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Umetniška šola Slade

Umetniška šola Slade


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Umetniška šola Slade je bila ustanovljena leta 1871 z denarjem, ki ga je zapustil Felix Slade, bogati zbiratelj umetnosti iz Yorkshira. Prvi profesor umetnosti na Sladeu je bil Edward Poynter, ki se je zavzemal za francoski akademski sistem. Poynterjeve metode poučevanja so se običajno osredotočale na risanje in slikanje po živem modelu, razvoj kritične inteligence in razumevanje umetnostne zgodovine.

Ko je Edwarda Poynterja leta 1876 zamenjal Alphonse Legros, so študente poučevali predvsem demonstracije. Leta 1892 je Frederick Brown nasledil Alphonsa Legrosa kot profesorja likovne šole Slade Art School. Po besedah ​​Anne Pimlott Baker: "Nadaljujoč poučevanje in liberalni pogled Poynterja in Legrosa, je (Brown) zgradil risarsko šolo in poskušal razviti individualnost svojih učencev, hkrati pa jih spodbujal k študiju oblike s pomočjo analitike. namesto posnemajočega pristopa k risanju, se je vrnil k metodam mojstrov, kot je Ingres. Pritegnil je močno učiteljsko osebje, ki je vzpostavilo načelo, da morajo biti vsi učitelji umetniki. "

Frederick Brown je prepričal Henryja Tonksa, naj opusti medicino in postane eden njenih učiteljev. Tonksova biografinja Lynda Morris je trdila: "Tonks je svoje anatomsko znanje uporabil za poučevanje življenjske risbe kot hitre in inteligentne dejavnosti. Učence je napotil na stare mojstrske risbe v Britanskem muzeju in učence učil risati model po velikosti. videlo se je, merjeno na dosegu roke (velikost vida), kar jim je omogočilo nenehno popravljanje risbe za fizični predmet. " Brown je zaposlil tudi svojega prijatelja, Philipa Wilsona Steerja.

Umetniška šola Slade je pod vodstvom Browna in Tonksa ustvarila nekaj svojih najuglednejših umetnikov, vključno z Williamom Rothensteinom, Augustusom Johnom, Gwen John, Williamom Orpenom, Paulom Nashom, Wyndhamom Lewisom, Doro Carrington, Dorothy Brett, Spencer Gore, Jacobom Epsteinom, David Bomberg, Michel Salaman, Edna Waugh, Herbert Barnard Everett, Albert Rothenstein, Ambrose McEvoy, Ursula Tyrwhitt, Ida Nettleship in Gwen Salmond.

V obdobju pred prvo svetovno vojno je majhna skupina študentov zelo tesno sodelovala. To so bili Mark Gertler, Christopher Nevinson, Stanley Spencer, John S. Currie, Maxwell Gordon Lightfoot, Edward Wadsworth, Adrian Allinson in Rudolph Ihlee. Ta skupina je postala znana kot Coster Gang. Po besedah ​​Davida Boyda Haycocka, avtorja knjige A Crisis of Brilliance (2009), je bilo to "zato, ker so večinoma nosili črne drese, škrlatne dušilce in črne kape ali klobuke, kot so prodajalci sadja in zelenjave iz vozičkov na ulici".

Drugi pomemben učitelj na umetniški šoli Slade je bil Roger Fry. Zelo se je zanimal za vse oblike umetnosti. Maja 1910 je napisal članek za Revija Burlington na risbah afriškega Bushmana, kjer je pohvalil njihovo ostrino dojemanja in inteligenco oblikovanja. David Boyd Haycock je trdil, da je "Fry odprl svojo zavest širšemu področju umetniškega izražanja, čeprav mu to ni prineslo veliko prijateljev." Henry Tonks je prijatelju pripomnil: "Se ti ne zdi, da bi Fry morda našel kaj bolj zanimivega za pisati kot Bušmani." Tonks je bil zelo kritičen tudi do kubizma. Tonks je izjavil: "Ne morem poučevati tistega, v kar ne verjamem. Odstopil bom, če se ta govor o kubizmu ne ustavi; ubija me." Ta odnos je povečal mnenje, da je postal reakcionar.

Leta 1910 so Fry, Clive Bell in Desmond MacCarthy odšli v Pariz in po obisku "pariških trgovcev in zasebnih zbirateljev uredili izbor slik za razstavo v galerijah Grafton" v Mayfairu. To je vključevalo izbor slik Pabla Picassa, Henrija Matisseja, Paula Cézanneja, Édouarda Maneta, Paula Gauguina, Andréja Deraina in Vincenta Van Gogha. Kot je poudaril avtor knjige Crisis of Brilliance (2009): "Čeprav so bile nekatere od teh slik stare že dvajset ali celo trideset let - in štirje od petih predstavljenih velikih umetnikov so bili mrtvi - so bile za večino Londončanov nove." Ta razstava je imela izrazit vtis na delo Duncana Granta, Vanesse Bell in Spencerja Gore.

Henry Tonks je svojim učencem povedal, da jim lahko, čeprav jim ne more preprečiti obiska galerij Grafton, pove, "kako zelo bi bil vesel, če ne bi tvegali kontaminacije, ampak bi se izognili". Kritik za Časopis Pall Mall slike opisal kot "izhod iz ludnice". Robert Ross iz Morning Post se strinjajo in trdijo, da "čustva teh slikarjev ... niso zanimiva razen za študenta patologije in specialista za nenormalnosti". Ti komentarji so bili še posebej škodljivi za Fryja, saj je bila njegova žena pred kratkim predana ustanovi, ki trpi za shizofrenijo.

Paul Nash se je spomnil, da je videl Clauda Phillipsa, umetnostnega kritika Daily Telegraphje ob odhodu z razstave "vrgel katalog na prag galerij Grafton in ga žigosal." Williamu Rothensteinu tudi Fryjeva postimpresionistična razstava ni bila všeč. V svoji avtobiografiji je zapisal: Moški in spomini (1932), da se boji, da bo pretirana publiciteta razstave zapeljala mlajše umetnike iz "bolj osebnega, bolj natančnega dela".

Gilbert Spencer, brat Stanleyja Spencerja, je bil še eden, ki je študiral na Sladeu. Kasneje je zapisal, kako je Henry Tonks "govoril o predanosti, privilegiju, da je umetnik, da je narediti slabo risbo kot živeti z lažjo, in te ideale je vsadil z brezobzirno in usihajočo kritiko. Spomnim se, ko sem enkrat prišel domov in počutil sem se, kot da bi se spustil pod vlak, in Stan mi je rekel, naj to ne stori, saj je to storil vsem. " Tonks je kasneje priznal: "Vsekakor ne morem risati, čeprav imam strast do risanja; Nisem prepričan glede smeri črt; Nimam spretnosti pri roki, pri izražanju pa imam največ težav. Morda je to Ker sem tudi sam tako pomanjkljiv, imam dovolj poštenosti, da spodbudim svoje učence, naj se okrepijo tam, kjer sem šibek. "

Tonks si je pridobil sloves, da je do svojih učencev zelo oster. Randolph Schwabe je trdil: "Ko sem bil priča čudnemu prizoru, je v antično sobo prišel nov študent, zelo visok, težak človek, v zasebnem življenju amaterski pugilist. Sedel je tako kot drugi na nizkem sedežu blizu tal, se je po svojih najboljših močeh trudil, da bi pred njim upodobil igralsko zasedbo. Predvidevam, da misliš, da znaš risati. Študent se je zbral, se počasi dvignil na še višjo višino kot Tonks in ob pogledu navzdol odgovoril s potlačenim besom (vendar popolno pravičnostjo) - Če bi mislil, da znam risati - ne bi smel priti sem, kajne? Srečanje je imel boljše. Tonks ni imel ničesar povedati in je zapustil sobo. "


Constance Markievicz

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Constance Markievicz, v celoti Grofica Constance Georgine Markievicz, rojena Gore-Booth, Je zapisal tudi Markievicz Markiewicz, (rojena 4. februarja 1868, London, Anglija-umrla 15. julija 1927, Dublin, Irska), anglo-irska grofica in politična aktivistka, ki je bila prva ženska, izvoljena v britanski parlament (1918), čeprav je ni hotela sprejeti sedež. Bila je tudi edina ženska, ki je sodelovala v prvi Dáil Éireann (irska skupščina), v kateri je delovala kot ministrica za delo (1919–22).

