville. Roger's son, Roger II of Sicily, was ultimately able to raise the status of the island, along with his holds of Malta and Southern Italy to a kingdom in 1130. [19] [30] During this period, the Kingdom of Sicily was prosperous and politically powerful, becoming one of the wealthiest states in all of Europe even wealthier than England. [1]

The Siculo-Norman kings relied mostly on the local Sicilian population for the more important government and administrative positions. For the most part, initially Greek, Arabic and Latin were used as languages of administration while Norman was the language of the royal court. [31] Significantly, immigrants from France, England, North Europe, Northern Italy and Campania arrived during this period and linguistically the island would eventually become Latinised, in terms of church it would become completely Roman Catholic, previously under the Byzantines it had been more Eastern Christian. [32]

The most significant changes that the Normans were to bring to Sicily were in the areas of religion, language and population. Almost from the moment that Roger I controlled much of the island, immigration was encouraged from Northern Europe, France, Northern Italy and Campania. For the most part, these consisted of Lombards who were Vulgar Latin variety-speaking and more inclined to support the Western church. With time, Sicily would become overwhelmingly Roman Catholic and a new vulgar Latin idiom would emerge that was distinct to the island.

Roger II's grandson, William II (also known as William the Good) reigned from 1166 to 1189. His greatest legacy was the building of the Cathedral of Monreale, perhaps the best surviving example of Siculo-Norman architecture. In 1177, he married Joan of England (also known as Joanna). She was the daughter of Henry II of England and the sister of Richard the Lion Heart.

When William died in 1189 without an heir, this effectively signalled the end of the Hauteville succession. Some years earlier, Roger II's daughter, Constance of Sicily (William II's aunt) had been married off to Henry who was son of Emperor Frederick I and would later become Emperor Henry VI, meaning that the crown now legitimately transferred to him. Such an eventuality was unacceptable to the local barons, and they voted in Tancred of Sicily, an illegitimate grandson of Roger II. During his reign Tancred was able to put down rebellions, defeat an invasion by Henry VI and capture Empress Constance, but Pope Celestine III forced him to release her.

Hohenstaufen reign (1194–1266) Edit

Tancred died in 1194, just as Henry VI and Constance were travelling down the Italian peninsula to claim their crown. Henry rode into Palermo at the head of a large army unopposed and thus ended the Siculo-Norman Hauteville dynasty, replaced by the south German (Swabian) Hohenstaufen. Just as Henry VI was being crowned as King of Sicily in Palermo, Constance gave birth to Frederick II (sometimes referred to as Frederick I of Sicily).

Frederick was raised in Palermo and, like his grandfather Roger II, was passionate about science, learning and literature. He created one of the earliest universities in Europe (in Naples), wrote a book on falconry (De arte venandi cum avibus, one of the first handbooks based on scientific observation rather than medieval mythology). He instituted far-reaching law reform formally dividing church and state and applying the same justice to all classes of society, and was the patron of the Sicilian School of poetry, the first time an Italianate form of vulgar Latin was used for literary expression, creating the first standard that could be read and used throughout the peninsula.

Many repressive measures, passed by Frederick II, were introduced in order to please the Popes who could not tolerate Islam being practiced in the heart of Christendom, [33] which resulted in a rebellion of Sicily's Muslims. [34] This in turn triggered organized resistance and systematic reprisals [35] and marked the final chapter of Islam in Sicily. The Muslim problem plagued Hohenstaufen rule in Sicily under Henry VI and his son Frederick II. The rebellion abated, but direct papal pressure induced Frederick to transfer all his Muslim subjects deep into the Italian hinterland, to Lucera. [34] In 1224, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and grandson of Roger II, expelled the few remaining Muslims from Sicily. [36]

Frederick was succeeded firstly by his son, Conrad, and then by his illegitimate son, Manfred, who essentially usurped the crown (with the support of the local barons) while Conrad's son, Conradin was still quite young. A unique feature of all the Swabian kings of Sicily, perhaps inherited from their Siculo-Norman forefathers, was their preference in retaining a regiment of Saracen soldiers as their personal and most trusted regiments. Such a practice, amongst others, ensured an ongoing antagonism between the papacy and the Hohenstaufens. The Hohenstaufen rule ended with the death of Manfredi at the battle of Benevento (1266).

Angevins and the Sicilian Vespers Edit

Throughout Frederick's reign, there had been substantial antagonism between the Kingdom and the Papacy, which was part of the wider Guelph Ghibelline conflict. This antagonism was transferred to the Hohenstaufen house, and ultimately against Manfred.

