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Bitka pri Stalingradu se konča

Bitka pri Stalingradu se konča


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Zadnje nemške čete v sovjetskem mestu Stalingrad so se predale Rdeči armadi in tako končale eno od ključnih bitk druge svetovne vojne.

22. junija 1941 je nacistična Nemčija kljub pogojem nacistično-sovjetskega pakta iz leta 1939 začela množično invazijo na ZSSR. Nemška vojska je s pomočjo svojih nadrejenih letalskih sil tekla po ruskih ravnicah in povzročila strašne žrtve Rdeči armadi in sovjetskemu prebivalstvu. Nemci so s pomočjo vojakov svojih zaveznikov osi osvojili ogromno ozemlje, sredi oktobra pa so bila oblegana velika ruska mesta Leningrad in Moskva. Sovjeti pa so zdržali in prihod zime je prisilil nemško ofenzivo v premor.

Za poletno ofenzivo leta 1942 je Adolf Hitler ukazal, da šesta armada pod vodstvom generala Friedricha von Paulusa prevzame Stalingrad na jugu, industrijsko središče in oviro za nacistični nadzor nad dragocenimi kavkaškimi naftnimi vrtinami. Avgusta je nemška šesta armada napredovala čez reko Volgo, medtem ko je četrta letalska flota Nemčije Stalingrad zmanjšala na goreče ruševine in ubila več kot 40.000 civilistov. V začetku septembra je general Paulus ukazal prve ofenzive proti Stalingradu in ocenil, da bo njegova vojska potrebovala približno 10 dni, da zavzame mesto. Tako se je začela ena najbolj grozljivih bitk druge svetovne vojne in verjetno najpomembnejša, ker je bila prelomnica v vojni med Nemčijo in ZSSR.

V svojem poskusu zavzetja Stalingrada se je nemška šesta armada soočila z ogorčeno Rdečo armado pod vodstvom generala Vasilija Žukova, ki je uničeno mesto zaposlila v svojo korist in uničene zgradbe in ruševine spremenila v naravne obrambne utrdbe. Nemci so v načinu boja začeli imenovati Rattenkrieg, ali "Rat podgan", so si nasprotne sile vdrle v enote po osem ali deset članov in se med seboj borile za vsako hišo in dvorišče ozemlja. V bitki je prišlo do hitrega napredka v tehnologiji uličnih bojev, na primer nemške mitraljeze, ki je streljala za vogale, in lahkega ruskega letala, ki je ponoči tiho drselo po nemških položajih in brez opozorila odvrglo smrtonosne bombe. Vendar pa sta na obeh straneh primanjkovale potrebne hrane, vode ali medicinskih potrebščin, na desetine tisoč pa jih je umrlo vsak teden.

Sovjetski voditelj Jožef Stalin je bil odločen osvoboditi mesto, ki se imenuje po njem, novembra pa je ukazal množično okrepitev območja. 19. novembra je general Žukov začel veliko sovjetsko protiofanzivo. Nemško poveljstvo je podcenilo obseg protinapada in šesto armado je hitro premagala ofenziva, v kateri je sodelovalo 500.000 sovjetskih vojakov, 900 tankov in 1400 letal. V treh dneh je bila obdana celotna nemška sila z več kot 200.000 možmi.

Italijanske in romunske čete pri Stalingradu so se predale, Nemci pa so zdržali in prejeli omejeno zalogo po zraku ter čakali na okrepitev. Hitler je ukazal Von Paulusu, naj ostane na mestu, in ga povišal v feldmaršala, saj se še nikoli ni predal noben nacistični feldmaršal. Lakota in huda ruska zima sta vzeli toliko življenj kot neusmiljene sovjetske čete, 21. januarja 1943 pa je zadnje od letališč, ki so jih držali Nemci, padlo pod Sovjete, Nemce pa so popolnoma odrezali od oskrbe. 31. januarja je Von Paulus predal nemške sile v južnem sektorju, 2. februarja pa so se preostale nemške čete predale. Samo 90.000 nemških vojakov je bilo še živih, od teh le 5000 vojakov pa bi preživelo sovjetska taborišča za vojne ujetnike in se vrnilo v Nemčijo.

Bitka pri Stalingradu je v vojni med Nemčijo in Sovjetsko zvezo spremenila tok. General Zhukov, ki je imel pri zmagi tako pomembno vlogo, je kasneje vodil sovjetsko vožnjo po Berlinu. 1. maja 1945 je osebno sprejel nemško predajo Berlina. Von Paulus je medtem med nemškimi vojnimi ujetniki v Sovjetski zvezi agitiral proti Adolfu Hitlerju in leta 1946 pričal na Mednarodnem vojaškem sodišču v Nürnbergu. Po izpustitvi s strani Sovjetov leta 1953 se je naselil v Vzhodni Nemčiji.

PREBERITE ŠE: Stalingradska bitka: definicija, datumi in pomen


Bitka pri Stalingradu se konča - ZGODOVINA

Stalingrad je bil strateško pomembno mesto v njihovi kampanji, da bi zasedli jug Rusije in prevzeli nadzor nad kavkaškimi naftnimi polji.

Simboličnega pomena je bilo tudi mesto, imenovano po ruskem voditelju Jožefu Stalinu.

Rdeča armada se je borila znotraj mesta in prisilila nemške vojake v intenzivno mestno vojskovanje od hiše do hiše pod močnim ognjem nemške vojske in njenih zaveznikov, ki so obkrožali mesto.

19. novembra 1942 so množične sile, ki so vključevale tri celotne sovjetske vojske, protinapadle izven mesta.

Naslednji dan, 20. novembra, sta napadli še dve sovjetski vojski.

Razbili so nemško obleganje in sami obkrožili Stalingrad, v katerem so zaprli 300.000 vojakov 6. armade.

Poraz pri Stalingradu je Hitlerjevo ofenzivo v Sovjetski zvezi spravil v nered in je bil prelomnica v vojni v Evropi.

To je bila tudi ena najbolj krvavih bitk v sodobni zgodovini.

Nihče ne ve natančno, koliko ljudi je umrlo v Stalingradu.

Po nemških ocenah je število mrtvih iz 6. armade in njenih zaveznikov približno 300.000.

Sovjetska vlada ni nikoli objavila točnih številk. Konzervativna ocena je, da je v bojih umrlo najmanj 500.000 vojakov Rdeče armade.

Število civilnih žrtev naj bi bilo še večje.

Prebivalstvo Stalingrada - danes Volgograda - se je ob koncu vojne zmanjšalo z 850.000 na le 1.500.


Bitka pri Stalingradu: najbolj krvava in najdaljša bitka v zgodovini vojskovanja

Zgodovinska in glavna bitka & lsquo Stalingradska bitka & rsquo se je vodila okoli 1942–43 med drugo svetovno vojno. To je bila velika bitka, ki jo je Sovjetska zveza vodila proti Nemčiji in njenim zaveznikom.

Bitka pri Stalingradu je velika bitka druge svetovne vojne, ki se je začela sredi leta 1942 in se je vodila do februarja 1943. V tej bitki so nacistična Nemčija in njeni zavezniki vodili vojno proti Sovjetski zvezi za nadzor mesta Stalingrad (ki zdaj Volgograd) v južni Rusiji.

Ta uspešna sovjetska obramba velja za eno najbolj krvavih in najdaljših bitk v zgodovini vojskovanja s skupnimi vojaškimi in civilnimi žrtvami v višini približno 2 milijona. Rusi ga obravnavajo kot eno največjih bitk v Veliki domovinski vojni. Poleg tega je bil posnet tudi v istoimenski dvodelni sovjetski epski vojni film in izšel leta 1949.

Etui Modra

Case Blue (Fall Blau v nemščini), ki je bil kasneje imenovan operacija Braunschweig, je bil načrt nemških oboroženih sil za poletno ofenzivo leta 1942 na jugu Rusije med 28. junijem in 24. novembrom. To je bilo nadaljevanje operacije Barbarossa, katere cilj je bil izločiti Sovjetsko zvezo iz vojne. (8.1)

Napad na Stalingrad

Na severu Stalingrada je bila operacija Kotluban prelomnica pri odločanju o usodi Nemčije, preden so nacisti sploh stopili v mesto. Prenagljeni in slabo usklajeni napadi so povzročili 200.000 žrtev Rdeče armade, a so vseeno upočasnili nemški napad. 23. avgusta je 6. armada prišla v predmestje, da bi zasledovala 62. in 64. armado.