Constance Gore-Booth se je rodila v anglo-irski aristokraciji in odraščala na posestvu svoje družine Lissadell v okrožju Sligo na Irskem. Njen oče, Sir Henry Gore-Booth, je bil posestnik in filantrop, njena sestra Eva pa je pozneje postala ključna oseba volilne pravice žensk. Constance so leta 1887 predstavili na dvoru kraljice Viktorije, leta 1893 pa se je vpisala na londonsko umetniško šolo Slade. V poznih 1890-ih je odpotovala v Pariz, kjer je spoznala poljskega grofa Casimirja Dunina-Markievicza, s katerim sta se poročila leta 1900.

Leta 1903 so se Markievičevi preselili v Dublin, kjer so se Constancijevi interesi kmalu spremenili iz umetnosti v irsko politiko. Pri 40 letih, leta 1908, je sprejela irski nacionalizem in se pridružila revolucionarni ženski skupini Inghinidhe na hÉireann (hčere Irske) in politični stranki Sinn Féin. Naslednje leto je ustanovila Na Fianna Éireann (Vojaki Irske), republikansko organizacijo, ki je ohlapno temeljila na skavtih, v kateri so se mladi fantje usposabljali za nacionalistične vojake.

Leta 1911 je bila aretirana zaradi protestov proti obisku kralja Georgea V. na Irskem. To je bilo le prvo od številnih aretacij in zapor za Markievicz, katere politični aktivizem je do konca življenja privedel do zapora. V letih 1913–14 je delavcem in njihovim družinam zagotavljala hrano med delovnim sporom, v katerem je bilo na tisoče ljudi zaprtih s svojih delovnih mest, ker niso hoteli zavrniti članstva v sindikatu.

Aprila 1916 se je Markievicz udeležil velikonočnega upora, republikanskega upora v Dublinu proti britanski vladi na Irskem. Po splošni predaji so jo aretirali in zaprli. Čeprav je v vstaji sodelovalo veliko žensk, je bila Markievicz edina, ki je bila na vojni vojni, obsojena na smrt, vendar je bila kazen zaradi njenega spola spremenjena v dosmrtno kazen. Naslednje leto je bila Markievicz na podlagi splošne amnestije izpuščena, a je kmalu končala v zaporu zaradi domnevnega sodelovanja v zaveri proti britanski vladi. Decembra 1918 je bil Markievicz, medtem ko je še vedno opravljal zaporno kazen, izvoljen v spodnji dom za predstavnika dublinske divizije St. Patrick. Skupaj z drugimi člani Sinn Féin ni hotela priseči zvestobe kralju in tako ni vstopila na svoj sedež. Namesto tega so irski republikanci pod vodstvom Eamona de Valere ustanovili svojo začasno vlado, Dáila Éireanna.

Po izpustitvi iz zapora je Markievicz v prvem Dáilu Éireannu opravljala funkcijo ministra za delo, ki ga je opravljala od leta 1919 do poraza na volitvah leta 1922. Istega leta je bila ustanovljena Irska svobodna država in Dáil Éireann je bil vključen kot spodnji dom Oireachtasa (irski parlament). Markievicz je bila izvoljena v Dáil na splošnih volitvah leta 1923, vendar je skupaj z drugimi člani Sinn Féin spet zavrnila prisego kralja in ni vsedla svojega mesta. Namesto tega se je posvetila dobrodelnemu delu. Markievicz se je pridružil de Valerini stranki Fianna Fáil ob njeni ustanovitvi leta 1926 in bil ponovno izvoljen v Dáil leta 1927. Umrla je mesec dni, ne da bi zasedla svoj sedež.


Umetnostna šola Slade - zgodovina

Ta članek izhaja iz kopije revije Art Vol.VI (1883) v internetnem arhivu, ki jo je v arhiv prispeval raziskovalni inštitut Getty. Izvirne ilustracije so bile postavljene na ustrezne strani (ki so v besedilu podane v oglatih oklepajih), povezave pa so bile dodane drugemu gradivu na naši spletni strani. - Jacqueline Banerjee

I. Medalja Charlesa Halléja (avtor Elinor Hallé).

IT je nesporno dejstvo, da je umetniška produkcija naroda kot celota rezultat in izraz njegovega okusa in narave. V umetnosti, tako kot v drugih stvareh, povpraševanje ustvarja ponudbo in nižji je standard javnega okusa, nižja bo kakovost ponujene umetnosti. Kako daleč je mogoče gojiti javni okus, je zelo široko vprašanje. Bi lahko brez dvoma sprejeli izrek določenega nadarjenega avtorja-"Umetnost je zdaj prepuščena Frankam z ravnim nosom in se trudijo, preučujejo in izumljajo teorije, da bi odgovorile na svojo nesposobnost", in tako naprej-malo truda bi bilo naredili za izboljšanje. Toda na celini so likovne umetnosti poseben oddelek v vladni shemi in imenovani so ministri, katerih posebna naloga je spodbujati in spodbujati njihove interese, medtem ko v Angliji do pred nekaj leti ni bilo uradnega priznanja potrebe in [324/325] trditve likovne umetnosti. Slikar, ki se ga spominja bolj po svojih nesrečah in nepravočasnem koncu kot po doseganju svojega umetniškega ideala, vendar ga je iskreno navdušenje in trdna presoja o vzroku umetniške vzgoje vztrajal v svojih prizadevanjih, da bi vzbudil zanimanje vlade za to material, je napisal: - "Profesorji umetnosti na univerzah so prav toliko potrebni kot šole za oblikovanje" predmet tako blizu njegovega srca.

Vlada je po vsem kraljestvu zagotovila šole za oblikovanje, na treh glavnih angleških univerzah pa je ustanovljen katedra za likovno umetnost. Slednje pa niso posledica ne skrbi vlade, ki spodbuja umetnost, ne skupnih prepričanj akademskih donov. Veličastnost razsvetljenega in javno naravnanega zasebnika, gospoda Felixa Sladea, je omogočil vzdrževanje tečaja predavanj o likovni umetnosti na univerzah Oxford in Cambridge v Londonu zaradi razlike v pogojih njegove zapuščine , je bila ustanovljena šola za praktično poučevanje, ki jo vodi profesor, ki je tudi sam umetnik.

II. Študij z rdečo kredo (avtorice Miss A P Burd).

Šole Slade so od začetka zasedale neodvisno stališče glede metode poučevanja. G. Poynter, prvi imenovani profesor Slade na londonski univerzi, je tako rekoč prišel na deviško zemljo. S svojo nalogo je praktično seznanil s kontinentalnimi metodami poučevanja, pa tudi s tistimi na Kraljevi akademiji in šolah v južnem Kensingtonu ter se močno prepričal o zlih, ki obstajajo na slednji, zato se je lotil dela, da bi cepil dobro francoska metoda do temeljev angleščine. Spomnim se, da sem oktobra 1871 v veliki dnevni sobi novih šol poslušal uvodni nagovor gospoda Poynterja, v katerem je razložil načela, na katerih je predlagal usmerjanje dela učencev. Tu je bila prvič v Angliji, res v Evropi, odprta javna likovna šola za dijake in dijakinje pod popolnoma enakimi pogoji, ki je obema spoloma dala poštene in enake možnosti. Takrat je bilo ugotovljeno, da imajo dame že od drugod potrebne prednosti za študij, ki so jim dosegljive.