In 1266, Charles I, duke of Anjou, with the support of the Church, led an army against the Kingdom. They fought at Benevento, just to the north of the Kingdom's border. Manfred was killed in battle and Charles was crowned King of Sicily by Pope Clement IV.

Growing opposition to French officialdom and high taxation led to an insurrection in 1282 (the Sicilian Vespers), which was successful with the support of Peter III of Aragón, who was crowned King of Sicily by the island's barons. Peter III had previously married Manfred's daughter, Constance, and it was for this reason that the Sicilian barons effectively invited him. This victory split the Kingdom in two, with Charles continuing to rule the mainland part (still known as the Kingdom of Sicily as well).

The ensuing War of the Sicilian Vespers lasted until the peace of Caltabellotta in 1302, although it was to continue on and off for a period of 90 years. With two kings both claiming to be the King of Sicily, the separate island kingdom became known as the Kingdom of Trinacria. It is this split that ultimately led to the creation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies some 500 years on.

Aragonese period Edit

Peter III's son, Frederick III of Sicily (also known as Frederick II of Sicily) reigned from 1298 to 1337. For the whole of the 14th century, Sicily was essentially an independent kingdom, ruled by relatives of the kings of Aragon, but for all intents and purposes they were Sicilian kings. The Sicilian parliament, already in existence for a century, continued to function with wide powers and responsibilities.

During this period, a sense of a Sicilian people and nation emerged, that is to say, the population was no longer divided between Greek, Arab and Latin peoples. Catalan and Aragonese were the languages of the royal court, and Sicilian was the language of the parliament and the general citizenry. These circumstances continued until 1409 when because of failure of the Sicilian line of the Aragonese dynasty, the Sicilian throne became part of the Crown of Aragon.

The island's first university was founded at Catania in 1434. Antonello da Messina is Sicily's greatest artist from this period.

With the union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon in 1479, Sicily was ruled directly by the kings of Spain via governors and viceroys. In the ensuing centuries, authority on the island was to become concentrated among a small number of local barons.

The viceroy had to overcome the distance and poor communication with the royal court in Madrid. It proved almost impossible for the Spanish viceroys both to comply with the demands of the crown and to satisfy the aspirations of the Sicilians – a situation also apparent in Spain's colonies in Latin America. The viceroys secured territorial control and sought to guarantee the loyalty of vassals by distributing patronage in the form of offices and grants in the name of the king. The monarchy, however, also exercised its power through royal councils and independent entities, such as the agents of the Inquisition and visitadores or inspectors. Local spheres of royal influence were never clearly defined, and various local political entities within the viceregal system competed for power, often rendering Sicily ungovernable. [37]

The 16th century was a golden age for Sicily's wheat exports. Inflation, rapid population growth, and international markets brought economic and social changes. In the 17th century, Sicily's silk exports overtook its wheat exports. Internal colonization and the foundation of new settlements by feudal aristocrats in Sicily was significant from 1590 to 1650, involving the redistribution of population away from the larger towns back to the countryside. [38]

The baronage took advantage of increasing population and demand to build new estates, based mostly on wheat, and the new villages were inhabited mostly by landless laborers. The foundation of estates was a means toward social and political prominence for many families. The townspeople initially welcomed the process as a way of alleviating poverty by draining off surplus population, but at the same time it led to a decline in their political and administrative control of the countryside. [38]

Sicily suffered a ferocious outbreak of the Black Death in 1656, followed by a damaging earthquake in the east of the island in 1693. Sicily was frequently attacked by Barbary pirates from North Africa. The subsequent rebuilding created the distinctive architectural style known as Sicilian Baroque. Periods of rule by the house of Savoy (1713–1720) and then the Austrian Habsburgs led to union (1734) with the Bourbon-ruled Kingdom of Naples, under the rule of Don Carlos of Bourbon (later Charles III of Spain).

The Bourbon kings officially resided in Naples, except for a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars between 1806 and 1815, when the royal family lived in exile in Palermo. The Sicilian nobles welcomed British military intervention during this period and a new constitution was developed specifically for Sicily based on the Westminster model of government. The British were committed to preserving the security of the Kingdom of Sicily so as to keep Mediterranean sea routes open against the French. The British dispatched several expeditions of troops between 1806 and 1815 and built strong fortifications around Messina [39]

The Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily were officially merged in 1816 by Ferdinand I to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. [40] The accession of Ferdinand II as king of the Two Sicilies in 1830 was hailed by Sicilians they dreamed that autonomy would be returned to the island and the problems of poverty and maladministration of justice would be tackled by the count of Syracuse, the king's brother and lieutenant in Sicily.