5. septembra sta sovjetska 24. in 66. armada naredili velik napad na korpus Panzer XIV. Luftwaffe je nenehno oviral sovjetske operacije. Za ohranitev formacije je bilo usmrčenih skoraj 14,00 vojakov Rdeče armade.

5. oktobra je Stukawaffe iz Luftwaffe 4 opravil 900 posameznih letal proti sovjetskim položajem v tovarni traktorjev Dzerzhinsky. Novembra je Luftwaffe prevladal v zraku, sovjetski zračni upor pa ni več obstajal. 8. novembra so bile velike enote iz Luftflotte 4 umaknjene. Nemci so po treh mesecih počasnega napredovanja prišli do bregov reke Volge in zavzeli 90% porušenega mesta.

Sovjetske proti ofenzive

Potem ko je ugotovila, da nemške čete niso bile dovolj dobro pripravljene za ofenzivne operacije v zimskem času 1942, je Stavka nameravala izvesti več ofenzivnih operacij med 19. novembrom 1942 in 2. februarjem 1943. Rdeča armada je začela sovjetsko ofenzivo: operacijo Uran 19. novembra 1942. 20. novembra se je južno od Stalingrada začela druga sovjetska ofenziva.

Konec bitke

Operacija Zimska nevihta je bil nemški poskus, ki ga je vodil Erich Von Manstein za razbremenitev ujete vojske z juga. Sprva uspešna, se je nemška vojska potisnila na razdaljo 48 km od položajev Šeste armade. Četrta tankovska armada je neuspešno poskušala prebiti obkrožitev Sovjetske zveze nemške 6. armade.

Operacija Rdeča armada Little Saturn je poskušala prebiti vojsko osi na Donu in zavzeti Rostov. Privedlo je do bitk v regijah Sovjetske zveze na severu Kavkaza in v Donecki kotlini. Operacija Koltso, ki se je začela 10. januarja 1943, je povzročila kapitulacijo preostalih sil osi, obkroženih v mestu. (8.2)

Posledice

Bitka pri Stalingradu je bila prvič, ko je nacistična vlada javno priznala neuspeh svojih vojnih prizadevanj. Ne samo prvi kolosalni poraz nemške vojske, ampak je tudi upošteval nemške izgube, ki so bile skoraj enake izgubam Sovjetov. Prej so bile sovjetske izgube običajno trikrat večje od izgub Nemcev.

Čeprav je ta bitka ena najdaljših bitk v zgodovini vojskovanja, je bilo v zgodovini tudi nekaj najkrajših vojn, ki so trajale od približno enega meseca do manj kot eno uro.

Klici domovine - spomenik v spomin na bitko

"Mati domovina kliče", ki se nahaja v Mamayevem Kurganu v Volgogradu, je ogromen kip, zgrajen v spomin na Stalingradsko bitko. Za največji kip na svetu je bil razglašen leta 1967. Danes je to najvišji kip v Evropi in najvišji kip ženske na svetu, brez podstavkov.


Bitka pri Stalingradu se konča

Na današnji dan leta 1943 so se zadnje nemške čete v Stalingradu predale Rdeči armadi, s čimer se je končala ena od ključnih bitk druge svetovne vojne. Avgusta 1942 je nemška šesta armada napredovala čez reko Volgo, medtem ko so nacistične letalske divizije na ruševine razbile rusko mesto Stalingrad. Nemški general Friedrich von Paulus je ocenil, da bo zavzemanje mesta trajalo 10 dni. Vendar se je njegova Šesta armada soočila z ogorčeno Rdečo armado, ki je uničeno mesto uporabljala v svojo korist in uničene zgradbe spremenila v naravne utrdbe.

Nasprotne sile so se razbile v majhne čete, ki so se med seboj borile za vsako ozemlje ozemlja. Novembra so Sovjeti začeli obsežno protinapad in v treh dneh je bila obkrožena celotna nemška sila z več kot 200.000 možmi. Naslednja dva meseca so Nemci obupano zdržali in čakali na okrepitev, ki nikoli ni prišla. Lakota in brutalna ruska zima sta vzeli toliko življenj kot neusmiljene sovjetske čete. Ko se je nemški feldmaršal Paulus v začetku leta 1943 končno predal, je bilo živih le še 90.000 Nemcev.


Stvari se zdijo slabe, vendar je to dejansko najbolj miren čas v zgodovini človeštva

Objavljeno 12. septembra 2019 02:53:07

“Od vseh konfliktov, ki se dogajajo, noben ni aktivna vojna med državami. ” To je srž argumenta Kurzgesagt – In Nutshell pomeni, da je vojne konec.

Da, obstajajo državljanske vojne in da, obstajajo lokalni konflikti - ali celo mednarodni konflikti (na primer ZDA se še naprej borijo proti terorističnim organizacijam po vsem svetu), vendar je njihov učinek veliko manjši od vojne med narodi.

“ Ko sta dva naroda v vojni, lahko mobilizirata veliko večje sile, imajo dostop do vseh državnih virov in logistike ter skoraj vsega prebivalstva, ” pripoveduje množico Je vojne konec? - Razložen paradoks. Ta videoposnetek iz leta 2014 (glej spodaj) še vedno drži in raziskuje predstavo, da se ljudje dejansko učijo iz preteklosti - in morda celo postopoma odpravljajo vojno.

Svet še vedno okreva po hladni vojni in kolonializmu, vendar kljub temu opažamo številne pozitivne trende. Po videu je bila zmaga ene strani državljanske vojne do leta 1989 zelo pogosta, danes pa pogajalski zaključki so se povečale.

Manj je tudi napadov med nacionalnimi državami, kar video pripisuje naslednjim štirim razlogom:

Rusija povzroča veliko težav, čeprav …

1. Demokratizacija

Demokrati se skoraj nikoli ne borita med seboj. Najnovejši primer je rusko-gruzijska vojna leta 2008, enotedenski spopad, ki se je končal s sporazumom o prekinitvi ognja.

Samo pomislite, kako bi bile videti blagajne brez Kitajske …

2. Globalizacija

Vojna ni učinkovito sredstvo za dosego gospodarskih ciljev. Pomislite na skupne interese recimo ZDA in Kitajske - čeprav se naše politične ideologije razlikujejo, smo pri finančnem napredku močno odvisni drug od drugega.

Združeni narodi so mednarodna organizacija, ustanovljena leta 1945. Trenutno jo sestavlja 193 držav članic.

(Fotografija ZN Joao Araujo Pinto)

3. “War je tako 20. stoletje ”

Obstajajo mednarodni subjekti, ki zdaj urejajo vojne zakone. Ženevska konvencija in Haaška konvencija sta dva glavna primera, pa tudi Združeni narodi.

Nagorno-Karabah je sporno ozemlje v Azerbajdžanu, ki kljub mirovnim pogajanjem in prizadevanjem za ohranitev premirja ostaja dovzetno za spopade na meji in vojaške napade.

4. Meje so zdaj večinoma določene

“Po drugi svetovni vojni so se ozemeljske vojne na splošno ustavile, ko se je večina držav zavezala, da bodo sprejele mednarodne meje. ” Še vedno obstajajo spopadi in mejni spori, vendar bodo omenjeni mednarodni subjekti pogosto posredovali in zagotavljali resolucije veliko bolj mirno kot prej.

Video posnema pot do večnega miru - ali vsaj oznako zanj. Preverite spodaj:

Več o Mi smo mogočni

Več povezav nam je všeč

MOČNA ZGODOVINA

RUSKA FRONT JUNIJ 1941 - MAJ 1945

Ruski vojaki dvignejo Rdečo zastavo nad ponovno zavzeto tovarno v Stalingradu.

Medtem je sovjetski general Georgi Zhukov zgradil nove sile na obeh straneh mesta in novembra sprožil obsežen napad, da bi obkrožil in ujel von Paulusovo vojsko. Hitler je prepovedal izbruhniti, zato je šesta armada zdržala do februarja 1943, ko so se njeni izčrpani ostanki predali.