Leta 1880 je bilo severno krilo univerzitetne šole razširjeno, da bi zadostilo naraščajočim potrebam študentov, ki jih je zdaj sto štirideset. G. Legros je našel sposobnega in kompetentnega naslednika gospoda Poynterja: enega, ki je bil sposoben nadaljevati že vzpostavljen inteligentni sistem poučevanja. Toda profesor Legros je naredil več kot to, kar je navedel v svoji vrsti, in njegove "demonstracije", če se lahko tako imenujejo, so med najbolj priljubljenimi in uporabnimi značilnostmi njegovega poučevanja. Ni zadovoljen s tem, da svojim učencem reče: "Naredi, kot ti rečem", občasno jim vzame čopič ali svinčnik iz roke in reče: "Naredi tako kot jaz." To je ponazoritev starega reka: "En gram prakse je vreden funt predpisov." Ne le, ko gre od štafelaja do štafelaja, da popravi delo študentov, včasih ustavi in ​​dokonča študij, drugi študentje se združijo in gledajo, ob določenih priložnostih pa se naroči poseben model, profesor pa stoji na sredini življenjske šole naslika popolno študijsko glavo pred študenti, ki so dovolj napredni, da jih lahko sprejmejo v življenjski razred. Njegov način dela je preprost, skrajno je platno ozemljeno s tonom, podobnim steni prostora, tako da ni treba barvati ozadja. S čopičem, ki vsebuje malo tanke prozorne barve, se vodilne črte in kontura dotaknejo z istim preprostim materialom, v katerega se vnesejo široke mase senc, nato se postopoma dodajo mesni toni, polovični toni in luči prižgane, najvišje luči so rezervirane za zadnje dovršene dotike.

V približno eni uri in pol, včasih v krajšem času, je študij končan, opazovalci pa so se v času te tihe lekcije verjetno naučili več kot v trikratnem obsegu ustnega pouka. Morda se bo vprašalo, ali želi profesor Legros svojim študentom slikati študij v tako kratkem času kot on sam? ali jih morda ne bo zamikalo, da bi posnemali hitrost in pogum, namesto da bi bolniki načrtovali študijo, da bi pridobili določeno zmogljivost mojstra?

III. Študija z rdečo kredo (avtorica grofice Helene Gleichen).

Proti temu ni zanesljivejšega varovanja kot budno oko profesorja in njegovih pomočnikov. Delo, ki si prizadeva biti lepše in ne pravilno, ki je razkošno, kadar bi moralo biti temeljito, ki je prenagljeno, ko je treba biti previden, kliče nekvalificirano krivdo mojstra in se v resnici drži javnosti. Profesor Legros, ki je vedno pripravljen prepoznati nadarjenost in spodbujati delavno, pošteno delo, tudi tam, kjer ni velikega talenta, se nenehno bori proti vsem poskusom psevdoobvladovanja pri delu svojih študentov. Po drugi strani pa potrebuje določeno hitrost pri tem, kar počnejo. Sistem dovršenega "drsenja" in manipulacije, ki omogoča študentu, da si miselno "zadrema", medtem ko je njegova roka zaposlena s kruhom in piko, ni trpel. Zahteva se inteligentna predstavitev modela ali igralske zasedbe, s posebnim poudarkom na dejanju, svetlobi in senci, tonu in splošni pravilnosti risbe, in preden se lahko študent vrne v zgoraj omenjeno duševno zaspanost, svež model, poza, ali pred njim je postavljena zasedba, predstavljena mu je sveža kombinacija svetlobe, sence in tona, tako da se njegove energije nenehno kličejo v akcijo in vztrajno vadijo. Očitno je, da se pri izdelavi več risb različnih figur v različnih položajih naučimo več kot pri izdelavi ene risbe z istega vidika.

Zanimivo bo podrobneje preučiti dnevno rutino. Čeprav od novega učenca ob vstopu v šolo ni potreben tekmovalni preizkus usposobljenosti, profesor pregleda prejšnje delo prosilke za sprejem in jo spusti bodisi risati ali slikati iz starine ali iz stanovanja, kot se mu zdi najbolje njo. Podobno se vsako napredovanje iz ene stopnje študija v drugo omenja - in ga nadzoruje - profesor. Učenci včasih dobijo avtotipe iz risb starih mojstrov za kopiranje in [326/327] to odlično prakso v kombinaciji z izvirnim delom iz življenja izpopolnjuje in izobražuje tako oko kot roko, s čimer uveljavlja izjemno preprostost rokovanja skupaj z največji izraz oblike. Življenjski model (slika) sedi vsak dan v dveh življenjskih šolah med deseto in tretjo uro - v velikem ateljeju za življenje izključno za moške študente in v dnevni sobi za dame ali v mešanem razredu za učence obeh spolov . Slednji je prikazan na naši gravuri. Skica je posneta med popoldanskim poukom, ko so razporejene polarne poze za pomoč učencem pri kompozicijskih predmetih. V različnih stališčih, primernih za njihovo delo, se študentje razvrstijo okoli modela, v desnem kotu pa stoječo postavo s skrčenimi rokami zlahka prepoznamo kot gospoda Slingerja, neprecenljivega profesorjevega pomočnika. V tej sobi, ki je dobro osvetljena in prostorna, višina 40 čevljev 35 in 19 čevljev, profesor naslika pred študenti vzorce, ki so združeni v pomoč pri sestavi predmetov, ki jih profesor poda vsake tri ali štiri tedne , nato pa ga je kritiziral. Ti modeli sedijo vsako popoldne, razen ob sobotah, od pol tretje do pete ure, vsake pol ure pa se uredi nov položaj, ki ga vsak učenec po vrsti predlaga, da ustreza njegovi skladbi. Vsak študent se lahko pridruži temu razredu ob plačilu modelske pristojbine 3 -ih. 6d. na mandat. Zelo dobre in hitre risbe so narejene med temi polurnimi sejami. Naša druga, tretja, četrta in šesta ilustracija - gospodične Burd, grofice Gleichen in gospodične King - v zadostni meri ponazarjajo slog risanja, ki ga gojijo: neposredna in preprosta metoda izražanja svetlobe in sence, moči in delovanja z najmanj možen tehnični mehanizem. Zadnji ponazarja slog modela, ki sedi v mešanem razredu vsak dan pet ur, tako da imajo dame dovolj priložnosti za velike in skrbno zaključene študije iz žive figure, kar je prednost - in to v enem letu ali dve bosta še bolj - zaznavni v povečani moči in pravilnosti slikanih slik naših umetnic.

IV. Študija z rdečo kredo (avtorica Miss E. S. King).

Pomembna značilnost šol Slade, od njihove širitve v času, ko je profesor Legros deloval [327/328] v pisarni, je nastanitev za razred jedkanja. Plošče pripravimo, jedkamo in zagrizemo ter natisnemo na kraju samem, pri čemer so v ta namen postavili stiskalnico. V tem razredu je približno dvajset učencev, vsaka seja pa se podeli nagrada za najboljše izvirno jedkanje. Seznam nagrad morda ni zanimiv, saj bo pomagal razvrstiti različne veje poučevanja. Slikanje iz življenja, 10 funtov risanje iz življenja, 5 funtov pokrajine, naslikano med počitnicami, 5 funtov slikarstvo iz antike, 3 funt risanje iz antike, 2 funtov skladbe, 10 funtov anatomske risbe, 2 funtov jedkanje, 5 funtov anatomije, 3 £. Tekmujejo samo tisti učenci, ki so šolo obiskovali skozi celotno predavanje, prav tako so morali predhodno narediti risbe, sestavljene iz glave, roke, stopala in številk iz starine, in razen, če jih profesor posebej ne izvzame, nekaj osteoloških in anatomske študije. Učenci in dijakinje tekmujejo pod popolnoma enakimi pogoji in za tekmovalne predmete delajo iz istih zasedb in modelov. Dve nagradi v enem razredu ne more prevzeti en učenec - tj., učenec v življenjskem ali starinskem razredu ne more prevzeti nagrade tako za risbo kot za slikanje, niti, ko je prejel nagrado v najvišjem razredu (slika iz življenja), lahko kasneje tekmuje v nižjem razredu.

Natečaj za štipendije Slade (šest na številko, letno znaša 50 funtov, tri leta je na voljo, od katerih se dve podeljujeta vsako leto) poteka na podobnih načelih. Tekmovalci v času podelitve ne smejo biti starejši od devetnajst let, saj morajo opraviti predhodni izpit iz stare in novejše zgodovine, geografije in matematike ali enega sodobnega tujega jezika in angleščine. Namen gospoda Sladeja pri določanju starosti pri devetnajstih letih je bil spodbuditi študente, da začnejo študij umetnosti prej kot običajno, pri čemer se predhodni izpit šteje za nujno varovalko pred zanemarjanjem splošne izobrazbe. Praksa profesorja Legrosa je presojati in odločati o delu študenta med sejo, pa tudi o tem, ki je bilo narejeno na bolj formalnem natečaju, ki ga sestavljajo risba glave in figure iz življenja, slika iz starino in kompozicijo iz dane teme. Znanstveniki Slade morajo v času trajanja štipendij delati v razredih šol, nuditi kakršno koli pomoč pri poučevanju in se udeleževati vseh predavanj, ki jih profesor vodi in opravi pol leta [328/329 ] poročati o svojem napredku in ravnanju Svetu kolegija.