The royal government in Naples saw the problem of Sicily as being purely administrative, a question of making existing institutions function properly. Neapolitan ministers had no interest in serious reforms. Ferdinand's failure, leading to disillusion and the revolt of 1837, was due mainly to his making no attempt to gain support in the Sicilian middle class, with which he could have faced the power of the baronage.

Simmering discontent with Bourbon rule and hopes of Sicilian independence led to major revolts in 1820 and 1848 against Bourbon denial of constitutional government. The 1848 revolution resulted in a sixteen-month period of independence from the Bourbons before its armed forces took back control of the island on 15 May 1849. The city of Messina long harbored proponents of independence throughout the 19th century, and its urban Risorgimento leaders arose out of a diverse milieu comprising artisans, workers, students, clerics, Masons, and sons of English, Irish, and other settlers. [41]

The 1847-48 unrest enjoyed wide support in Messina and produced an organized structure, and consciousness of the need to link the struggle to the whole of Sicily. The insurgents briefly gained control of the city but, despite bitter resistance, the Bourbon army was victorious and suppressed the revolt. This suppression resulted in further oppression, created a diaspora of Messinian and Sicilian revolutionaries outside Sicily and locked Sicily under the control of the reactionary government. The bombardments of Messina and Palermo earned Ferdinand II the name "King Bomba". [41]

Unification of Italy period Edit

Sicily was merged with the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 following the expedition of Giuseppe Garibaldi's Mille after the Dictatorship of Garibaldi the annexation was ratified by a popular plebiscite. The Kingdom of Sardinia became in 1861 the Kingdom of Italy, in the context of the Italian Risorgimento.

However, local elites across the island systematically opposed and nullified efforts of the national government to modernize the traditional economy and political system. For example, they frustrated government efforts to set up new town councils, new police forces, and a liberal judicial system. Furthermore, repeated revolts showed a degree of unrest among the peasants. [42]

In 1866, Palermo revolted against Italy. The city was bombed by the Italian navy, which disembarked on September 22 under the command of Raffaele Cadorna. Italian soldiers summarily executed the civilian insurgents, and once again took possession of the island.

A limited, but long guerrilla campaign against the unionists (1861–1871) took place throughout southern Italy, and in Sicily, inducing the Italian governments to a severe military response. These insurrections were unorganized, and were considered by the Government as operated by "brigands" ("Brigantaggio"). Ruled under martial law for several years, Sicily (and southern Italy) was the object of a harsh repression by the Italian army that summarily executed thousands of people, made tens of thousands prisoners, destroyed villages, and deported people.

Emigration Edit

The Sicilian economy did not adapt easily to unification, and in particular competition by Northern industry made attempts at industrialization in the South almost impossible. While the masses suffered by the introduction of new forms of taxation and, especially, by the new Kingdom's extensive military conscription, the Sicilian economy suffered, leading to an unprecedented wave of emigration.

The reluctance of Sicilian men to allow women to take paid work meant that women usually remained at home, their seclusion often increased due to the restrictions of mourning. Despite such restrictions, women carried out a variety of important roles in nourishing their families, selecting wives for their sons, and helping their husbands in the field. [43]

In 1894, labour agitation through the radical left-wing Fasci Siciliani (Sicilian Workers Leagues) again led to the imposition of martial law.

Mafia Edit

The Mafia became an essential part of the social structure in the late 19th century because of the inability of the Italian state to impose its concept of law and its monopoly on violence in a peripheral region. The decline of feudal structures allowed a new middle class of violent peasant entrepreneurs to emerge who profited from the sale of baronial, Church, and common land and established a system of clientage over the peasantry. The government was forced to compromise with these "bourgeois mafiosi," who used violence to impose their law, manipulated the traditional feudal language, and acted as mediators between society and the state. [44]

Early 20th century and Fascist period Edit

Ongoing government neglect in the late 19th century ultimately enabled the establishment of organized crime networks, commonly known as "Cosa Nostra" or the Mafia. The Sicilian mafia during the fascism was fought by the government of Benito Mussolini, who sent the island the prefect Cesare Mori. These were gradually able to extend their influence across all sectors over much of the island (and many of its operatives also emigrated to other countries, particularly the United States). After Mussolini came to power in the 1920s, he launched a fierce crackdown on organized crime, but they recovered quickly following the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943, during World War II, once the Allies freed imprisoned Mafia leaders under the mistaken notion that they were political prisoners. [45]