Nemci so med Stalingradsko kampanjo izgubili skupaj 500.000 mož, od tega 91.000 ujetih.


Sovjeti vračajo udarec

Med hudimi boji v Stalingradu je Stalin poslal generala Georgija Žukova na jug, da bi začel graditi sile za protinapad. V sodelovanju z generalom Aleksandrom Vasilevskim je kopičil čete v stepah severno in južno od Stalingrada. 19. novembra so Sovjeti začeli operacijo Uran, v kateri so tri vojske prečkale reko Don in se zrušile skozi romunsko tretjo armado. Južno od Stalingrada sta 20. novembra napadli dve sovjetski vojski, ki sta razbili romunsko četrto armado. Z razpadom sil osi so sovjetske čete dirkale okoli Stalingrada v masivni dvojni ovojnici.

Ko so se 23. novembra združile pri Kalachu, so sovjetske sile uspešno obkrožile 6. armado, ki je ujela okoli 250.000 vojakov osi. Za podporo ofenzivi so bili izvedeni napadi drugje vzdolž vzhodne fronte, da bi Nemcem preprečili pošiljanje okrepitev v Stalingrad. Čeprav je nemško vrhovno poveljstvo želelo Paulusu odrediti preboj, je Hitler zavrnil in ga je načelnik Luftwaffe Hermann Göring prepričal, da je 6. armado mogoče dobaviti po zraku. To se je na koncu izkazalo za nemogoče in razmere za Paulusove moške so se začele slabšati.

Medtem ko so se sovjetske sile potiskale proti vzhodu, so druge začele zaostrovati obroč okoli Paulusa v Stalingradu. Hudi boji so se začeli, ko so Nemce prisilili na vse manjše območje. 12. decembra je feldmaršal Erich von Manstein začel operacijo Zimska nevihta, vendar se ni mogel prebiti v oblegano 6. armado. Sovjeti so se 16. decembra odzvali z novo protiofanzivo (operacija Mali Saturn) in začeli Nemce odganjati na široko fronto, s čimer so Nemci končali upanje za razbremenitev Stalingrada. V mestu so se Paulusovi možje vztrajno upirali, a so se kmalu soočili s pomanjkanjem streliva. Ker je bil položaj obupan, je Paulus prosil Hitlerja za dovoljenje za predajo, a so ga zavrnili.

30. januarja je Hitler Paulusa povišal v feldmaršala. Ker še ni bil ujet noben nemški feldmaršal, je pričakoval, da se bo boril do konca ali naredil samomor. Naslednji dan je bil Paulus ujet, ko so Sovjeti zasedli njegov sedež. 2. februarja 1943 se je predal zadnji žep nemškega odpora, ki je končal več kot petmesečni boj.


Bitka pri Stalingradu se konča - ZGODOVINA

Bitka pri Stalingradu velja za eno od prelomnic druge svetovne vojne. Borili so se med Sovjetsko zvezo in silami osi, ki jih je vodila nacistična Nemčija, v obdobju nekaj mesecev med avgustom 1942 in februarjem 1943. Obe strani sta utrpeli ogromne žrtve. Nemška vojska je utrpela še posebej velike izgube, kar je učinkovito končalo nacistično invazijo na Rusijo. Pravzaprav v celotni vojni ni bilo večjih nemških zmag na vzhodni fronti.

Ozadje

Potem ko je Rdeča armada skoraj v zadnjem trenutku ustavila nemško napredovanje proti Moskvi, je Hitler spoznal, da nima dovolj številke, da bi sprožil vsestranski napad vzdolž fronte. Namesto tega se je odločil preusmeriti nemške napade na južno ruske dežele, bogate z nafto. Operacija Modra, kot je bila znana, se je začela konec junija 1942 in presenetila Ruse, ki so pričakovali ponovni napad na Moskvo. Kljub temu je močan odpor pri Voronežu Sovjetom kupil dovolj časa, da pokličejo okrepitve.

Hitler se je hitro razjezil zaradi počasnega napredovanja svojih vojsk, ki so jih razdelile na dve enoti skupine armadov z imenom A in B. Skupina armade A je imela večino oklepov in ji je bilo ukazano zavarovati naftna polja. Medtem je bilo lažje oklepni skupini armad B povedano, naj nadaljuje proti Stalingradu in zavzame mesto, da prepreči napad na nemško krilo. Stalingrad je bil strateško pomemben tako zaradi svoje lokacije na reki Volgi kot zaradi svoje propagandne vrednosti. Preimenovan po sovjetskem vladarju Josefu Stalinu, bi njegov padec Moskvi poslal sporočilo, da je Hitler upal, da bo povzročilo zlom morale.

Priprave na bitko

Nemško pot proti Stalingradu je vodila 6. armada pod vodstvom generala Friedricha Paulusa. To je podprla 4. tankovska armada generala Hermanna Hotha. V tej zgodnji fazi je bilo vključenih približno četrt milijona nemških vojakov, sovjetskih sil pa komaj 180.000, čeprav se bo nekaj mesecev kasneje na vsaki strani velike bitke borilo več kot milijon mož.

Ko je postalo jasno, kaj nameravajo nacisti, je Stalin ukazal generalu Andreju Yeryomenku v Stalingrad. Ko je prišel tja, je general odredil, da se mestu odvzamejo zaloge in se pripravi na boj v bližnji okolici v samem mestu. V podporo temu cilju so bile utrjene številne stavbe. Nekaterim civilnim prebivalcem mesta je bilo dovoljeno, da odidejo, vendar je veliko število ostalo po Stalinovih ukazih, za katere je menil, da bi živo mesto ” dalo večjo spodbudo njegovim vojakom, da ga branijo.

Začetek bitke

Pred napredujočimi kopenskimi silami je letalom pod vodstvom generala Wolframa von Richthofena uspelo vzpostaviti nadzor nad nebom nad Stalingradom. Zrušeno je bilo ogromno bomb, kar je povzročilo velike civilne žrtve. Medtem se je skupina vojske B potisnila proti zahodu in do prvega dne septembra dosegla Volgo na jugu mesta. To je prekinil oskrbovalno linijo za Sovjete, ki so zdaj lahko prišli le do okrepitve s prečkanjem reke pod pogosto težkim napadom nemških sil.

Paulus in njegova 6. armada sta se 13. septembra, približno teden dni po prihodu na kraj dogodka, začela premikati v samo mesto. Podporo je dala 4. tankovska armada v južnih predmestjih. Glavni cilj na tej stopnji je bilo pristajalno območje reke in bližnji hrib Mamayev Kurgan ter glavna železniška postaja. Ruski zagovorniki, ki jim poveljuje generalpolkovnik Vasilij Čujkov se je kljub slabšemu številu zelo trdno obranil. Chuikov se je odločil zmanjšati to pomanjkljivost, tako da je ostal tesno povezan z Nemci.

Boji v mestu

Že nekaj tednov so v Stalingradu divjali hudi ulični boji, številni vojaki so po napotitvi pričakovali, da bodo živeli manj kot en dan. Vse bolj uničene zgradbe mesta so postale dom ostrostrelcev in gverilcev, zaradi česar je bilo mesto še bolj nevarno. Obupani spopadi sovjetske vojske jim niso mogli preprečiti, da bi jih do konca oktobra prisilili nazaj v le 10% mesta, čeprav so nacistične čete do te točke utrpele velike žrtve. Hitler je ukazal, naj se za varovanje bokov pripeljejo romunski in italijanski vojaki, medtem ko je bilo nekaj letal premeščenih iz severnoafriške kampanje.

Medtem ko so se ulični boji nadaljevali, je Stalin ukazal Žukovu, naj zbere dovolj sil za protinapad. On je skupaj z generalom Aleksandrom Vasilevskim združeval vojsko na širokih stepskih ravnicah južno in severno od mesta, 19. novembra pa je začela operacija Uran. V tem napadu so tri ruske vojske prečkale reko Don in uničile romunsko tretjo armado. Naslednji dan je bila romunska četrta armada razbita tudi zaradi nadaljnjega napada dveh sovjetskih vojsk. Sovjeti so to zmedo izkoristili, da so obkrožili mesto, takrat še nemško 6. armado.