VI. Študija z rdečo kredo gospodične E. S. King.

V zadnjem letu je profesor Legros - enostaven princeps med sodobnimi dobitniki medalj kot med sodobnimi jedkalniki - ustanovil je razred za izdelavo medalj. Mnoga dekleta iz skupine Slade kažejo na velik okus za delo, nedavno tekmovanje pa je povzročilo, da je nagrado prejela gospodična Elinor Hallé, hči uglednega glasbenika. V svoji sprednji strani je, kot kaže naša ilustracija, ustvarila dobro podobo svojega očeta, ki je prav tako fino narisana, močno oblikovana glava. Zadnja stran predstavlja očarljivo alegorijo genija glasbe.

Na začetku tega prispevka so bile poudarjene izjemne prednosti, ki jih imajo dijakinje v šolah Slade. V prvih letih svojega obstoja je bilo več žensk kot moških. Zdaj so številke precej enakomerno razdeljene, verjetno zaradi dejstva, da lahko dame zdaj uživajo drugje, čeprav v manjši meri, v prednostih, ki so bile nekoč na voljo le v šolah Slade. Analiza tekmovalnih seznamov od ustanovitve kaže, da so študentke prenesle pet štipendij Slade in dvaindvajset nagrad. Glede na to, da so šole šele na enajsti seji in da so številne nagrade, kot so tiste za krajino, jedkanje, anatomijo in anatomsko risbo, novejše ustanove, delež nagrad žensk ni nepomemben j in iz vrst nekdanjih študentov Slade so se mnogi uvrstili med umetnike današnjega časa: gospodična E. Pickering, gospodična Kate Greenaway, gospodična Hilda Montalba, gospa John Collier (rojena Huxley), gospodična Jessie Macgregor , Gospodična Edith Martineau in gospodična Stuart-Wortley, ki sta vse skupaj za daljše ali krajše obdobje iskali v stenah univerzitetne šole pripomočke za študij, ki so nam jih drugje zavrnili.


Philip Guston (1913-1980): Zgodovina in umetnost slikanja

Profesorica Karen Lang je poučevala na Kalifornijskem tehnološkem inštitutu, Univerzi v Južni Kaliforniji in Univerzi v Warwicku. Urednik časopisa Umetniški bilten med stoletnico revije je bila glavna raziskovalka Leverhulmeja, sodelavka Paul Mellon v Centru za napredne študije vizualnih umetnosti pri Nacionalni galeriji umetnosti v Washingtonu, znanstvenik Gettyja, Rudolph Arnheim gostujoči profesor na Humboldtu Univerza v Berlinu in Leverhulme gostujoči profesor na Univerzi v Warwicku. Profesor Lang je namestnik predsednika svetovalnega odbora raziskovalne skupine Bilderfahrzeuge: Warburgova zapuščina in prihodnost ikonologije, ki vključuje Warburg Institute, London in Inštitute za umetnostno zgodovino v Nemčiji, Italiji in Franciji. Je tudi ena od ustanoviteljic revije z odprtim dostopom 21: Poizvedbe o umetnosti, zgodovini in vizualnosti/Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte und visuellen Kultur. Profesor Kang je veliko objavljal o sodobni in sodobni umetnosti, o filozofski estetiki in o intelektualni zgodovini zgodovine umetnosti. Urejen zvezek Terenski zapiski o vizualnih umetnostih: 75 kratkih esejev in 'Zvijače na srečo ', vabljeni esej za stran kritikov of Železniška proga Brooklyn, so se pred kratkim pojavile. Philip Guston: Iskanje slike, se bo v Ashmoleanskem muzeju novembra 2019 odprla razstava umetnikovih del na papirju. Podrobnosti najdete tukaj.

Serija osmih predavanj bo potekala ob 17. uri, od 1. do 6. tedna v terminu Hilary 2020. Predavala bo profesorica Karen Lang, profesorica likovne umetnosti Slade 2019-20.

22. januar: Zgodovina in slikarska umetnost

12. februar: iskanje slike

19. februar: Malo gledališče Philipa Gustona

26. februar: Pohajanje v noč

Vabljeni vsi, da se jih udeležite. Rezervacija ni potrebna.

Upoštevajte: med temi predavanji ni dovoljeno fotografiranje ali snemanje.

Plakat Sladeova predavanja 2020 je zmagovalni natečaj, ki ga je ustvarila Ena Naito, študentka 3. letnika likovne umetnosti na Umetniški šoli Ruskin.


Bi se radi preizkusili v risanju življenja?

Pohitite z našim tečajem v živo, ki se mu lahko pridružite od doma.

Vzemite svinčnike in papir in se pridružite #LifeDrawingLive, našemu razredu risanja življenja, ki ga vodi priznani portretist Jonathan Yeo.

Umetniki so bili logičen korak k študiju anatomije in črpanju iz golih modelov, kljub moralnim pomislekom nad obema. Teoretično utemeljitev je v svoji razpravi zagotovil italijanski arhitekt Leon Battista Alberti O slikanju (1435). Pri pripravi figurativne slike je priporočil naslednji postopek: & ldquoPreden oblečemo moškega, ga najprej narišemo golega, nato pa ga zavijemo v draperije. Tako pri slikanju gola najprej postavimo njegove kosti in mišice, ki jih nato pokrijemo z mesom, tako da ni težko razumeti, kje je vsaka mišica spodaj. & Rdquo

Kot predlaga Alberti, življenjsko risanje ni bilo videti samo sebi namen, vsaj ne za študente. To je bila zadnja stopnja pri učenju risanja, k njej pa smo se lahko lotili šele po predpisanem tečaju predhodnih študij, med njimi prepisovanjem odtisov in risb, risanjem iz starodavnih kipov (ali ometnih odlitkov istih) ter študijem anatomije in teorije perspektivo. Ta uveljavljen napredek je sintetiziran v ilustraciji v osemnajstem stoletju Diderota in d'Alemberta Enciklopedija. Študentje so se s teorijo seznanili z odobrenimi tipi telesa, pozami in izrazi starinskega kiparstva, zato bi se jim lahko naučili "popraviti" poteze in strahote resničnih človeških teles-kot par očala v rožnati barvi, ki klasificirajo. Slavni klasični model odnosa med resničnim in idealnim se pojavlja v besedilu rimskega govornika in pisca Cicerona, ki je opisal grškega slikarja Zeuxisa, ki je študiral pet najlepših žensk v svojem mestu, da bi ustvaril eno idealno žensko, ki bi predstavljala Helen Troje. Kot pravi Ciceron: & ldquohe [Zeuxis] je vedel, da ne najde nobene oblike, ki bi vsebovala vse značilnosti popolne lepote, ki jo nepristranska Narava razdeli med svoje otroke in vsak čar spremlja z napako. & Rdquo

Benoit Louis Prevost, Ecole de Dessin, c.1751–77.

Ilustracija za Diderotovo in d'Alembertovo Enciklopedijo, po risbi Charlesa Nicolasa-Cochina.

Jedkanje. Nacionalna biblioteka, Pariz.

Življenjski razred se je razvil v ateljejih umetnikov in obrtnikov, ki so sprejemali učence, vendar je prevzel bolj formalni status v prvi umetnosti & ldquoacademy & rdquo, ki jo je leta 1563 v Firencah postavil slikar in umetnostni zgodovinar Giorgio Vasari. institucija, Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno (Akademija in družba za risarsko umetnost) je služila tudi kot združenje umetnikov in pod pokroviteljstvom vplivne družine Medici kot prestižno mesto intelektualne razprave. Kljub temu se je izkazal za zelo vplivnega pri kodifikaciji hierarhičnega sistema poučevanja risbe, ki je bil pozneje sprejet na drugih akademijah, ki so nastale v Italiji in sčasoma po Evropi in Ameriki.