Cosa Nostra remains a secret criminal organization with a state-like structure. It utilizes violence as an instrument of control, executing members who break its rules as well as outsiders who threaten or fail to cooperate with the organization. In 1984, the Italian government initiated an anti-Mafia policy that sought to eliminate the organization by prosecuting its leaders. [44]

Although Sicily fell to the Allied armies with relatively little fighting, the German and Italian forces escaped to the mainland largely intact. Control of Sicily gave the Allies a base from which to advance northward through Italy. Furthermore, it proved a valuable training ground for large-scale amphibious operations–lessons that would be essential for the invasion of Normandy. [46]

Post-war period Edit

Following some political agitation, Sicily became an autonomous region in 1946 under the new Italian constitution, with its own parliament and elected president.

The latifundia (large feudal agricultural estates) were abolished by sweeping land reform mandating smaller farms in 1950–1962, funded from the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, the Italian government's development Fund for the South (1950–1984). [47]

The early 1990s were the scenario of the dramatic death of Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, anti-mafia magistrates, which triggered a general upheaval in Italian political life.

In the second decade of the 21st century, Sicily has become a destination for migrants coming from Africa and Middle Eastern countries, as well as Bangladesh, on their way to Europe, mainly Germany, Northern Italy, France and Sweden.


Mods - Age of Pirates II: City of Abandoned Ships

Fortune and glory awaits you! Destiny awaits you, but destiny is what you make it. Start your buccaneering career by choosing to go it alone and become the most feared pirate on the seven seas or prove your loyalty and take the coin of one of four different navies French, English, Spanish or Dutch. Sail the high seas as a swashbuckling dread pirate or as a dashing naval captain. Explore strange new countries and undiscovered civilizations, raid and plunder merchant ships, fortified ports and cities. But beware, the dead do not sleep easy, and in the dark South American jungles myth and reality intertwine. Solve the ancient mysteries of a vanishing tribe, cross swords with the most notorious swashbucklers ever to sail the ocean blue and make sure that no foe ever sets foot on land again.

Age of Pirates 2: Gentlemen of Fortune

This is a mod that the pirates ahoy Gof teem has been working on for Age Of Pirates 2: City of abandoned Ships. It builds upon the Combined Mod V 3.2.

age of pirates 2: gentlemen of fortune history

City of Abandoned Ships: Combined Mod v3.2.0

While work still continues on Build 14 for Pirates of the Caribbean, modding has taken off on Age of Pirates 2: City of Abandoned Ships. Additions made.

city of abandoned ships: combined mod v3.2.0 realism

Age of pirates II-COAS : AckMod

Le Ackmod pour Age of pirates 2 est un mode français et uniquement disponible en langue française qui modifie la totalité du jeu d'origine. Il as emprunté.

age of pirates ii-coas : ackmod war

Baroque Music Mod 2

This mod for City of Abandoned Ships completely changes the music to music of the period the game is set in. It can be used with the vanilla version or.

baroque music mod 2 realism

No mods were found matching the criteria specified. We suggest you try the mod list with no filter applied, to browse all available. Add mod and help us achieve our mission of showcasing the best content from all developers. Join now to share your own content, we welcome creators and consumers alike and look forward to your comments.


Irish adventurer “Captain Blood” steals crown jewels

In London, Thomas Blood, an Irish adventurer better known as �ptain Blood,” is captured attempting to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.

Blood, a Parliamentarian during the English Civil War, was deprived of his estate in Ireland with the restoration of the English monarchy in 1660. In 1663, he put himself at the head of a plot to seize Dublin Castle from supporters of King Charles II, but the plot was discovered and his accomplices executed. He escaped capture. In 1671, he hatched a bizarre plan to steal the new Crown Jewels, which had been refashioned by Charles II because most of the original jewels were melted down after Charles I’s execution in 1649.

On May 9, 1671, Blood, disguised as a priest, managed to convince the Jewel House keeper to hand over his pistols. Blood’s three accomplices then emerged from the shadows, and together they forced their way into the Jewel House. However, they were caught in the act when the keeper’s son showed up unexpectedly, and an alarm went out to the Tower guard. One man shoved the Royal Orb down his breeches while Blood flattened the Crown with a mallet and tried to run off with it. The Tower guards apprehended and arrested all four of the perpetrators, and Blood was brought before the king. Charles was so impressed with Blood’s audacity that, far from punishing him, he restored his estates in Ireland and made him a member of his court with an annual pension.

Captain Blood became a colorful celebrity all across the kingdom, and when he died in 1680 his body had to be exhumed in order to persuade the public that he was actually dead.


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