Obleganje Stalingrada

S četrt milijona sil osi, obkroženih z Rusi, so nemški generali prosili Hitlerja, naj jim omogoči preboj. Vendar je Hitler zavrnil in vztrajal, ob podpori Goeringa, da se lahko z zračnimi kapljicami ponovno oskrbijo obkrožene vojake. Kot je bil opozorjen Hitler, v tem primeru to ni bilo mogoče in Paulus in njegove čete so začeli trpeti vse težje razmere. Ko so videli, kaj se je zgodilo, so se nekatere sovjetske sile približale Paulusu, druge pa so se potisnile proti vzhodu. Do začetka decembra so bili Nemci prisiljeni na tako majhno območje, da se je zlom zdel najboljša možnost.

V tem primeru je bila operacija Winter Storm, kot so poimenovali poskus izbruha, neuspešna. Sovjeti so sredi meseca odgovorili z operacijo Mali Saturn, s čimer so sile osi dovolj potisnile nazaj, da je bilo nemogoče olajšati Stalingrad. Ker so bile razmere v mestu zdaj nevzdržne, je Paulus Hitlerju poslal sporočilo, naj mu dovoli predajo. Hitler je prošnjo zavrnil in ga namesto tega povišal v feldmaršala, ki je bil simbolno dejanje, saj še nikoli ni bil ujet noben nemški feldmaršal. Paulusu so povedali, da mora storiti samomor, čeprav je to zavrnil in je bil 31. januarja res ujet. Dva dni kasneje je bil zatrt zadnji nemški odpor.

Posledice

Obe strani sta v bitki pri Stalingradu utrpeli velike izgube, pri čemer je umrlo skoraj pol milijona sovjetskih vojakov in utrpelo več kot 600.000 ran, prav tako pa je bilo ubitih ali ranjenih približno 700.000 vojakov osi. Obupani pogoji obleganja so povzročili, da je kar 40.000 mestnega civilnega prebivalstva postalo žrtev bombnih napadov ali lakote in bolezni. Kritično je bilo ujetih več kot 90.000 nemških vojakov, od katerih večina ne bi preživela, da bi se vrnila domov. Nekaj ​​tednov pozneje je Rdeča armada sprožila številne napade nad reko Don, s čimer je nemško armadsko skupino A potisnila iz regije Kavkaz in za Sovjete zavarovala naftna polja.


Baza podatkov o drugi svetovni vojni


ww2dbase Južno rusko mesto Stalingrad je bilo glavno industrijsko mesto, ki je med drugo opremo proizvajalo tanke za sovjetsko vojno. Kar zadeva lokacijo, je mesto sedelo na boku poti proti naftnim poljem v Kavkazu, hkrati pa je bilo tudi pomembno transportno središče med severno Rusijo in Kaspijskim morjem. Nazadnje, samo dejstvo, da je nosilo ime sovjetskega voditelja Jožefa Stalina, je dalo Adolfu Hitlerju večji razlog, da je mesto osvojil zaradi moralnih razlogov.

ww2dbase Poleti 1942 so nemške, italijanske, romunske, madžarske in hrvaške sile, organizirane kot skupina nemške vojske Jug (B), v kateri je bila 6. armada pod generalpolkovnikom Friedrichom Paulusom in 4. tankovska armada pod vodstvom Hermanna Hotha, proti Stalingradu. Začetni napadi so bili zelo uspešni, zato je Hitler 4. tankovsko vojsko prestavil iz ofenzive Stalingrad, da bi se pridružil skupini armad Jug (A), ki se je približevala kavkaškim naftnim poljem. Ta poteza pa je povzročila velike prometne zastoje na neustreznih cestnih sistemih Rusije in upočasnila načrte za napad za teden dni. Glede na to zamudo si je Hitler premislil in 4. tankovsko armado ponovno dodelil nazaj v skupino armad Jug (B) za Stalingrad. Do konca julija 1942 so Nemci prisilili svojo pot čez reko Don. Na tej točki so Nemci začeli razporejati italijanske, romunske, madžarske in hrvaške sile na svojem severnem boku, napad Stalingrada pa prepustili nemškim silam. Edina izjema je bil hrvaški 369. okrepljeni pehotni polk, ki se je boril skupaj z nemško 100. jaeger divizijo.

ww2dbase Stalin je prepoznal grožnjo Stalingradu in 1. avgusta 1942 imenoval generalpolkovnika Andreja Yeryomenka za poveljnika jugovzhodne fronte za načrtovanje obrambe. Politični komisar Nikita Hruščov je bil dodeljen za pomoč Yeryomenku. Med prvimi ukazi, ki jih je izdal Yeryomenko, je bilo selitev mestnih žitnih, živinskih in železniških vagonov proti vzhodu čez reko Volgo. Nato je sovjetske enote takoj vzhodno od reke Volge organiziral v 62. armado, ki je bila kasneje 11. septembra 1942 postavljena pod poveljstvo generalpolkovnika Vasilija Čuikova.

ww2dbase Prvi napadi na mesto so bili v obliki zračnih napadov Nemcev Luftflotte 4 pod poveljstvom generalpolkovnika Wolframa von Richthofena, ki cilja na ladijski promet po reki Volgi in znane obrambne utrdbe. Med 25. in 31. julijem je bilo na reki potopljenih 32 sovjetskih ladij, nadaljnjih 9 pa je bilo resno poškodovanih. Kar zadeva mesto, je prejelo približno 1.000 ton bomb, ki so poškodovale približno 80% njegovih struktur. Ko so tanki za olje eksplodirali in se je njihova vsebina razlila, je v Volgo pritekla tokovina gorečega olja in bencina, dokler ni reka v ognju. Stalingrad je postal ogromen kup ruševin in naplavin, ki se raztezajo ob bregovih Volge. " 23. avgusta je množično letalsko bombardiranje povzročilo požar, ki je ubil na tisoče ljudi. Sovjetske letalske sile so bile na splošno neučinkovite pri preprečevanju zračnih napadov. Do 31. avgusta je bilo v uporabi le 192 letal, od tega le 57 lovcev. Kljub nemški letalski premoči in težkim bombnim napadom pa so nekatere tovarne nadaljevale svoje delo in izločile tanke in vojno zalogo, dokler tega niso zmogle več, takrat pa so bili delavci vpoklicani v sovjetsko vojsko.

ww2dbase Konec avgusta je nemška armadska skupina Jug (B) dosegla reko Volgo severno od Stalingrada. Do 1. septembra so sovjetske sile lahko le okrepile mesto s prečkanjem reke, saj je bilo mesto zdaj obdano s treh strani. Medtem so bili rečni prehodi še naprej podvrženi nemškim napadom, zdaj po zraku in s topništvom. Da bi ohranil moč sovjetskih rednih turistov, je Chuikov kot prvo obrambno linijo napotil ženske in vpoklicane civiliste. V poročilu po angažmaju, ki ga je napisal častnik nemške 16. tankovske divizije, je bilo zapisano, da je bil boj proti utišanju 37 protiletalskih baterij (ki so bile uporabljene v protitankovskih vlogah) težak, zato je bil šokiran, ko je ugotovil, da jih je posadila ženske. Zjutraj, 5. septembra, sta sovjetska 24. in 66. armada začeli protinapad proti nemškemu XIV tankovskemu korpusu, vendar je bila ta premaknjena proti vrhunski ognjeni moči, zlasti iz zraka, ki je uničila 30 od 120 tanki, ki so jih sovjetske sile izgubile v napadu. Sovjetska 1. gardijska armada in 24. armada sta 18. septembra začeli ofenzivo proti VIII. Armeekorps v Kotlubanu pri Stalingradu. Tudi nemški potapljaški bombniki Ju 87 Stuka so imeli pomembno vlogo pri odbijanju napada, saj so uničili 41 od 106 sovjetskih tankov, uničenih zjutraj, lovci Bf 109 pa so med napadom sestrelili tudi 77 sovjetskih lovcev. Do konca septembra je Chuikov spoznal, da ne more vzdržati bitke pri izčrpavanju, zato se je odločil, da se poglobi v mestno pokrajino in tako zmanjša nemško prednost nadzora zraka. Poleg tega je razvil tudi taktiko "hugging ", ki je držala njegove prve črte zelo blizu nemških linij, kar je Nemcem tudi odvzelo možnost uporabe potapljaških bombnikov za podporo kopenskim četam zaradi nevarnosti, da bi zadeli nemške čete.