Najpomembnejša nacionalna akademija, ki se je odprla po obdobju renesanse, je bila Académie royale de peinture et sculpture v Parizu (kasneje Ecole des Beaux-Arts), ki jo je leta 1648 ustanovil kralj Louis XIV. Sprva je bil edini praktični pouk na Académie royale risanje, zaradi česar je življenjski razred vrhunec celotnega tečaja. Ta poudarek na risbi je izhajal iz humanističnega prepričanja, da je disciplina temelj vseh likovnih umetnosti. Kot je rekel Michelangelo: & ldquoDesign, ki se z drugim imenom imenuje risba & hellip, je izvor in telo slikarstva in kiparstva in arhitekture ter vseh drugih vrst slikarstva in koren vseh znanosti. & Rdquo Risba - ali & ldquodisegno & rdquo - je imela tudi intelektualno težo as the medium in which an artist's creative power is first expressed and through which his or her thought processes are developed.

Charles-Joseph Natoire, Life Class at the Academie royale Paris, with Natoire as an Instructor, 1746.

Watercolour and chalk on paper. 45.3 x 32.3 cm. The Courtauld Gallery, London.

The Académie royale was granted a monopoly on the practice of life drawing, which greatly increased the method’s prestige and sense of exclusivity. A drawing by Charles-Joseph Natoire offers a behind-the-scenes glimpse of its famous life class in action, although it is thought to be more of an &lsquoidea&rsquo of a class than an attempt to record accurately the appearance of the room. Natoire, who later became Director of the Académie de France in Rome, included himself on the left (in the red cloak) as the tutor correcting students’ work. He would also have been responsible for setting the pose of the two male models apparently wrestling, perhaps in loose imitation of the famous antique statue The Wrestlers (Galleria degli Uffzi, Florence). The continuing importance of classical sculpture is also emphasised by the presence of casts after the Farnese Hercules, the Venus de’ Medici and other canonical works.

An anonymous &ldquoyoung painter at Paris&rdquo in May 1764 described the Académie royale life class: &ldquothere were at least 200 students, in a large hall &hellip all busy copying from a living man, who was placed naked in a reclining posture &hellip There are two rows of benches round the room the highest for the statuaries [sculptors], the other for painters every one has his own light placed at his right hand &hellip There are students here from all parts of the world.&rdquo This British student had seen nothing quite like it at home. That is because a century of debate over the advantages and disadvantages of academic art education in Britain preceded the foundation of the Royal Academy of Arts in London in 1768. Several less formal art schools and associations, some providing life drawing, existed in various parts of Britain before this date, but the Royal Academy was the first state-sanctioned art school in the country to be set up along the lines of continental academies. As such, it aimed to raise the status of British artists and equip a new generation of art students with the necessary skills to produce paintings, sculpture and architecture that would be on a par with the achievements of the Old Masters and their classical precursors.

Life drawing was crucial to this mission. When Johan Zoffany celebrated the foundation of the institution with his group portrait of the Academicians (1771–72), it is revealing that he chose to depict his fellow members gathered together in their Life Room. George Michael Moser, the first ‘Keeper’ (or head) of the RA Schools, is busy setting the pose of the model. Intriguingly though, closer inspection reveals that none of the artists looks as if he intends to do any drawing. It has been suggested that Zoffany was playfully echoing Raphael’s Vatican School of Athens and tapping into the idea of an academy as a place of debate. Even though they are not actually drawing, there is a sense of the artists’ shared pride at having finally secured a national academy in Britain to promote the practice.

The two curious oval portraits of women on the right of Zoffany’s painting are also significant. They depict the Royal Academy’s two female Foundation Members, Angelica Kauffman and Mary Moser. Unlike their male colleagues, they could not be shown attending the life class on the grounds of moral propriety, but Zoffany managed to shoehorn them in at one remove. The Academy’s attitude to women artists was only to become more problematic as time went on. Despite numerous women exhibitors at the annual exhibitions, no more female Academicians were admitted until the 20th century. Likewise, no female students were enrolled in the Schools until 1860, when Laura Herford applied, giving only her first initial and surname. It was assumed that L. Herford was male and &ldquohe&rdquo was offered a place. To their surprise, the Academicians found no written rule excluding women and Miss Herford was admitted. Others followed, but the women were initially confined to drawing casts and it was not until 1893 that they were allowed to draw from the male model – and then only if he was wearing a voluminous length of fabric thoroughly wrapped around his bathing trunks.

Johann Zoffany RA, The Royal Academy of Arts, Published 2 August 1773.

There was one role in which a woman was welcome in the early days of the Royal Academy: as a model. This was a significant departure from continental academic tradition, which focused exclusively on the male figure, following the Renaissance theory that upheld the male body as the &ldquoperfect&rdquo measure of all things (epitomised by Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man). The Royal Academy preferred to follow the tradition of its less formal predecessors in London, including the private drawing school run by William Hogarth, which had always featured models of both genders.


Slade School of Art - History

Has art forgotten how to frighten us? In times past, artists understood fear and exploited it as among the most potent emotional levers that a painting or sculpture could pull. Medieval and Renaissance religious artists were especially tuned in to its appalling power. Terrifying visions of what eternal discomforts await in the afterlife should parishioners fail to live piously in this world (typically positioned near the exit to a church in order to leave an indelible impression), served a clear, if ghastly, purpose: to scare the congregation straight.

The last thing worshippers witness on exiting the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, Italy, for example, is a ghoulish glimpse into a sump of damned souls as they are sucked into the fiery maw of hell as imagined by the late-13th Century Florentine master, Giotto di Bondone. Giotto’s deeply disquieting Day of Judgement (which broadcasts above the rear door of the chapel on a split-screen fresco that simultaneously portrays the matriculation into heaven of the righteous and redeemed) may not be subtle, but it is effective. “The blessed arrange themselves in neat rows on the right hand of Christ,” as one scholar describes the scene, “while the damned stream in twisted shapes, bodies elongated, flowing downward… attacked by demons who stab, burn, and pull them apart”.

Giotto’s fresco cycle at the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua includes a terrifying Day of Judgement, placed above the exit (Credit: Creative Commons)

However fear-inducing the imaginations of Giotto, say, or Hieronymus Bosch, the faces depicted in their paintings rarely resonate convincingly with an inner turmoil of anguish. Adding to the eeriness of the gruesome gymnastics Bosch choreographs in the Hell panel of his Garden of Earthly Delights is the incongruous placidity of those being pecked or flayed. It would fall to ensuing generations of artists to tackle the challenge of actually chiselling a compelling semblance of foreboding into the physiognomies of their subjects.

Michelangelo’s Last Judgement fresco covers the entire altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City on the right, the souls of the damned descend to hell

From the damned soul who slowly sinks alone to eternal torture in Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel fresco of The Last Judgement (his physique tugged and wrenched by an entwined trio of devilish tormentors) to the aghast visage of Francisco Goya’s The Bewitched Man (1798) from Swiss artist Henri Fuseli’s bloodless likeness of a petrified Lady Macbeth to Edvard Munch’s iconic personification of existential dread, The Scream, the history of art has ceaselessly auditioned archetypes of enduring angst.

The Bewitched Man by Goya depicts a scene from a play in which the protagonist, Don Claudio, believes he is bewitched and that his life depends on keeping a lamp alight

Two lesser-known works created exactly a century ago show how the quest to find the true face of fear continued into the 20th Century. Still a student at the Slade School of Fine Art in London (having taken a hiatus from her studies in 1917 after being traumatised by the sight of an explosion at a munitions factory in Essex during the first World War), the British artist Winifred Knights was awarded a prestigious Rome Scholarship for her dramatic take on a scene inspired by the biblical flood. Amid a frenzy of scampering figures desperate to reach higher ground as Noah’s ark slips by unnoticed in the distance, it is a self-portrait of the artist herself – just off-centre in the foreground of the work, her limbs and psyche ripped in two directions – that crystallises persuasively the ferocity of fear as it continued to trouble the consciousness of Europe, still recovering from the horrors of war.