ww2dbase 28. julija 1942 je Stalin izdal ukaz št. 227, s katerim je branil sovjetskim četam prepovedal celo korak nazaj. Hruščov in drugi politični komisarji, poslani v Stalingrad, so bili tisti, ki so nadzorovali ta red. Vsi, ki so se umaknili s frontne črte, so veljali za dezerterje in strahopetce, pripeljani pa so bili pred vojaško sodišče, ki je običajno izrekalo smrtne kazni ali obtožene preneslo v kazenske bataljone. Bilo je tudi primerov, ko so dezerterje ustrelili na kraju samem. Čeprav se je bitka nadaljevala in se je vse več mesta počasi spreminjalo v ruševine, je Stalin še naprej prepovedoval civilistom evakuacijo, zato so jim ukazali, naj se pridružijo boju ali pomagajo pri izgradnji obrambnih struktur. Vsak civilist, ki je odkril skrivno evakuacijo mesta, tako kot njihovi vojaški kolegi, so prav tako kršili odredbo št. 227.

ww2dbase Bitka za Stalingrad se je v tem času spremenila v hude ulične spore. Vsaka stavba je bila spremenjena v sovjetske trdnjave, celo kanalizacijski rovi so postali bojišča. Železniška postaja je postala prizorišče hudih bojev na posebej silovit dan, ranžirna postaja se je v šestih urah 14 -krat zamenjala za roke, Nemci pa so jo končno zavzeli le zato, ker je bila tam postavljena sovjetska enota popolnoma izbrisana. V stanovanjski hiši na robu trga v središču mesta se je vod Yakova Pavlova po valovih nemških napadov branil pred valovi. Nemška prizadevanja za zavzetje te stanovanjske stavbe so bila tako draga, da so Nemci stavbo označili kot trdnjavo na svojih terenskih zemljevidih, medtem ko so jo Sovjeti poimenovali Hiša Pavlova in Hiša 34. Chuikov je v svojem poveljniškem bunkerju dejal, da bi sovražnik lahko pod enim pogojem zavzel Stalingrad le, če bi bil ubit vsak izmed branilcev. "

ww2dbase Medtem ko je nemški Luftwaffe podnevi nadzoroval zrak, sovjetske letalske sile so ponoči prikradle majhne bombne napade. Ti napadi so bili na splošno neučinkoviti in so bili bolj obravnavani kot nadloga in ne grožnja.

ww2dbase With the city gradually being reduced to rubble, snipers on both sides became more and more active as they began to gain more and more hiding spots. The most successful Soviet sniper was Vasily Zaytsev, who claimed somewhere between 200 to 400 kills he became an effective centerpiece for Soviet propaganda aimed at raising morale.

ww2dbase On 5 Oct, 900 dive bombing sorties were flown against Soviet positions at the Dzerzhinskiy Tractor Factory, wiping out entire regiments of troops entrenched there. On 14 Oct, 2,000 sorties were flown, dropping 600 tons of bombs against various Soviet positions. By this time, the Soviet forces in Stalingrad were forced into a 910-meter strip of land on the bank of the Volga River, running out of supplies due to the German control of the air over the river. Also on 14 Oct, a renewed German attack against the Soviet forces, pushing for the following 10 days, but they failed to eliminate final Soviet foothold on the west bank of the Volga River. On 8 Nov, the Luftwaffe at Stalingrad took a heavy blow not from the Soviets but rather from Hitler, who had transferred entire units of Luftflotte 4 to southern Europe in response to the Allied landings in North Africa. The Soviet Air Force suddenly found an opportunity to rival the German air forces in the region, right at the time when Moscow was planning on launching a major counter-offensive to take advantage of the oncoming winter and its effects on German tanks.

ww2dbase On 19 Nov 1942, the Soviet offensive, Operation Uranus, was launched, oversaw by Marshal Georgi Zhukov and tactically led by General Nikolai Vatutin. The Soviet 1st Guards Army, the 5th Tank Army, and the 21st Army shattered the northern flank, manned by the Romanian 3rd Army, on the first day. Silesian soldier of the German Sixth Army Joachim Wieder recalled the fighting:

The 19th of November will live in my memory as a day of black disaster. At the break of dawn on this gloomy, foggy day in the late autumn, during which lashing snowstorms were soon to appear. Russians attacked like lightning from the north and the following day from the east, pressing our entire Sixth Army into an iron vice.

ww2dbase On 20 Nov, two additional Soviet armies joined in on the attack. By 21 Nov, the third day of the offensive, the Soviets had already surrounded Stalingrad along with 290,000 Axis troops inside. Hitler's advisors immediately suggested the troops trapped within to break out and form a new line at the western bank of the Don River, but Hitler refused, while chief of the Luftwaffe Hermann Göring promised that his aircraft would be able to deliver all the supplies the 270,000 to 300,000 men needed to continue the fighting. Göring had failed to recognize that the German 6th Army in Stalingrad required 800 tons of supplies each day, and available aircraft in the area only had the capacity of 117.5 tons. This deficiency, coupled with bad weather, and the increasing Soviet Air Force threat, meant that only an average of 94 tons of supplies were actually delivered per day. On 23 Dec, the Soviet 24th Tank Corps under Major General Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov captured the airfield at Tatsinskaya, forcing the German aircraft located there to relocate to Salsk, which was 200 miles from Stalingrad and made the resupply mission even more difficult. By mid-Jan 1943, Salsk was abandoned after a closer airfield at Zverevo near Shakhty was established, but Soviet forces repeatedly attacked this new location, disrupting flight schedules and damaging or even destroying aircraft. Between 24 Nov 1942 and 31 Jan 1943, the German Luftwaffe lost 296 Ju 52 aircraft, 169 He 111 aircraft, 42 Ju 86 aircraft, 9 Fw 200 aircraft, 5 He 177 aircraft, and 1 Ju 290 aircraft while attempting to supply the troops in Stalingrad. Trapped in Stalingrad, men of the German 6th Army began to suffer from the effects of starvation.

ww2dbase On 19 Dec, the Soviet troops declared victory in Stalingrad. This was rather premature, as heavy fighting would continue.

ww2dbase On 12 Dec, the German Army Group Don was formed under Erich von Manstein. When this new unit reached Stalingrad on 21 Dec, Manstein asked Paulus to break out, but Paulus refused, citing Hitler's prior orders for him to hold the city. At the end of Dec 1942, Paulus sent a message to Berlin detailing the dire situation, but Hitler did not change his mind.

ww2dbase As the weather became colder, the Volga River froze over, and the Soviets were now able to supply the small Soviet contingent in the city with trucks. On 16 Dec, the Soviet forces launched Operation Little Saturn in an attempt to cut off the entire German Army Group South by securing the Don River the attempt was not successful, but it greatly disrupted German operations in the Caucasus region, for example forcing Army Group South (A) to pull back to within 250 kilometers from Stalingrad to consolidate German positions in the area. On 8 Jan 1943, Soviet Lieutenant General Konstantin Rokossovsky demanded Paulus to surrender, which was rejected. "Capitulation is impossible. The 6th Army will do its historic duty at Stalingrad until the last man", Hitler ordered. "Stand fast, not a step back". German Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel agreed with Hitler's order, noting that a withdraw only by a few miles would result in a near complete loss of all heavy equipment, and without the heavy weapons the troops withdrawn would be vulnerable to the Soviet counterattack that would undoubtedly take place immediately afterwards.

ww2dbase On 10 Jan 1943, a Soviet offensive cut the German garrison in Stalingrad into two. A new phase of street fighting began, and it was now the Soviets who advanced steadily but were surprised by the ferocity of the defenders who had no choice but to fight until the end. On 16 Jan, Pitomnik Airfield was captured by the Soviets, followed by Gumrak Airfield on 23 Jan, and then the smaller Stalingradskaya Airfield on 24 Jan. This meant that German aircraft were no longer able to land in Stalingrad to deliver supplies, thus the only supplies coming in were limited to the small amounts that could be paradropped to German positions.