The Deluge (1920) by Winifred Knights depicts an apocalyptic flood in which figures flee to higher ground while Noah’s ark glides away in the distance

At almost the same moment that a panel of judges (including John Singer Sargent) was praising Knights’ work, the Spanish Expressionist José Gutiérrez Solana found himself at work on a rather quieter, though no less psychologically complex, double portrait that explores the same emotion if from a somewhat subtler angle. Though there is no furious scurrying for diluvial survival in Solana’s portrayal of a pair of off-duty jesters in The Clowns, a soulful foreboding haunts the carnivalesque complexion of the mime on the right.

Solana’s 1920 painting, The Clowns, conveys a sense of dread through nuanced facial expressions (Credit: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía)

Research has shown that fear is tough to fake, involving as it does more muscles in the top of the face than other emotions, and one connects instinctively with the authenticity of anguish that rumples the brow of the horn-holding clown who looks blankly askance in abject dread of some undisclosed figure or force beyond the frame to our right. Though his depiction doubtless owes something to the serial Pierrot portraits for which his fellow Spaniard, Picasso, was well-known, Solana conjures a genuine fearfulness that is impossible to counterfeit.

Hirst’s For the Love of God, a skull made of diamonds, was displayed in Doha, Qatar, in 2013 (Credit: Niccolo Guasti/Getty Images)

But what about today? Is there a discernible legacy in contemporary art of such incitement to fear as one finds in Giotto or Bosch, or of the perennial ambition – from Michelangelo to Munch – to forge the quintessential face of fear? Damien Hirst’s notorious diamond-encrusted skull, For the Love of God (2007), springs to mind as a notable modern reinvention of the spomin na mori tradition in art history, which customarily features skulls and skeletons not so much intended to make you merely ‘remember you must die’ (the meaning of the Latin phrase) but scare you witless by death’s imminence. Hirst’s grimacing curio, comprised of more than 8,600 flawless diamonds, does not so much excite fear, however, as bemusement and exasperation at the outlandish cost of constructing such a gaudy gewgaw, let alone purchasing it. The asking price was £50 million. For the love of God, indeed.

So concerned with ceaselessly skirmishing over whether what they do is or isn’t art, many recent artists, one begins to sense, have simply lost touch with the full palette of emotions with which art is capable of being inflected, with the pigment of fear having arguably dried up the most. While it’s true that Hirst’s peers, the British brothers Jake and Dinos Chapman, routinely flirt with fear as a potential aesthetic element in a body of work that embraces creepy haunted-house mannequins to childish defacements of appropriated images from Francisco Goya’s chilling The Disasters of War series, their meta mockeries of the macabre are, perhaps unintentionally, less scary than silly.

Their work Hell is not about the Holocaust, say the Chapman brothers: “It’s the absolute inverse of that, it’s the Nazis who are being subjected to industrial genocide”

In the Chapmans’ own portrayal of Hell (for a controversial installation by that title unveiled in 2000), tens of thousands of toy soldiers were recast as a barbaric battalion of demonic Nazis and their victims – an outrageous orgy of violence that occupied nine large vitrines arranged into a huge swastika. A labour of loathing, the work took the siblings 24 months to construct. But to what end? The Chapmans’ playdate with Hitler landed more as a fatuous joke than a fearful jolt – even, it would seem, to the brothers themselves. “When it caught fire,” Jake confessed, after learning that the sprawling work had been destroyed in a devastating storage warehouse blaze in 2004, “we just laughed. Two years to make, two minutes to burn.”

Rego’s painting The Policeman’s Daughter (1987) shows a woman angrily polishing a boot it was part of a series exploring dysfunctional family relationships

So where has fear gone in visual culture? The celebrated Portuguese painter Paula Rego is often cited in the context of terror and fright. A recent academic article by the art historian Leonor de Oliveira entitled To Give Fear a Face: Memory and Fear in Paula Rego’s Work eloquently argues that Rego’s recurring motifs are indebted to the British art critic Herbert Read’s famous concept of “the geometry of fear”, coined by Read to describe the work of post-war sculptors whom, he clarified, had forged an “iconography of despair”. But to my eye, the formidable figures we encounter in Rego’s work – from The Policeman’s Daughter (1987) who portentously polishes a jackboot to her portrait of Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre in the menacing red room – invariably defy fear rather than embody it.

The word ‘fear’ is frequently invoked to characterise too what’s elicited by the recent work of Swedish video artist and sculptor Nathalie Djurberg, whose uncanny and carnivalesque installations (often conceived in collaboration with the sound artist Hans Berg) invite visitors into a repressed realm of engrossing grotesqueries. But the lasting impression of displays such as One Last Trip to the Underworld (2019), comprised of darkly comic sculptures of fantastical flora and fauna that flicker freakishly into life by the light of looping films, is one of quizzicality and wonder more than tension and terror.

Perhaps contemporary art, like contemporary poetry, has contented itself in deferring roles it once performed to other shapes of culture that seem better suited to the task. Just as we rarely turn now to poets to tell us epics – a job more alluringly tackled by novelists and filmmakers – we’ve ceased looking, too, to artists to frighten us into a new consciousness. This year alone is due to witness the reboot of a string of seemingly inexhaustible horror film franchises, from Saw to Friday the 13th to Halloween. It’s well established that coming face to face with fear triggers a feel-good dopamine rush, and there’s even evidence that it can boost one’s immune system. If contemporary art sometimes struggles to connect with wider audiences, perhaps the addictive drug of fear is among the cures. Perhaps it’s time that artists rediscover the fear.

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Printmaker Stanley Jones: Archived oral history

By Slade Archive Project, on 25 November 2014

To celebrate the 2014 Slade Print Fair, we’ve published excerpts from another archived oral history interview – this time with Slade alumnus and former tutor in printmaking, Stanley Jones. Jones is a much-admired master printmaker with a particular passion for lithography. He was a student at the Slade from 1954 to 1956, and later tutor in printmaking from 1958 to 1998. (This means he is likely to be found in some of the Slade’s annual class photos – can you help us spot him?)

In the late 1950s, not long after graduating from the Slade, he set up the Curwen Studio with Robert Erskine. He continues to generously share his enthusiasm for printmaking, as demonstrated with his vision for the Curwen Print Study Centre which he co-founded with Sue Jones in 2000.

The interview excerpts published on SoundCloud were taken from a recording conducted in 1992 by Stephen Chaplin (then archivist at the Slade), and digitized in 2013 as part of the Slade Oral History Project. In his interview Jones reflects on the changing practices and personalities of printmaking at the Slade and beyond.


Slade School of Art - History

It may seem that things have been quiet with the Slade Archive Project – even more so now, given the current Covid-19 crisis – but we have been busy working on a number of exciting developments and will continue to do so working remotely in the coming weeks.

Last year we embarked on a new phase of the project which looks towards the school’s 150th anniversary in 2021. After reflecting on the various activities undertaken in Phase I, we have developed a number of aims for Phase II. We are approaching this milestone as a chance not only to celebrate the Slade and its alumni, but also to:

  • enhance and challenge known histories of the school and its legacies, through both internal and external research, and with a particular focus on transnational scholarship and international knowledge exchange
  • continue to develop, showcase and improve access to Slade archive collections, in part through digital technologies
  • promote cross-disciplinary engagement with the Slade’s archive collections, including, but not limited to, those emerging through fine art practice
  • use the Slade’s 150th anniversary as a springboard to explore different approaches to engaging with institutional histories
  • continue to pilot different ways to use, enhance, create and disseminate archival resources
  • foster collaboration across different disciplinary boundaries and through internal and external partnerships
  • integrate teaching and learning opportunities, public programming and outreach activities with research activities
  • and disseminate our findings through open access platforms.

Current areas of activity are:

  • Transnational Slade (Phase II), in collaboration with the ‘Slade, London, Asia’ Research Group, part of ‘London, Asia’ research project led by the Paul Mellon Centre, which includes a current pilot activity with ResearchSpace, British Museum
  • Slade Film Department (1960-1984), ‘Materiality, Archives and the Slade at the Nexus of Art School Filmmaking’ (working title) research project led by Brighid Lowe and Henry Miller
  • The curation and cataloguing of Slade archive collections, in collaboration with UCL Library Special Collections and UCL Department of Information Studies
  • William Townsend Journals digital project (with UCL Library Special Collections)
  • Slade Photo collection cataloguing project (with UCL Library Special Collections)
  • Tracing artistic heritages through the architectural fabric of the Slade

Vital cataloguing and conservation activities underpin these activities and research aims. The wonderful team at UCL Library Special Collections have been hard at work reappraising and upgrading the catalogue records for the Slade archive collection. This is an ongoing, collaborative effort to make what is an eclectic and disparate collection of records more accessible for researchers. We are grateful for the work of the UCL Library Special Collections team – Sarah Aitchison, Katy Makin, Kathryn Meldrum, Colin Penman, Rebecca Sims, Robert Winckworth, Angela Warren-Thomas and Steve Wright – who have together undertaken this mammoth task. UCL Library Digital Collections now has a dedicated area for digitised Slade Archive materials. We hope to add more records in the months to come.