ww2dbase On 31 Jan, Hitler promoted Paulus to the rank of field marshal on the basis that no German field marshal had ever surrendered to the enemy in history. Despite Paulus' prior determination to obey Hitler's orders, he finally broke down on 2 Feb and surrendered. By this time, there were only 91,000 men left, meaning that about 200,000 were killed in action or simply died of starvation in the past two months. 3,000 of those who surrendered were Romanians 22 officers with general ranks were among the prisoners of war. At his command post at a department store building, Paulus surrendered to General Mikhail Shumilov of the Soviet 64th Army. Fighting ceased about two days after. Hitler was furious, noting that Paulus "could have freed himself from all sorrow and ascended into eternity and national immortality, but he prefers to go to Moscow."

ww2dbase During this battle, the Axis forces suffered an estimated 850,000 casualties, half of which were German some estimates ran much higher, with the greatest being the Soviet official report which noted that 1,500,000 Axis personnel were killed in this battle, though that number was generally regarded as a gross over-estimation. The Soviet Union suffered 1,129,619 military (which included 478,741 killed or missing) and about 40,000 civilian casualties. The 40,000 figure included only civilians within Stalingrad city there were also significant civilian casualties in the suburbs that could not be determined.

ww2dbase The German government did not reveal this defeat until Jan 1943 it became the first time that Germany publicly acknowledged a military failure. Of the 91,000 captured, only about 5,000 were repatriated to Germany in 1955 most of the remaining, already weakened by the lack of food and medicine during the encirclement, failed to survive the harsh living conditions of prisoner of war camps and labor camps where they were sent to. Stalingrad itself was reduced to almost nothing after the fighting. As Wieder later remembered, "[f]or half a year destruction and death had celebrated orgies here and hardly left anything save the torn stumps of houses, naked rows of walls, chimneys sticking up from vast piles of rubble, gutted factories, formless hunks of asphalt."

ww2dbase Viri:
Isabel Denny, The Fall of Hitler's Fortress City
Walter Görlitz, In the Service of the Reich
Wikipedija