From 2015-2018, the UCL Art Museum’s ‘Spotlight on the Slade’ Project also made great headways in cataloguing Slade collections. This research project was supported by the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, and sought to increase access to UCL Art Museum’s Slade Collections through research, cataloguing, digitisation, collaboration and public engagement. As part of this research, colleagues at the Museum discovered that approximately 45% of works in UCL Art Museum’s collection are by women artists. This is an astonishing statistic: typically, permanent collections in Europe and the US contain between 3-5% of works by women.

We have also updated guidelines for researching the Slade archive collections, and welcome additions to our growing bibliography on the topic of the Slade and its many histories.

In 2018, we marked the 150th anniversary of the death of the school’s namesake and founding father, Felix Slade (1788-1868). Slade, a lawyer and notable collector of glass, engravings, books and bindings, bequeathed endowments for the founding of three Slade Professorships of Fine Arts: at Oxford, Cambridge and University College London. Funds for a studentship were also bequeathed for UCL, and which formed the foundation to establish a new School of Fine Art for the teaching of professional artists, which opened three years later, in 1871. To coincide with this commemoration, UCL Library Special Collections digitised the Slade foundational papers which are now available online as part of UCL Library Digital Collections. As the papers reveal, a central idea behind the Slade school was its location within the university, and for much of its existence, the Slade shared its site with other UCL departments, including chemistry and physiology. Edwin Field (1804-1871), a lawyer, translated the terms of the bequest, and promoted the idea of establishing ‘a school of art in connection with a university, with a view to the collateral advantages that such an alliance could afford’.

A drinks reception was also held in Felix Slade’s honour, harking back to an earlier tradition of the annual Slade strawberry tea, with Slade staff, students, alumni and supporters congregating for berries and bubby in the UCL portico. We were lucky enough to have three descendants of Felix Slade join us, who generously shared their family stories and documentation with those wanting to know more. A small exhibition was also set up in the adjacent UCL Library Flaxman Gallery, showcasing some gems from the Slade archives.

The centre item featured here is by Elinor Bellingham-Smith (1906-1988), a preparatory sketch for an uncompleted painting depicting the Strawberry Tea on the lawn outside of the school on 26 June 1930.

This day marked the retirement of Professor Henry Tonks. An account of the event was recorded in the journal of the Bellingham-Smith’s friend and fellow Slade student, the painter William Townsend (1909-1973). His journals are in the care of UCL Special Collections.

The last official appearance of Tonks was an impressive and tragically simple piece of staging. At the end of his remarks he stood up and saying “I do not like saying goodbye, so there will be no official leave taking”, walked quietly with his jerky [?] walk to the door, leaving the long line of the staff, still in their places, whilst we clapped frenziedly, and for once, with real feeling and appreciation. Strawberry tea on the lawn. Tonks and Steer and Daniels from the National Gallery sit on chairs, at the edge of the crowd […] other visitors smiling and joking and drinking tea, and eating strawberries and cream. Tonks in his grey suit, looking a grey and tired, but not unhappy, old man.

Journal of William Townsend, 26 June, 1930. UCL Special Collections

William Townsend was also a Slade alumnus, who later joined the staff at the Slade, becoming Professor of Fine Art in 1968. This sketch was donated to the school by Townsend’s daughter, Charlotte Townsend-Gault, in 2017.

The Slade Session, and Beyond

Guest post by Dr Amara Thornton, British Academy Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Institute of Archaeology, UCL

The Slade School of Fine Art has a world famous reputation as a venerable art training institution. I’m currently investigating two early Slade artists who made a lasting contribution to archaeology: Jessie Mothersole in Freda Hansard. I’ve been reading Transnational Slade articles and realised that the experiences of these two women feed into this theme, providing an early example of the School’s international impact, links between different fields of study, and the role of UCL (and the Slade in particular) in providing opportunities for women.

As part of my research I’ve examined UCL’s Session Fees books, a rich resource for disciplinary and institutional history at UCL. These books record payments of students’ fees over the course of an academic year (session), extending from October to June, and provide an intriguing snapshot of the student body in each UCL Department at a particular moment in time. UCL admitted both male and female students from the 1870s onwards. Jessie Mothersole (1874-1958) was a 17-year-old from Colchester when she entered the Slade for the 1891-1892 session, remaining until 1896.

She joined a significant number of women students taking classes at the Slade at that time. A quick gender analysis of the Slade students listed in the 1892-1893 session looks like this:

Fig. 1 Proportion of men and women students at the Slade School during the 1892-1893 session.

Jessie Mothersole’s artistic skill did not go unnoticed she was awarded prizes (2nd class) in drawing from life and drawing from the antique in 1892. In 1893 she was awarded certificates in advanced antique drawing and figure drawing. These awards foreshadowed her career in illustration and writing.

Winifred “Freda” Hansard (1872-1937) studied at the Royal Academy Schools before she entered the Slade for the 1895-1896 session, remaining until 1897. Her work was later included in the Royal Academy’s Summer Exhibition. In 1899 she exhibited Isola dei Pescatori in Lago Maggiore in Medusa Turning a Shepherd into Stone, which was described in Hearth and Home as “a vigorous, dramatic picture…”. Her painting Priscilla was displayed at the Royal Academy in 1900 and Rival Charms in 1901.

In 1902 Freda re-entered UCL as a student in Egyptology under the leadership of Professor Flinders Petrie. As in the Slade a decade earlier, in the 1902-1903 session, the number of women Egyptology students surpassed that of men.

Fig. 2 Proportion of men and women students of Egyptology at UCL during the 1902-1903 session.

At this point Petrie was making annual journeys to Egypt to excavate ancient sites. Egyptology students were offered the opportunity to take part in Petrie’s excavations, and in 1902 Freda Hansard joined eight other team members at Abydos, a town and pilgrimage site north of Luxor. There her artistic skills were harnessed to record the inscriptions and scenes on the walls of the Osirieon, a special building for the worship of the Egyptian god Osiris, ruler of the Underworld.

The drawings she made with Egyptologist and UCL lecturer Margaret Murray, who directed the Osereion excavations with Petrie’s wife Hilda, were put on display at UCL alongside antiquities from Abydos in July 1903. Hansard returned to Egypt for the 1903/1904 season, joining Jessie Mothersole and Margaret Murray at the cemetery site of Saqqara – an hour’s train and then another hour’s donkey ride away from Cairo.

Jessie Mothersole used her camera to capture the setting of this transnational phase in her artistic life. Her photographs show the Saqqara landscape, ancient remains, excavation scenes and the Egyptian team working with them. These images were later published in an article entitled “Tomb Copying in Egypt” for the popular magazine Sunday at Home. The publication included two uncredited line drawings, probably done by Jessie herself, depicting the hut in which she, Freda and Margaret Murray lived on site and the Egyptian boy who brought them water every day.

The Petrie Museum has one photograph in their archive credited to Jessie Mothersole, taken in Luxor rather than Saqqara (fig 3). But the hand-written caption underneath hints at her eye for minute detail that permeates her article.

Fig. 3 This photograph is dated March, 1904. Its handwritten caption reads: “Unfortunately the three leather lashes of the whip do not show, but they were there.” Miss J. Mothersole, Oak Tree House, Hampstead. Courtesy of the Petrie Museum of Egyptology.

Jessie remained largely based in the UK thereafter, moving into book illustration and writing on British archaeology. Freda returned to Egypt for further work at Saqqara, and married former solicitor turned Egyptologist Cecil Firth in 1906. The Firths were mainly based in Egypt, barring the period of the First World War, and Freda Firth continued to contribute to archaeological illustration after her marriage. Excerpts published from her daughter Diana Firth Woolner’s 1926 diary reveal something of the Firths’ life in Egypt and the Anglo-American-Egyptian network at work. One particularly interesting entry describes Freda and Diana’s visit with artist/archaeologist (and former UCL Egyptology student) Annie Pirie Quibell to see Egyptian bread being made.

Freda Firth took advantage of the opportunities at UCL for intellectual expansion as a woman student and built a life for herself in Egypt. Her experiences there coloured the rest of her life as an artist, and give her a lasting transnational legacy. She and Jessie Mothersole were two of many women whose time at UCL affected the rest of their lives. I was happy to discover recently that this history is currently being explored through a new arts project – Kristina Clackson Bonnington’s The Girl at the Door. I think Jessie and Freda would approve.

References/Further Reading
Bierbrier, M. 2012. FIRTH, Winifred (Freda) Nest (nee Hansard) (1872-1937). Who Was Who in Egyptology 4th Revised Edition. pp. 191. London: Egypt Exploration Society.

Graves, A. 1905. The Royal Academy of Arts: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their work from its foundation in 1769 to 1904. Vol III. Eadie to Harraden. London: Henry Graves and Co. Ltd/George Bell & Sons.

Harte, N. & North, J. 2004. The World of UCL 1828-2004. London: UCL Press.

James, T. G. H. 1994. The Other Side of Archaeology: Saqqara in 1926. Egyptian Archaeology 5: 36-37.

James, T. G. H. 1995. The Other Side of Archaeology: Saqqara in 1926 (II). Egyptian Archaeology 7: 35-37.

Mothersole, J. 1908. Tomb Copying in Egypt. Sunday at Home. Februar. (pp. 345-351)

Murray, M. 1903. The Osireion at Abydos. London: Bernard Quaritch.

Murray, M. 1963. My First Hundred Years. London: William Kimber.

Thornton, A. 2015. Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology 25 (2): 1-18 Appendices 1 (pp. 1-5) and 2 (pp. 1-44). DOI: 10.5334/bha.252.


Šestdeseta leta

In the early 1960s computers were still in their infancy, and access to them was very limited. Computing technology was heavy and cumbersome, as well as extremely expensive. Only research laboratories, universities and large corporations could afford such equipment. As a result, some of the first people to use computers creatively were computer scientists or mathematicians.

Many of the earliest practitioners programmed the computer themselves. At this time, there was no 'user interface', such as icons or a mouse, and little pre-existing software. By writing their own programs, artists and computer scientists were able to experiment more freely with the creative potential of the computer.

Early output devices were also limited. One of the main sources of output in the 1960s was the plotter, a mechanical device that holds a pen or brush and is linked to a computer that controls its movements. The computer would guide the pen or brush across the drawing surface, or, alternatively, could move the paper underneath the pen, according to instructions given by the computer program.

Another early output device was the impact printer, where ink was applied by force onto the paper, much like a typewriter.

John Lansdown using a Teletype (an electro-mechanical typewriter), about 1969-1970. Courtesy the estate of John Lansdown

Much of the early work focused on geometric forms and on structure, as opposed to content. This was, in part, due to the restrictive nature of the available output devices, for example, pen plotter drawings tended to be linear, with shading only possible through cross hatching. Some early practitioners deliberately avoided recognisable content in order to concentrate on pure visual form. They considered the computer an autonomous machine that would enable them to carry out visual experiments in an objective manner.

Both plotter drawings and early print-outs were mostly black and white, although some artists, such as computer pioneer Frieder Nake, did produce plotter drawings in colour. Early computer artists experimented with the possibilities of arranging both form and, occasionally, colour in a logical fashion.

'Hommage à Paul Klee 13/9/65 Nr.2', a screenprint of a plotter drawing created by Frieder Nake in 1965, was one of the most complex algorithmic works of its day. An algorithmic work is one that is generated through a set of instructions written by the artist. Nake took his inspiration from an oil- painting by Paul Klee, entitled 'Highroads and Byroads' (1929), now in the collection of the Ludwig Museum, Cologne.

Frieder Nake, 'Hommage à Paul Klee 13/9/65 Nr.2', 1965. Museum no. E.951-2008. Given by the American Friends of the V&A through the generosity of Patric Prince

Nake had trained originally in mathematics and was interested in the relationship between the vertical and the horizontal elements of Klee's painting. When writing the computer program to create his own drawing 'Hommage à Klee', Nake defined the parameters for the computer and the pen plotter to draw, such as the overall square form of the drawing. He then deliberately wrote random variables into the program which allowed the computer to make choices of its own, based on probability theory. In this way, Nake was able to explore how logic could be used to create visually exciting structures and to explore the relationship between forms. The artist could not have predicted the exact appearance of the drawing until the plotter had finished.

Bell Laboratories

Bell Labs, now based in New Jersey, was hugely influential in initiating and supporting the early American computer-art scene and produced perhaps the greatest number of key early pioneers. Artists and computer scientists who worked there include Claude Shannon, Ken Knowlton, Leon Harmon, Lillian Schwartz, Charles Csuri, A. Michael Noll, Edward Zajec, and Billy Klüver, an engineer who also collaborated with Robert Rauschenberg to form Experiments in Art and Technology (EAT). The Laboratory began life as Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. in 1925 and went on to become the leading authority in the field of new technologies.

Bell Labs was heavily involved in the emerging art and technology scene, in particular it contributed to a series of performances entitled '9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering' organised by EAT in 1966. The performances saw 10 contemporary artists join forces with 30 engineers and scientists from Bell Labs to host a series of performances using new technologies. Events such as these represent important early recognition by the mainstream art world of the burgeoning relationship between art and technology. The executive director of Bell Labs was employed as an 'agent' for EAT, his task to spread the word about the organisation in the right circles, namely industry. As a result, many artists and musicians used the equipment at Bell Labs out of hours.


Leon Harmon and Ken Knowlton, 'Studies in Perception', 1997 (original image 1967). Museum no. E.963-2008. Given by the American Friends of the V&A through the generosity of Patric Prince

Amongst many things, Bell Labs was particularly influential in the development of early computer-generated animation. In the 1960s, the laboratories housed an early microfilm printer that was able to expose letters and shapes onto 35mm film. Artists such as Edward Zajec began to use the equipment to make moving films. Whilst working at Bell Labs, computer scientist and artist Ken Knowlton developed the programming language BEFLIX- the name stands for Bell Flicks - that could be used for bitmap film making.

One of the most famous works to come out of Bell Labs was Leon Harmon and Ken Knowlton's Studies in Perception, 1967, also known as Nude.

Harmon and Knowlton decided to cover the entire wall of a senior colleague's office with a large print, the image of which was made up of small electronic symbols that replaced the grey scale in a scanned photograph. Only by stepping back from the image (which was 12 feet wide), did the symbols merge to form the figure of a reclining nude. Although the image was hastily removed after their colleague returned, and even more hastily dismissed by the institution's PR department, it was leaked into the public realm, first by appearing at a press conference in the loft of Robert Rauschenberg, and later emblazoned across the New York Times. What had started life as a work-place prank became an overnight sensation.

The Slade Computer System, about 1977. Courtesy of Paul Brown


Art School Drawings from the 19th Century

Art education in 19th-century Britain was shaped by four London-based organisations: the Royal Academy Schools, the Government Schools of Design, the Department of Science and Art (based in this museum) and the Slade School of Art. Each was driven by powerful ideologies which dictated students' training.

These drawings, by students and teachers, reflect the different principles and practices of each school. They also reveal more general changes in emphasis over the 19th century. As subject matter, antique sculpture was gradually replaced by depictions of un-idealised human figures. Stylistically, the earlier insistence on a high level of technical finish gave way to a more spontaneous, sketchy kind of drawing.

Maria Brooks - Study of a plaster cast of The Borghese Gladiator

Maria Brooks (active 1868-90) Student at the Department of Science and Art Schools Study of a plaster cast of The Borghese Gladiator 1872 Black chalk Museum no. D.150-1885 The schools run by the Department of Science and Art became notorious for their insistence on a laborious drawing technique. Painstaking cross-hatching and minute stippling meant that a drawing like this could take months to complete. Although women were excluded from the Royal Academy, they were permitted to study at the government-run schools.

International Training Course

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