Last Major Update: Aug 2010

Battle of Stalingrad Interactive Map

Battle of Stalingrad Timeline

5 Apr 1942 Adolf Hitler issued Führer Directive No. 41, calling for the invasion of the Caucasus region and Stalingrad, both in southern Russia.
14 Jul 1942 Martial law was declared in Stalingrad, Russia.
16 Jul 1942 Soviet forces evacuated Boguchar in Voronezh Oblast and Milerovo in Rostov Oblast in southern Russia as German troops advanced toward Stalingrad.
19 Jul 1942 The Soviet 66th Naval Rifle Brigade arrived at Stalingrad, Russia and was assigned to the Soviet 64th Army.
22 Jul 1942 German 6th Army reached the great bend in the Don River near Stalingrad, Russia.
26 Jul 1942 German 6th Army broke through the lines held by Soviet 62nd Army and 64th Army west of Stalingrad, Russia.
30 Jul 1942 German Armeegruppe B attacked the Soviet bridgehead at Kalach-na-Donu in southern Russia, west of Stalingrad.
31 Jul 1942 Adolf Hitler reversed his order of 23 Jul 1942 which detached the 4th Panzer Army from the assault on Stalingrad, Russia the 4th Panzer Army began moving north toward Stalingrad, which caused some logistical issues as other German units moved south along the same roads in the invasion of the Caucasus region.
1 Aug 1942 Marshal Andrey Yeryomenko was appointed the commanding officer of the Soviet Southeastern Front, charged with planning the defense of Stalingrad in southern Russia. Meanwhile, German 4th Panzer Army attacked Kotelnikovo located 100 miles southwest of Stalingrad, surprising Soviet defenders.
2 Aug 1942 German 4th Panzer Army captured Kotelnikovo, Russia.
4 Aug 1942 Elements of German 4.Panzerarmee crossed the Aksay River en route to Stalingrad, Russia.
7 Aug 1942 Elements of German 6.Armee crossed the Don River near Kalach-na-Donu, southern Russia, west of Stalingrad.
9 Aug 1942 German 4.Panzerarmee reached the eastern shore of the Don River bend west of Stalingrad, Russia, threatening to envelope Soviet 62nd Army and 64th Army on the western shore.
10 Aug 1942 Troops of the German 6.Armee crossed the Don River in southern Russia, reaching the suburbs of Stalingrad.
11 Aug 1942 German 6th Army captured Kalach in southern Russia and linked up with German 4th Panzer Army.
14 Aug 1942 Troops of German 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army set fire to wooded areas west of the Don River in southern Russia in an attempt to drive out the remnants of the surrounded Soviet 62nd Army.
15 Aug 1942 Troops of German 6th Army attacked the remnants of Soviet 4th Tank Army on the west bank of the Don River bend at 0430 hours.
16 Aug 1942 German Luftwaffe conducted its first major bombing raid on Stalingrad, Russia.
20 Aug 1942 The German 6.Armee began to attack Stalingrad, Russia, crossing the Don River by inflatable boats.
22 Aug 1942 German 16th Panzer Division began to cross the Don River toward Stalingrad, Russia.
23 Aug 1942 The attack on Stalingrad in southern Russia opened with massive air raid lasting 48 hours involving more than 4,000 sorties while German ground units continued to reach the Volga River north and south of the city. At Chebotarevskiy 115 miles to the northeast, 700 Italian horse-mounted cavalry troops overran a Soviet artillery position by surprise, capturing 500 troops, 4 guns, 10 mortars, and 50 machine guns.
24 Aug 1942 Marshal Georgy Zhukov was sent to Stalingrad, Russia to take over the defense.
25 Aug 1942 Joseph Stalin declared Stalingrad, Russia to be in a state of siege, but ordered all heavy factories to remain in position to supply combat vehicles directly to front line units. Meanwhile, German 6th Army continued the attempt to break into the city from the north, but making little advance.
27 Aug 1942 German 16th Panzer Division, out of fuel to move further, dug in north of Stalingrad, Russia to wait for the German 6th Army to catch up to reinforce its position. 16 miles south of Stalingrad, German 4th Panzer Division made slow progress due to heavy resistance near Lake Sarpa.
29 Aug 1942 German 4th Panzer Army broke through Soviet lines 15 miles south of Stalingrad, Russia.
31 Aug 1942 Tanks of the German 4th Panzer Army reached the Stalingrad-Morozovsk railway on the outskirts of Stalingrad, Russia.
1. septembra 1942 Soviet General Andrey Yeremenko pulled Soviet 62nd Army and 64th Army back near Stalingrad, Russia to avoid encirclement.
3 Sep 1942 The German 6.Armee and 4.Panzerarmee finally linked up near Stalingrad in southern Russia, but were rebuffed in their attempts to enter the city.
5 Sep 1942 Soviet 24th Army and 66th Army organized a counter attack against German XIV Panzer Corps at Stalingrad, Russia. Launched in the morning, it was called off around noon time 30 of the 120 tanks committed to this attack were destroyed, nearly all of which to German Luftwaffe aircraft.
7 Sep 1942 The German 6.Armee units began advancing through Stalingrad, Russia to the Volga shores.
10 Sep 1942 German 29th Motorized Infantry Division cut off Soviet 64th Army south of Stalingrad, Russia.
11 Sep 1942 Lieutenant General Vasiliy Chuikov took command of the newly formed Soviet 62nd Army located on the east bank of the Volga River at Stalingrad in southern Russia.
12 Sep 1942 General Friedrich Paulus began a fresh offensive toward Stalingrad, Russia with artillery and aerial bombardments. His ground troops then reached the strategically vital hill 102 of Mamayev Kurgan which overlooked the city. This hill, an important line of defence for centuries, would now see a bloody struggle by both sides as its loss would allow the Germans to control the entire river, across which all Soviet supplies had to travel. By the end of the day, the Soviet 62nd Army had been reduced to 90 tanks, 700 mortars and 20,000 men.
13 Sep 1942 Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division engaged in heavy fighting at Mamayev Kurgan and Railway Station No. 1 at Stalingrad, Russia it would lose a third of its strength in the fighting.
14 Sep 1942 Soviet 62nd Army launched a counterattack in Stalingrad, Russia at dawn, but it would ultimately be turned back by German troops, with the Soviets hemming themselves into a narrow strip along the Volga River. From the other side of the river, Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division crossed on barges amidst aerial and artillery bombardment to prevent German 71st Division and 76th Division from penetrating Soviet 62nd Army lines and reaching the Volga River.
15 Sep 1942 German infantry made repeated assaults at the Mamayev Kurgan hill in Stalingrad, Russia without success heavy fighting caused heavy casualties on both sides. Elsewhere in the city, German infantry advanced down the Tsaritsa River gorge toward the Volga River.
16 Sep 1942 The Soviet NKVD rifle battalion stationed on Mamayev Kurgan hill in Stalingrad, Russia continued to fight off German attempts to take this high point.
17 Sep 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, German and Soviet troops engaged in heavy fighting at the Mamayev Kurgan hill, the Central Station, the grain elevator, and the apartment building soon to be named Pavlov's House. Also in the city, German troops advanced along the Tsaritsa River toward the banks of the Volga River where Soviet reinforcements were arriving from the other side.
18 Sep 1942 Soviet 1st Guards Army and 24th Army attacked German VIII Army Corps at Kotluban 40 kilometers north of Stalingrad, Russia German Stuka dive bombers hampered the attack by destroying 41 of the 106 Soviet tanks committed, while escorting Bf 109 fighters destroyed 77 Soviet aircraft in the immediate area. In the city, heavy house-to-house fighting continued.
19 Sep 1942 Soviet 24th Army, 66th Army, and 1st Guards Army attempted another counterattack north of Stalingrad, Russia near Kotluban, but it was repulsed by German XIV Panzer Corps.
20 Sep 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, Soviet and German troops engaged in heavy fighting at the Mamayev Kurgan hill, in the Central Station, and the grain elevator.
22 Sep 1942 The Soviet 62nd Army was split in half by the German advance down the Taritsa River gorge in Stalingrad in southern Russia, and the German troops now held nearly the entire southern half of the city.
23 Sep 1942 Soviet 284th Rifle Division arrived in Stalingrad, Russia and was ferried across the Volga River to join the front lines as German troops attacked the landing site.
24 Sep 1942 German 94th Infantry Division and 24th Panzer Division effectively wiped out all Soviet units in the southern pocket in Stalingrad, Russia.
26 Sep 1942 The German troops begin another "final" attack in Stalingrad, Russia.
27 Sep 1942 German Luftwaffe unit III./KG 4 (flying He 111 bombers) flew its last bombing sortie over Stalingrad, Russia. The unit would soon be transported out of its base in Morozovsk, Russia for Germany to undergo glider towing training.
28 Sep 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, Sergeant Jacob Pavlov and three others assaulted the much shelled apartment block facing Solechnaya street, expelling the incumbent Germans with hand-grenades. In the cellar they found several badly wounded Soviet soldiers still holding out. "Pavlov's House" would become a boundary fortification, and a symbol of resistance. The handful of men defended the outpost for 58 days, against infantry, artillery and tank assaults.
3 Oct 1942 Heavy losses were incurred on both sides as the German 6.Armee pushed the Soviet 62nd Army back to the Volga River at Stalingrad, Russia.
4 Oct 1942 German XIV Panzer Korps attacked the Stalingrad Tractor Factory in Stalingrad, Russia.
14 Oct 1942 The German assault on the Stalingrad Tractor Factory in Stalingrad, Russia was aided by more than 2,000 sorties by aircraft of Luftflotte 4.
15 Oct 1942 German Stuka dive bombers of Luftflotte 4 flew 900 individual sorties against Soviet positions at the Stalingrad Tractor Factory in Stalingrad, Russia, wiping out several Soviet regiments.
15 Oct 1942 German Luftwaffe unit I./KG 100 (flying He 111 bombers) briefly returned to Stalino (now Donetsk), Ukraine to conduct three bombing raids on Stalingrad, Russia.
16 Oct 1942 The entire staff of the Soviet 339th Infantry Regiment was wiped out by German air attacks at Stalingrad, Russia.
22 Oct 1942 Most of the Red October and Barricade factories in northern Stalingrad, Russia were taken by German troops.
25 Oct 1942 Friedrich Paulus reported to Adolf Hitler that Stalingrad, Russia would be taken by 10 Nov 1942.
26 Oct 1942 In light of the positive report from Friedrich Paulus from Stalingrad, Russia, Adolf Hitler, from his Wehrwolf headquarters near of Vinnytsia in Ukraine, ordered some of the German units in that region to prepare to move north once Stalingrad was conquered.
31 Oct 1942 As Adolf Hitler was confident that Stalingrad, Russia would soon be under German control, he departed the Wehrwolf headquarters near of Vinnytsia, Ukraine and moved to the Wolfsschanze headquarters in Rastenburg, Germany (now Ketrzyn, Poland).
8 Nov 1942 Many units of the German Luftflotte 4 were transferred from Stalingrad, Russia to North Africa.
11 Nov 1942 German 6.Armee succeeded in reaching the Volga River in Stalingrad, Russia, with a 600-yard frontage near the Red October steel factory. In Germany, Hitler announced during Beer Hall Putsch celebration that Stalingrad, Russia was almost in German hands, but that he did not want to keep the city just because of its name.
19 Nov 1942 Having fought the Germans to a standstill, the Soviets launched a surprise counter-attack north and south of Stalingrad, Russia designed to encircle Friedrich Paulus's German 6th Army bogged down in the city.
20 Nov 1942 One day after the first Soviet offensive was launched at Stalingrad, Russia, a second one was launched south of the city against positions held by Romanian 4th Army Corps.
20 Nov 1942 Six He 111 bombers of German Luftwaffe group KG 55 flew an armed reconnaissance mission from their base at Morozovskaya, Russia over Stalingrad, Russia two aircraft failed to return.
22 Nov 1942 The encirclement of the German 6th Army around Stalingrad, Russia was completed when Soviet 4th Mechanized Corps and 4th Tank Corps met at Kalach-na-Donu after smashing through positions held by Romanian troops.
25 Nov 1942 He 111 aircraft from Tatsinskaya Airfield and Morozovskaya Airfield in Rostov Oblast, Russia flew 75 tons of supplies, mostly fuel, into Stalingrad, Russia.
26 Nov 1942 Low cloud ceiling of 200 meters and periodic snow showers hindered German ability to supply troops in Stalingrad, Russia on this day.
27 Nov 1942 Commanded by General Erich von Manstein, the German Armeegruppe Don was formed in southern Russia in order to relieve the trapped German 6th Army at Stalingrad, Russia.
30 Nov 1942 German Luftwaffe VIII. Fliegerkorps was relieved of all its combat duties. Instead, its aircraft stationed across Rostov Oblast, Russia were ordered to focus on flying supplies into Stalingrad, Russia.
3 Dec 1942 In southern Russia, German Armeegruppe Don received several divisions from Western Europe in preparation for the relief operation against Stalingrad, Russia, Operation Winter Tempest.
3 Dec 1942 In Stalingrad, Russia, after fierce hand-to–hand fighting, Soviet forces capture the L-shaped House where the Germans had been overlooking the Soviet positions along the Volga River for many weeks.
5 Dec 1942 Despite heavy fog, 17 He 111 and about 50 Ju 52/3m aircraft were able to fly 150 tons of supplies into Stalingrad, Russia.
12. decembra 1942 Operation Winter Tempest was launched towards Stalingrad, Russia with German 3 Panzer Divisions and 10 other divisions.
19 Dec 1942 Erich von Manstein's units reached a point 30 miles south of Stalingrad, Russia, which would be the extent of their advance.
21 Dec 1942 Kurt Zeitzler asked Adolf Hitler for permission for Friedrich Paulus' German 6.Armee, encircled within Stalingrad, Russia, to break out to meet Erich von Manstein's relief efforts from the outside. Hitler rejected it, noting that German troops were to hold Stalingrad.
22 Dec 1942 Kurt Zeitzler once again asked Adolf Hitler to allow the German 6.Armee to break out from Stalingrad, Russia to avoid the remnants of the army from being totally wiped out. Hitler again refused.
23 Dec 1942 Erich von Manstein's troops began to withdraw to Kotelnikovo, Russia where they started their offensive.
24 Dec 1942 Soviet troops launched an offensive against the German Armeegruppe Don near Stalingrad, Russia, piercing Romanian 4th Army's lines.
24 Dec 1942 Soviet tanks broke German defensive lines at Tatsinskaya Airfield in Rostov Oblast, southern Russia, an important airfield flying supplies into Stalingrad, Russia 124 Ju 52/3m aircraft were able to take into the air to escape, but 46 other aircraft were either damaged, destroyed, or abandoned as the Soviets captured Tatsinskaya. Elsewhere in Rostov Oblast, a similar attack was conducted on Morozovsk Airfield, but the Germans were able to repulse that attack.
25 Dec 1942 With the slaughter of over 12,000 horses, the Germans in Stalingrad, Russia received their last meat rations.
27 Dec 1942 Hitler authorized the German Armeegruppe A and Armeegruppe Don to withdraw 150 miles to a new defensive line in southern Russia.
2 Jan 1943 He 111 aircraft stationed at Morozovskaya Airfield, Rostov Oblast, Russia were evacuated. Since the aircraft could not take all the equipment and supplies with them, commanding officer of KG 55 Oberstleutnant Ernst Kühl remained behind with a small staff in the hopes that the ground troops would be able to blunt the Soviet offensive so that the aircraft could return.
4 Jan 1943 Soviet troops captured Morozovskaya Airfield, Rostov Oblast, Russia. Commanding officer of KG 55 Oberstleutnant Ernst Kühl and his small staff destroyed various equipment and supply dumps before evacuating.
8 Jan 1943 General Rokossovsky issued a surrender ultimatum to German 6th Army, which guaranteed their lives and safety until their return to Germany after the war. Paulus refused the ultimatum.
10 Jan 1943 Another Soviet offensive, Operation Ring, began at Stalingrad, Russia.
16 Jan 1943 Soviet troops captured Pitomnik Airfield west of Stalingrad, Russia, denying the Germans the ability to fly in supplies and fly out wounded men.
18 Jan 1943 Late in the day, three He 111 transport aircraft of German Luftwaffe unit III./KG 55 attempted to land at the small Gumrak Airfield at Stalingrad, Russia. The first landed but would not be able to takeoff again, the second made ten failed attempts at lining up with the wreck-strewn short runway but ultimately pushed its cargo of 20 sacks of bread out of the bomb bay doors without landing, and the third followed suit.
22 Jan 1943 German 6th Army engineers reported that the small Stalingradskaya Airfield close to the center of Stalingrad, Russia was ready to receive transport aircraft. Several He 111 aircraft arrived later on the same day with supplies, some of which would be fatally damaged when their landing gears became caught in bomb craters on the runway.
23 Jan 1943 The German-controlled Gumrak Airfield on the western side of Stalingrad, Russia was taken by Soviet troops.
24 Jan 1943 The Soviets once again demanded surrender from the encircled German forces in Stalingrad, Russia. Responding to Friedrich Paulus' message requesting permission to surrender as his men were now nearly out of ammunition and medical supplies, Adolf Hitler told Paulus to fight to the last man even if defeat was imminent. By the end of this day, the German forces in Stalingrad would be divided in two pockets and would have lost the use of the final airstrip available to them, Stalingradsaya Airfield.
25 Jan 1943 The remnants of the German 6.Armee were split in two pockets, north and south, in Stalingrad, Russia.
28 Jan 1943 As the German forces in Stalingrad, Russia were now divided into three pockets by Soviet attacks, Hermann Göring messaged Friedrich Paulus, noting that Paulus' stubborn defense, even if it led to self sacrifice, would go down in German history as one of the most heroic tales.
30 Jan 1943 In Germany, Hermann Göring publicly noted that the defense and sacrifice at Stalingrad, Russia would go down in history as a heroic tale.
30 Jan 1943 Soviet troops reached Red Square in central Stalingrad, Russia.
31. januar 1943 Out of food and ammunition, the southern half of the German 6.Armee in Stalingrad, Russia surrendered the final radio message coming out of this pocket was made at 1945 hours, which closed with the Morse abbreviation "CL", short for "Clear (I am closing my station)". Shortly after, 110 German transport aircraft take off for the northern pocket with supplies more than 90 of the aircraft found the illuminated triangular drop zone and released their loads.
1. februar 1943 Trapped in the ruins of a department store in Stalingrad, Russia, Friedrich Paulus surrendered the southern pocket along with 14 of his generals Paulus became the first German field marshal to surrender to an enemy force. Fighting continued in the northern pocket, however, and 85 of the 108 transport aircraft dispatched to airdrop supplies to the northern pocket were able to do so.
2. februar 1943 The last of the German Sixth Army surrendered in Stalingrad, Russia. On the same day, a German reconnaissance aircraft was dispatched to fly over Stalingrad, confirming that all fighting had ceased.
3. februar 1943 During the day, the German OKW issued an announcement to inform the German public of the defeat at Stalingrad, Russia. The message, read over the radio, was preceded by a solemn drum roll and was followed by the 2nd movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th symphony.
3. februar 1943 12 He 111 aircraft, with supplies on board, flew over the northern pocket of Stalingrad, Russia before dawn. Of the 11 aircraft that reached the intended drop zone, only 3 dropped some of their cargo, as they found no German activity.
4. februar 1943 In Germany, three days of national mourning began over the disaster at Stalingrad, Russia. All theatres, cinemas and night clubs were closed.
26 Mar 1943 Adolf Hitler informed Benito Mussolini that the Battle of Stalingrad had weakened the Soviet Union so much that the city would surely fall and the war would be won.

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Learn about the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–43) a brutal military campaign between Russia and Germany during World War II

NARRATOR: Summer 1942 - just one year after the invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler orders an offensive against the large city on the Volga that bears Stalin's name. In early August, Wehrmacht troops advance to the city limits of Stalingrad.

GERHARD DENGLER: "We thought that if we could cut off Stalingrad and with that the Volga, the war would be as good as over."

NARRATOR: Day after day, the German bombers attack. The city looks increasingly like a wasteland. In mid-September 1942, German soldiers enter Stalingrad. Many believe the enemy is almost defeated, that it's only a matter of crushing the last pockets of resistance. But the Soviet dictator is determined. The city will not be taken. Stalingrad is turned into a fortress. Even civilians pitch in.

RAISSA GALTSCHENKO: "There was an appeal to the soldiers: There is no more land for us beyond the Volga. We knew what we were defending, our homeland and, most of all, our city."

NARRATOR: There is bitter fighting among the ruins, street by street, house by house. Sometimes only floors separate the enemies. The hand-to-hand combat is savage. It lasts for weeks.

GÜNTER SCHRÖDER: "When the Russians suddenly charged in, we could do only one thing: pull out our spades and strike at them from below and hit the main artery below the head."

NARRATOR: The brutal battle now takes a daily toll of thousands of German and Soviet soldiers. By early November, the temperatures in Stalingrad drop to -18 degrees. The Volga freezes over. In the snowy steppes not far from the city, Red Army troops are gathering. Over a million soldiers stand at the ready, with orders to besiege the enemy. On November 19, 1942, they attack. The Germans have little to oppose such an overwhelming force. Within three days, the troops of the 6th Army are surrounded. Close to 300,000 German and allied soldiers are now under siege in Stalingrad.

HANS-ERDMANN SCHÖNBECK: "We feared that they would do to us what we had already done to hundreds of thousands of Russians. By then, there was no hope of mercy on either side. We knew what would happen to us."

NARRATOR: For Hitler, the Battle for Stalingrad is also a matter of pride. The 6th Army wants to capitulate. But he refuses. Leaving his soldiers to their fate. Thousands of lives are lost not only in combat, but also to hunger and cold.

GERHARD MÜNCH: "Thousands of soldiers lay unburied in the snow, thousands upon thousands. The road led through them, the wind swept over them. It breaks something inside you, that can never be healed."

NARRATOR: On February 2, 1943, the 6th Army surrenders against Hitler's will. For the Soviet Army, the first great triumph at a huge cost. Half a million Soviet soldiers die. Of the 300,000 German soldiers under siege, only one in three survives to face years of imprisonment. Only 6,000 German soldiers who fight in Stalingrad to the bitter end ever return home.


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